- Elizebeth Friedman
The following article is taken from the Hall of Honor from the National Cryptologic Museum [http://www.nsa.gov/honor/honor00005.cfm] :
Elizebeth Smith Friedman (1892–
31 October, 1980) was cryptanalyst and author, and a pioneer in U.S. cryptography. The special spelling of her name (more commonly spelled "Elizabeth") is attributed to her mother, who disliked the prospect of Elizebeth ever being called "Eliza." She has been dubbed "America's first female cryptanalyst".
Although she is often referred to as the wife of
William F. Friedman, a notable cryptographer credited with numerous contributions to cryptology, she enjoyed many successes in her own right, and it was Elizebeth who first introduced her husband to the field.
Born in 1892 to John M. Smith—a Quaker dairyman, banker, and politician—and Sopha Strock Smith, Mrs. Friedman was the youngest of nine children.
After briefly attending
The College of Woosterin Ohio, she graduated from Hillsdale Collegein Michigan with a major in English literature. Having exhibited her interest in languages, she had also studied Latin, Greek, and German, and minored "in a great many other things." Only she and one other sibling were privileged to attend college.
Prior to her employment with the
Newberry Libraryin Chicago, she was a high school principal for at least a year. A great Shakespeareenthusiast, she was probably attracted to Newberry because of an "original Shakespeare folio" known to be there. In 1916, while working at Newberry, she was recruited by George Fabyanto work on his 500 acre (2 km²) estate at Riverbank, his private " think tank".
The librarian who conducted the interview on her first day is credited with having made a phone call to Colonel Fabyan that would change the then Miss Smith's life forever.
The librarian conveyed in her telephone conversation Smith's love for Shakespeare, among other things. Colonel Fabyan, a wealthy textile merchant, soon met Miss Smith, and they discussed what life would be like at Riverbank, Fabyan's great estate located in
Geneva, Illinois. He told her that she would assist a Boston woman, Elizabeth Wells Gallupand her sister with Gallup's attempt to prove that Sir Francis Bacon had written Shakespeare's plays and sonnets by decrypting enciphered messages that were supposed to have been contained within the plays and poems.
At Riverbank Miss Smith joined a versatile and distinguished staff. There were typists, translators, a graduate student in genetics, and professionals specializing in acoustics, engineering. Riverbank was one of the first such facilities in the US to seriously study cryptography and other subjects. Through the work of the Friedmans, much historical information on secret writing was gathered. Until the WWI creation of
MI-8, the Army's Cipher Bureau, Riverbank was the only facility in the US seriously capable of solving enciphered messages. Military cryptography had been officially deemphasized after the Civil War. During WWI, several US Government departments asked Riverbank Labs for help or sent personnel for training. Among those was Agnes Meyer Driscollwho came on behalf of the Navy.
Among the staff of fifteen at Riverbank was the man Miss Smith would marry in May 1917:
William F. Friedman. The newlyweds worked together for the next four years or so in the only significant cryptographic facility in the country, save Herbert Yardley's 'Black Chamber'. In 1921 Mr. and Mrs. Friedman left Riverbank to work for the War Department in Washington, D.C.
Mrs. Friedman's employment as a cryptanalyst for the
U.S. Navyfollowed in 1923, which led to her subsequent positions with the U.S. Treasury Department's Bureaux of Prohibition and of Customs. Her career at both is quite significant and embraces cryptography against international smuggling and drug running in various parts of the world. The smugglers and runners resorted to encrypted radio messages to support their operations, presuming they would be able to communicate securely. This became a mistaken notion after Mrs. Friedman came to Washington.
During the post-World War Two period, Mrs. Friedman became a consultant to and created communications security systems for the
International Monetary Fund.
Longtime Shakespeare enthusiasts, Mrs. Friedman and her husband, after retirement from government service, collaborated on a book entitled "The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined." [William Friedman and Elizabeth Friedman, "The Shakespearian ciphers examined" (Cambridge University Press, 1957)] . It won awards from the
Folger Shakespeare Libraryand the American Shakespeare Theater and Academy. In this book, the Friedmans dismissed Baconianssuch as Mrs. Gallup and Ignatius Connellywith such technical proficiency and finesse that the book won far more acclaim than others addressing the same topic.
The work that Gallup had done earlier for Col Fabyan at Riverbank operated on two assumptions. One was that Bacon invented a biliteral cipher and that the cipher used in the original printed Shakespeare folios employed "an odd variety of typefaces." The Friedmans, however, "in a classic demonstration of their life's work," buried a hidden Baconian cipher on a page in their publication. It was an italicized phrase which, using the different type faces, expressed their final assessment of the controversy: "I did not write the plays. F. Bacon." Their book is regarded as the definitive work, if probably not the final word, on the subject.
Following her husband's death in 1969, Mrs. Friedman devoted much of retirement life to compiling a library and bibliography of his work. This "most extensive private collection of cryptographic material in the world" would finally be lodged in the George C. Marshall Research Library in Lexington, Virginia.
"Our office doesn't make 'em, we only break 'em," uttered Elizebeth Smith Friedman to a representative of a code-building company who came to sell his wares. And "break 'em" she did many times over for many years against many targets. Her successes led to the conviction of many violators of the Volstead Act during Prohibition years.
While the Eighteenth Amendment of 1919 forbade the manufacture, sale, import, or export of intoxicating liquors, the
Volstead Actforbade the consumption of such beverages. Prevailing conditions during those days, however, encouraged illegal activity.
Further, as radio equipment became less cumbersome, less conspicuous, and more sophisticated, it afforded the criminal element another means to circumvent the law. To avoid taxes, etc., criminals smuggled liquor and, to a lesser degree, narcotics, perfume, jewels, and even pinto beans. Related enciphered communications were passed by persistent anti-prohibitionists to protect their operations.
Anti-prohibitionists provided Mrs. Friedman and her team of cryptanalysts with innumerable opportunities to hone their cryptanalytic/codebreaking skills during her employment with the U.S. Treasury Department. She led the cryptanalytic effort against international smuggling and drug-running radio and encoded messages, which the runners began to use extensively to conduct their operations. Even though early codes and ciphers were very basic, their subsequent increase in complexity and resistance to solution was important to the financial success and growth of their operations. The extent of sophistication seemed to pose little problem for Mrs. Friedman; she still mounted successful attacks against both simple substitution and transposition ciphers, and the more complex enciphered codes which eventually came into use. While working for the Coast Guard and the Bureau of Foreign Control during the Prohibition era, she solved over 12,000 rum-runners' messages.
Mrs. Friedman also perceived the need for a more dedicated effort against suspected communications. By 1931 she had convinced Congress of the need to create a headquartered, seven-man cryptanalytic section for this purpose. As her cryptanalytic responsibilities began to mount, Mrs. Friedman sensed the need to teach other analysts cryptanalytic fundamentals, including deciphering techniques. By relieving her of a part of the burden, this allowed her time to attack the more atypical new systems as they cropped up and expedited the entire process from initial analysis through to solution. It also allowed her to stay one step ahead of the smugglers.
In addition to her cryptanalytic successes, she was often called to testify in cases against accused parties. The messages she deciphered or decoded enabled her to implicate several smugglers operating in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Pacific Coast. She subsequently testified in cases in Galveston and
Houston, Texas, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Her efforts in 1933 resulted in convictions against thirty-five bootlegging ringleaders who were found to have violated the Volstead Act. Ringleaders were directly linked with suspected vessels as a result of the information arising out of her analysis.
The next year she played a major role in settling a dispute between the Canadian and U.S. governments over the true ownership of the sailing vessel "I'm Alone" ["Claim of the British Ship "I'm Alone" v. United States", The American Journal of International Law, 29 (1935) 326-331] . It was flying the Canadian flag when it was sunk by a U.S. Coast Guard cutter for failing to heed a "heave to and be searched" signal. The Canadian government filed a $350,000 suit against the U.S., but the intelligence gleaned from the twenty-three messages decoded by Mrs. Friedman indicated "
de facto" U.S. ownership just as the U.S. had originally suspected. As a consequence, the true owners of the ship were identified and most of the Canadian claim was dismissed [Nacy Galey Skoglund, "The I'm Alone Case: A Tale from the Days of Prohibition", University of Rochester Library Bulletin XXIII (1968)] .
Obviously impressed with her work, the Canadian government sought Mrs. Friedman's help in 1937 with an opium dealer problem which evolved into an outstanding case. She complied and eventually testified in the trial of Gordon Lim and several other Chinese. Her solution to a complicated unknown Chinese enciphered code, in spite of her unfamiliarity with the language, was key to the successful convictions.
Finally, Mrs. Friedman left her mark on the life of one of espionage's most notorious spies,
Velvalee Dickinson, whose path to and role in espionage are noteworthy. Following high school and some college, Velvalee married the head of a brokerage firm that had Japanese-American clients. The Dickersons' interest in Japan grew so much that they joined the Japanese-American Society, where they began to rub shoulders with members of the Japanese consulate. When the brokerage firm's success suffered a downturn, so too did the Dickersons' role as proponents of good Japanese-American relations. At some point, the couple became spies for Japan. Velvalee became a major player, and her successful doll shop was a cover for her espionage. Known as the "Doll Woman," she corresponded with Japanese agents using the names of women she found in her business correspondence.
This would be her downfall. Her correspondence, which contained encoded material addressing significant naval vessel movement in
Pearl Harbor, was analyzed and solved by Mrs. Friedman. This analysis resulted in a guilty verdict against Mrs. Dickerson.
Although Mrs. Friedman worked closely with her husband as part of a team, many of her contributions to cryptology were unique. She deciphered many encoded messages throughout the Prohibition years and solved many notable cases singlehandedly, including some codes which were written in Mandarin Chinese.
Mrs. Friedman died on
October 31, 1980in Plainfield, New Jersey, at the age of 88.
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