Lantibiotics are a class of
peptide antibiotics that contain polycyclic thioether amino acidsas well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanineand 2-aminoisobutyric acid. These characteristic cyclic thioether amino acids are composed of either lanthionineor methyllanthionine. Lantibiotics are produced by a large number of Gram positive bacteriasuch as Streptococcusand Streptomycesto attack other gram positive bacteria and as such they are considered a member of the bacteriocins.
Lantibiotics are well studied because of the commercial use of these bacteria in the food industry for making dairy products such as
cheese. Bacteriocins are classified according to their extent of posttranslational modification. The lantibioticsare a class of more extensively modified bacteriocins, also called Class I. Bacteriocins for which disulfide bonds are the only modification to the peptide are Class II bacteriocins. Most bacteriocins are biologically active single-chain peptides. Some are only active as partners with a second peptide (see Class IIb, below). Nisinand epiderminare members of a family of lantibiotics that bind to a cell wall precursor lipid component of target bacteria and disrupt cell wall production. The duramycin family of lantibiotics binds phosphoethanolaminein the membranes of its target cells and seem to disrupt several physiological functions.
The name Lantibiotics was introduced in 1988 as an abbreviation for "Lanthionine-containing peptide
antibiotics" [ W. van der Donk et al. Chem. Rev. (2005) 105, 633 - 683] . The first structures of these antimicrobialagents were produced by pioneering work by Gross and Morell in the late sixties and early seventies, thus marking the formal introduction of Lantibiotics. Since then Lantibiotics such as Nisinhave been used auspiciously for food preservation and have yet to encounter significant bacterial resistance. These attributes of lantibiotics have led to more detailed research into their structures and biosynthetic pathways.
*Type A Lantibiotics are long flexible molecules - eg
Nisin, subtilin, epidermin. Subgroup AI includes Mutacin II, subgroup AII includes Mutacin I & III.
*Type B Lantibiotics are globular - eg
mersacidin, actagardine, cinnamycin.
The biosynthesis is interesting. They are synthesised with a leader polypeptide sequence which is only removed during the transport of the molecule out of the synthesising cell.
Mechanism of action
Lantibiotics show substantial specificity for some components (eg
lipid II) of bacterial cell membranesespecially of Gram positive bacteria. Type A kill rapidly by pore formation, type B inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis. See Brotz and Sahl. JAC (2000) 46, 1-6 for discussion of mechanism of action. They are active in very low concentrations.
Lantibiotics are produced by Gram-positive bacteria and show strong antimicrobial action towards a wide range of other Gram-positive bacteria [ C. van Kraaij et al, Nat. Prod. Rep. (1999), 16, 575 - 587.] . As such they have become attractive candidates for use in
food preservation(by inhibiting pathogensthat cause food spoilage) and the pharmaceutical industry(to prevent or fight infections in humans or animals). See C. van Kraaij et al, Nat. Prod. Rep. (1999), 16, 583 - 584 for more detailed discusion of the pharmaceutical application of lantibiotics.
* [http://www.bentham.org/cpps/sample/cpps6-1/0007K.pdf Therapeutic potential. Cross et al 2005]
* [http://opm.phar.umich.edu/families.php?superfamily=170 Calculated positions of lantibiotics in membrane]
* [http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE1001183/smith_jl.pdf Characterization of Mutacin 1140. 2002 PhD thesis by James L Smith ]
* [http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/271/21/12294.pdf Biosynthesis of Nisin. Seigers et al. J. Biol. Chem., May 24, 1996; 271(21): 12294 - 12301.]
* [http://content.febsjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/230/3/827 Biosynthesis and biology of L'. Sahl et al 1995 (abstract) BROKEN ]
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.tb20627.x Biosynthesis and biology of Lantibiotics..... Sahl et al EJB June 1995 (abstract and link to full text 27p PDF) ]
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04587.x Molecular biology on all the Bacillus subtilis antibiotics. T. Stein. 13pp ]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bacteriocin — Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s). They are typically considered to be narrow spectrum antibiotics, though this has been debated. They are… … Wikipedia
Nisin — Identifiers CAS number … Wikipedia
Amino acid — This article is about the class of chemicals. For the structures and properties of the standard proteinogenic amino acids, see Proteinogenic amino acid. The generic structure of an alpha amino acid in its unionized form … Wikipedia
Lanthionine — Chembox new Name = Lanthionine ImageFile = Lanthionine.png Section1 = Chembox Identifiers PubChem = 675804 CASNo = 922 55 4 Section2 = Chembox Properties Formula = C6H12N2O4S MolarMass = 208.2318 g/mol MeltingPt = 280 283 °CLanthionine is a… … Wikipedia
Dehydroalanine — Dehydroalanine … Wikipedia
Antibacterial — Contents 1 History 2 Indications 3 Pharmacodynamics 4 Classe … Wikipedia