- An Lushan
An Lushan (zh-tsp|t=安祿山|s=安禄山|p=Ān Lùshān) (ca. 703?Xu, Daoxun et al (1993). "The Biography of Tang Xuanzong". Beijing: People's Press. ISBN 7-01-001210-5. p. 455-456] -
January 29, 757[http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AD%F0&king=%B5%C2%A9v&reign=%A6%DC%BCw&yy=2&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=5&dcanzi= www.sinica.edu.tw] ] ), né Aluoshan (阿犖山)" Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 214.] or Galuoshan (軋犖山)," Book of Tang", [http://www.sidneyluo.net/a/a16/200a.htm vol. 200, part 1] .] " New Book of Tang", [http://www.sidneyluo.net/a/a17/225a.htm vol. 225, part 1] .] An Lushan's biography in the "New Book of Tang", in addition to indicating that his original name was Galuoshan, also indicated that his original surname was Kang, implying that his father was surnamed Kang. However, his biography in the "Book of Tang" indicated that An Lushan "originally did not have a surname." Compare "Book of Tang", vol. 200, part 1, with "New Book of Tang", vol. 225, part 1.] posthumously named (by Shi Siming) Prince La of Yan (燕剌王), was a military leader of Sogdian-TurkicYang, Zhijiu, "An Lushan". " Encyclopedia of China" (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.] Lin, Tianwei, " [http://ap6.pccu.edu.tw/Encyclopedia/data.asp?id=7794&htm=03-021-1257.htm An Lushan] ". " Chinese Encyclopedia" (Biography Edition), 1st ed.] Zhong, Han. Ah Lushan Dengzahu De Neiya Wenhua Beijing" ("The Cultural Background on An Lushan, etc in Inner Asia——With the Discussion on the Inner Asia-ized of Sute or Sogdian"). Journal of Chinese Historical Studies. 2005.1. ISSN 1002-7963." East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History". Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.] [Benn, Charles. 2002. "China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.] or Iranian-Turkish origin during the Tang Dynastyin China. He rose to prominence by defending the north eastern border from the Khitanand other northern threats, while systematically bribing Imperial messengers and envoys to depict him in good terms in their reports. He was several times summoned to Chang'an, the Tang Dynasty's capital, and managed to get the favor of Chancellor Li Linfuand even more of Emperor Xuanzong, who viewed An Lushan as his son (743 to 755). This allowed An Lushan to get astonishing military power in north-east China. After the death of Li Linfu, his opposition with rival general Generals ( Geshu Han) and Yang Guozhong, created military tension within the Empire. The promotion of Yang Guozhong to Chancellor precipitated the catastrophic An Shi Rebellion, which lasted from 755 to 763. Viewed as paranoid and dangerous, he was assassinated by his own son, An Qingxu, in 757, starting a political turmoil for Yanwhich eventually let to its final collapse in 763.
Background and Name
An Lushan's mother was of
Tujueethnicity, from the Ashide clan, and served as a sorceress. His original name might have been Aluoshan or Galuoshan, which meant "war" in the Tujue language. His father died early, and his mother Lady Ashide married An Yanyan, a Tujue military officer, a brother of the general An Bozhi (安波至). An Lushan therefore took the name of An. Early in Emperor Xuanzong's "Kaiyuan" era (713-741), there was a disturbance among the Tujue tribe that An Yanyan belonged to, and An Lushan fled to Tang with An Yanyan and An Yanyan's nephew An Sishun. He later settled in Ying Prefecture (營州, roughly modern city-state|Chaoyang|Liaoning).
Sources conflict about An Lushan biological father's origine and surname. Source are conflicting as to whether An Lushan's father had a surname of Kang or not; he took the name of An from his stepfather An Yanyan (安延偃), this both surnames Kang and An suggested they were respectively from
Sogdiankingdoms of Kang (康國) and An (安國), around Samarkandand Bukhara.Xue, Zongzheng (1992). "A History of Turks". Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8. p. 329, 602-606] [Mu, Weisheng (2000). "The Critical Biography of Guo Ziyi". ISBN 7-80628-406-0. p. 54] Yang, Zhijiu, [http://188.8.131.52/web/Content.asp?ID=50785&Query=1 "An Lushan"] . ] According to "Encyclopedia Britannica", he was a Iranian and Turkish (not Turkic) descent, but the source further mentioned that An's family name « An » was derived from the Chinese name for Bukhara in Sogdiana (present Uzbekistan). Source: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9007306/An-Lu-shan Encyclopedia Britannica] ] [Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). " Encyclopedia of China" (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.] The An are not to be confused with earlier Anxi, which had been established as a prefecture by the Chinese in 661. [Yu Taishan (2nd Edition 2003). "A Comprehensive History of Western Regions". Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou Guji Press. ISBN 7-5348-1266-6. p. 169]
On his side, Matsui Hitoshi, noticing that nothing in historical reccords provide hard evidence of Sogdian origine and that An Lushan was living at Yingzhou, the settling place of Khitans and Xi, suggest that "Perhaps [An Lushan father] might have been of Khitan origin".Xu Elina-Qian, p.248] [Matsui 1981. Repr. in: Sun, Jinji et al. 1988 (vol. 1), p. 105.]
"An Lushan" might be the Sinicized version of the name "An Rokhan",Fact|date=March 2008 with "Rokhan" meaning "light" in
Sogdian language(related to the female name " Roxana", borne by the Bactrian lady who married Alexander the Great).Fact|date=April 2008
It was said that An Lushan knew six non-Han languages, and, after he grew older, served in the military market as an interpreter. Serving with him was Shi Sugan (later named Shi Siming), who was one day older than he was and who became a good friend of his. In 732, when the general Zhang Shougui (張守珪) was governing You Prefecture (幽州, roughly modern
Beijing), where An was at, when An was discovered to have stolen sheep. Zhang was set to execute An by caning, when An yelled out, "Is it that you, Lord, do not wish to destroy the two barbarian tribes? [I.e., the Khitanand the Xi (奚).] Why do you want to cane An Lushan to death?" Zhang, seeing that he had a large body and impressed by his plea, released him and had him serve as a police officer, along with Shi, and both of them were said to be capable at catching criminals. Later, Zhang promoted him to be a military officer. As Zhang believed that he was obese, he did not dare to eat too much while in Zhang's presence, and this drew Zhang's favor. Zhang took him in and treated him like a son. At a time that was not recorded in history, he married a Lady Kang as his first wife, and she bore him at least one son, An Qingxu, who, however, was not his oldest son.
Service in Tang armies
Audaces and consequencies (736-742)
By 736, An Lushan carried a general title and was serving under Zhang Shougui as an officer of the Pinglu Army (平盧軍, based in modern Chaoyang). In 736, after An disobeyed Zhang's orders and made an overly aggressive attack against the
Khitanand the Xi, he was defeated. According to army regulations, he was supposed to be executed, but Zhang, not wanting to execute him, instead sent him to the capital Chang'anand, while recommending execution, was hoping that Emperor Xuanzong would spare An. [But see Zhao Yi, " Notes of the Twenty-Two Histories" (二十二史劄記), [http://ctwang.myweb.hinet.net/22szj/300/0277.htm "On the Matter of An Lushan Being Delivered to the Capital"] [questioning whether the event actually occurred but providing references both for and against] .] The chancellor Zhang Jiuling, pointing out that An's death would be necessary to preserve military discipline and further believing that An had the appearance of a rebel, advocated An's death, but Emperor Xuanzong believed An to be able and did not want to execute him, and therefore spared him but stripped him of titles, returning him to Zhang to serve under Zhang.
In 740, An became the "Bingmashi" (兵馬使) of Pinglu Army. It was said that he carefully cultivated relationships with other officials and generals to earn praises, and whenever Emperor Xuanzong sent messengers to Pinglu Army, An always bribed them to earn praises from them. In 741, when the deputy chief imperial censor Zhang Lizhen (張利貞) was sent to survey the Hebei (河北, i.e., the region north of the
Yellow River) and visited Pinglu Army, An ingratiated himself with Zhang, so much so that he even bribed Zhang's servants. When Zhang returned to Chang'an and praised An, Emperor Xuanzong promoted An to be the commandant at Ying Prefecture and the commander of Pinglu Army, to defend against the Khitan, the Xi, Bohai, and the Heishui Mohe. In 742, Emperor Xuanzong further promoted Pinglu Army to be a military circuit, making An its military governor (" jiedushi")."Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 215.]
At Chang'an (743)
In 743, An visited Chang'an to pay homage to Emperor Xuanzong. Emperor Xuanzong treated him well and allowed him to visit the palace at all times. Meanwhile, he began to inject himself into court politics -- as the official Su Xiaoyun (蘇孝韞) complained to him that the
imperial examinations that year was unfair and that Zhang Shi (張奭), the son of the deputy chief imperial censor Zhang Yi (張倚), had been given top grade despite having no abilities. An reported this to Emperor Xuanzong, who ordered a retesting before him personally. Zhang Shi was not able to even write one character in response to Emperor Xuanzong's reexamination. As a result, the deputy ministers of civil service, Song Yao (宋遙) and Miao Jinqingwere demoted.
An often ingratiated Emperor Xuanzong by offering Emperor Xuanzong tributes of rare items, such as rare animals or jewels. Meanwhile, he was even more obese than before, and Emperor Xuanzong, on one occasion, jokingly asked him, "What does this barbaric belly contain?" He responded, "Other than a faithful heart, there is nothing else." On another occasion, when Emperor Xuanzong's son Li Heng the
Crown Princewas in audience, he refused to bow to Li Heng, stating, "I am a barbarian, and I do not understand formal ceremony. What is a crown prince?" Emperor Xuanzong responded, "He is the reserve emperor. After my death, he will be your emperor." An apologized, stating, "I am foolish. I had only known about Your Imperial Majesty, and not that there is such a thing as a reserve emperor." He then bowed, but Emperor Xuanzong, believing him to be honest, favored him even more. As he was allowed to enter the palace, he asked that he become an adoptive son of Emperor Xuanzong's favorite concubine Consort Yang Yuhuan, and Emperor Xuanzong agreed. Thereafter, on one occasion, he bowed to Consort Yang first before bowing to Emperor Xuanzong, stating, "Barbarians bow to mothers first before fathers." Emperor Xuanzong, now believing that An was as submissive to him as a son to a father, showed him even greater favors.
Back to northern Front and first doubts
In 744, with further praises from the powerful chancellor
Li Linfuand Pei Kuan (裴寬), An was, in addition to Pinglu, made the military governor of Fanyang Circuit (范陽, headquartered in modern Beijing). Wanting to show his military abilities, he often pillaged the Khitan and the Xi, and he was blamed by traditional historians for the Khitan and Xi rebellion in 745, which he defeated.
Meanwhile, it was said that An was beginning to try to increase his own strength and planning rebellion, and in 747, he claimed to be building Fort Xiongwu (雄武城) and asked fellow military governor
Wang Zhongsito contribute troops, hoping to hold onto the troops that Wang would send and not return them. Wang, instead, led the troops himself to Xiongwu in advance of the rendezvous date and, after participating in the building project, returned with the soldiers, and submitted reports to Emperor Xuanzong that he believed An was planning treason. Li Linfu, who was at this point apprehensive of Wang as a potential rival, used this as one of the reasons to indict Wang, and Wang was, later in 747, removed from his post. Also in 747, An Lushan was given the honorary title as chief deputy imperial censor (御史大夫, "Yushi Daifu"), and Lady Duan, now described as his wife, although Lady Kang was still alive, was created a lady.
In 748, Emperor Xuanzong awarded An an iron certificate promising that he would not be executed, except for treason, and in 750, he created An the Prince of Dongping, setting a precedent for generals not of the imperial Li clan to be created princes. Later in 750, he tricked the Khitan and Xi chieftains into feasting with him, and then poisoned them. He then attacked the tribes, scoring a major victory.
New period in Chang'an
When he went to Chang'an later that year to pay homage to Emperor Xuanzong, he presented Emperor Xuanzong with 8,000 Xi captives. In 751, Emperor Xuanzong had a magnificent mansion built for An in Chang'an, sparing no expenses, using jade, gold, and silver in many different places. On An's birthday on
February 20, 751, [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AD%F0&king=%A5%C8%A9v&reign=%A4%D1%C4_&yy=10&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=20&dcanzi= www.sinica.edu.tw] ] Emperor Xuanzong and Consort Yang awarded him with clothing, treasures, and food. On February 23, when An was summoned to the palace, Consort Yang, in order to please Emperor Xuanzong, had an extra-large infant wrapping made, and wrapped An in it, causing much explosion of laughter among the ladies in waiting and eunuchs. When Emperor Xuanzong asked what was going on, Consort Yang's attendants joked that Consort Yang gave birth three days ago and was washing her baby Lushan. Emperor Xuanzong was pleased by the comical situation and rewarded both Consort Yang and An greatly. Thereafter, whenever An visited the capital, he was allowed free admittance to the palace, and there were rumors that he and Consort Yang had an affair, but Emperor Xuanzong discounted the rumors. On An's request, Emperor Xuanzong also gave him the governorship of Hedong Circuit (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), in addition to Pinglu and Fanyang."Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 216.] Two of his sons, the oldest An Qingzong (安慶宗) and An Qingxu, were given ministerial level positions, and An Qingzong was given an imperial clan member's daughter, the Lady Rongyi, in marriage.
Meanwhile, though, An was arrogant toward all other officials, including Consort Yang's second cousin
Yang Guozhong. However, carrying the honorary title of deputy chief imperial censor (御史大夫) at this point, he was respectful of his colleague Wang Hong (王鉷), an associate of Li Linfu's, although initially not Li Linfu -- and therefore, on one occasion, Li Linfu intentionally summoned Wang Hong in An's presence, and when Wang Hong arrived, he was paying Li Linfu great respect, causing An to be surprised and apprehensive, and thereafter An carefully cultivated the relationship with Lin Linfu as well.
Plans for post-Xuanzong death and Northward campaign
It was also said that, by this point, An began to be apprehensive of what would happen once Emperor Xuanzong died -- as he remembered how he had refused to bow to Li Heng -- and he began considering planning an eventual rebellion, which was further fanned by his observation that the heart of the empire was without defenses. He selected some 8,000 soldiers among the surrendered Khitan, Xi, and Tongluo (同羅) tribesmen, organizing them into an elite corps known as the "Yeluohe" (曵落河), which meant "the brave." He retained Gao Shang (高尚), Yan Zhuang (嚴莊), Zhang Tongru (張通儒), and Sun Xiaozhe (孫孝哲) as his strategists; and Shi Siming, An Shouzhong (安守忠), Li Guiren (李歸仁), Cai Xide (蔡希德), Niu Tingjie (牛廷玠), Xiang Runrong (向潤容), Li Tingwang (李庭望), Cui Qianyou (崔乾祐), Yin Ziqi (尹子奇), He Qiannian (何千年), Wu Lingxun (武令珣), Neng Yuanhao (能元皓),
Tian Chengsi, Tian Qianzhen (田乾真), and Ashina Chengqing (阿史那承慶) as his generals.
Late in 751, An launched a major attack against the Khitan, advancing quickly to the heart of Khitan territory, but, hampered by rains, was defeated by the Khitan, and the general He Side (何思德) was killed. An himself was almost killed, and, after retreating, blamed the defeat on Ge Jie (哥解) and Yu Chengxian (魚承仙), executing them. He subsequently had Shi defend against the Khitan counterattack, and Shi was able to repel the Khitan. In 752, he wanted to launch a major counterattack against the Khitan, requesting that the ethnically Tujue general Li Xianzhong (李獻忠) accompany him. Li Xianzhong feared An and, when compelled to, rebelled, thus putting a halt to An's campaign.
Rivalry with Geshu Han
Later that year, when Emperor Xuanzong, seeing that both An Lushan and An Sishun (who by this point was the military governor of Shuofang Circuit (朔方, headquartered in modern
Yinchuan, Ningxia)) had poor relations with Geshu Han, the military governor of Hexi (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei, Gansu) and Longxi (隴西, headquartered in modern Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai) Circuits, and wanted to improve relations between these three key border troop commanders, he summoned all three to the capital and had the powerful eunuch Gao Lishihost a feast for the three of them, trying to get them to resolve their unpleasantries. However, instead, at the feast, Geshu and An Lushan got into an argument, which only stopped after Gao gazed at Geshu, stopping him from responding to An Lushan's insults.
Death of Li Linfu and rivalry with Yang Guozhong
In 753, with Li Linfu having died and been replaced with Yang Guozhong, Yang Guozhong wanted to further posthumously dishonor Li Linfu, and therefore had An Lushan corroborate his accusations that Li Linfu was involved in Li Xianzhong's rebellion. An agreed, and subsequently, with further corroboration from Li Linfu's son-in-law Yang Qixuan (楊齊宣), Li Linfu was posthumously dishonored, and his family members were exiled. Also in 753, Li Xiaonzhong's troops were defeated by the
Huige, and they surrendered to An, further enhancing his strength.
Despite their cooperation in posthumously accusing Li Linfu, a rivalry soon developed between An and Yang Guozhong, as An did not fear Yang Guozhong the way he did Li Linfu. Yang Guozhong repeatedly told Emperor Xuanzong that An was plotting rebellion, but Emperor Xuanzong paid no heed. Yang Guozhong, instead, entered into an alliance with Geshu against An. In spring 754, Yang suggested to Emperor Xuanzong that An was set on rebelling, and that if Emperor Xuanzong summoned him to Chang'an, he would surely not come -- but when Emperor Xuanzong then did summon An, An immediately arrived at Chang'an and accused Yang of false accusations. Thereafter, Emperor Xuanzong would no longer believe any suggestions that An was plotting rebellion, despite Li Heng agreeing with Yang's assessment on this issue. Meanwhile, he considered promoting An to be chancellor, but Yang opposed, and this did not occur, and An subsequently returned to Fanyang. At An's request, Emperor Xuanzong allowed him to award his soldiers with high ranks without first receiving imperial approval. (Geshu, hearing this, made the same request, and Emperor Xuanzong also granted this privilege to Geshu.) Later in 754, An defeated Xi forces, capturing their chieftain Li Riyue (李日越). Meanwhile, Yang Guozhong also viewed the official Wei Zhi (韋陟) as a threat and had Wei accused of corruption -- and when Wei subsequently bribed An's associate Ji Wen (吉溫), Yang Guozhong also discovered this and reported it. As a result, Wei and Ji were demoted, and An subsequently submitted a petition on their behalf, claiming that the accusations from Yang Guozhong were false, but Emperor Xuanzong took no actions against either An or Yang Guozhong."Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 217.]
In spring 755, however, the matters were beginning to come to a head. When An Lushan submitted a petition to have 32 non-Han generals under him replace Han generals, Emperor Xuanzong immediately agreed, despite stern arguments from Yang Guozhong and his fellow chancellor
Wei Jiansuthat this was a sign of impending rebellion. Yang and Wei then suggested that An be promoted to be chancellor, and that his three commands be divided between his three deputies; Emperor Xuanzong initially agreed, but after the edict was drafted, Emperor Xuanzong tabled it and instead sent the eunuch Fu Qiulin (輔璆琳) to send fresh fruits to An and to observe him -- upon which An bribed Fu into submitting a favorable report. Yang, however, persisted in his reports against An, including having the mayor of Jingzhao arrest An's friend Li Chao (李超) and others and executing them secretly. An Qingzong, who was then at Chang'an, reported this to An Lushan, causing An Lushan to be even more apprehensive. Subsequent events -- including An's refusal to attend the funeral of an imperial prince in summer 755 and his offer to send a large number of horses to Chang'an in fall 755, began to cause Emperor Xuanzong to start suspecting An. He also discovered that Fu had received An's bribes, and therefore had Fu killed, instead sending another eunuch, Feng Shenwei (馮神威) to Fanyang to again summon An. An refused.
In winter 755, An, finally feeling he had no choice but to rebel, did so, launching his rebellion on
December 16, [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AD%F0&king=%A5%C8%A9v&reign=%A4%D1%C4_&yy=14&ycanzi=&mm=11&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%D2%A4l www.sinica.edu.tw] ] claiming that he had received a secret edict from Emperor Xuanzong to advance on Chang'an to remove Yang. The imperial officials were all apprehensive, because An had the strongest troops of the realm at the time, except for Yang, who believed that An could be suppressed easily. Emperor Xuanzong, meanwhile, commissioned the general Feng Changqingas the military governor of Fanyang and Pinglu, intending to have him replace An after An's rebellion is defeated, and sent Feng to the eastern capital Luoyangto build up the defense there; another general, Gao Xianzhi, was ordered to command a secondary defense at Shan Commandery (陝郡, roughly modern Sanmenxia, Henan). He also executed An Qingzong and An's first wife Lady Kang, and forced An Qingzong's wife Lady Rongyi to commit suicide.
January 8, 756, [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AD%F0&king=%A5%C8%A9v&reign=%A4%D1%C4_&yy=14&ycanzi=&mm=12&dd=&dcanzi=%A4B%A5%E8 www.sinica.edu.tw] ] An Lushan crossed the Yellow River, quickly capturing Chenliu (陳留, roughly modern Kaifeng, Henan) and Yingyang (滎陽, roughly modern Zhengzhou, Henan) Commanderies. He then approached Luoyang, where he encountered an ill-prepared army commanded by Feng, defeating Feng quickly and forcing Feng to flee and concede Luoyang to him. Feng joined forces with Gao and urged a retreat to Tong Pass; Gao agreed, and they took up defensive position there, and An did not proceed quickly, but remained at Luoyang, planning to declare himself emperor there. (Soon, due to accusations of the eunuchBian Lingcheng (邊令誠), Emperor Xuanzong executed Feng and Gao and replaced Gao with Geshu Han.) Some Tangs official north of the Yellow River resisted An under the leadership of Yan Zhenqing, the governor of Pingyuan Commandery (平原, roughly modern Dezhou, Shandong).
As emperor of Yan
Lunar New Year's day, 756 ( February 5[ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AD%F0&king=%A5%C8%A9v&reign=%A4%D1%C4_&yy=15&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=1&dcanzi= www.sinica.edu.tw] ] ), An Lushan declared himself emperor at Luoyang, establishing a new state of Yan, making Zhang Tongru and the surrendered Tang official Daxi Xun (達奚珣) his chancellors. He created An Qingxu the Prince of Jin and another son, An Qinghe (安慶和), the Prince of Zheng. Meanwhile, Yan Zhenqing's cousin Yan Gaoqing (顏杲卿), who initially submitted to An, rose against An at Changshan Commandery (常山, roughly modern Baoding, Hebei) but was quickly defeated and delivered to An in Luoyang; An executed him. An also sent An Qingxu to make an initial attack against Tong Pass, and Geshu Han repelled the attack."Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 218.]
Meanwhile, the Tang generals
Guo Ziyiand Li Guangbihad fought their way into An's territory north of the Yellow River, cutting off the communication between Luoyang and Fanyang, causing much fear in An's troops. An considered withdrawing north of the Yellow River to secure the territory, but meanwhile, suspicions had begun to rise between Yang Guozhong and Geshu, each believing that the other had designs on himself, and at Yang's urging, Emperor Xuanzong ordered Geshu to attack the Yan general Cui Qianyou, who was then stationed at Shan Commandery -- despite urging by Geshu, Guo, and Li Guangbi that the proper strategy was to secure Tong Pass and let Guo and Li Guangbi capture the Yan territory to the north. Geshu, with Emperor Xuanzong repeatedly ordering him to attack, was forced to do so, and was defeated by Cui. Geshu's subordinate Huoba Guiren (火拔歸仁) seized him and surrendered to Yan forces. Subsequently, An induced Geshu to write letters to several Tang generals, urging them to surrender, but they all refused.
Meanwhile, when Yan forces captured Tong Pass, Emperor Xuanzong and Yang, in panic, abandoned Chang'an and fled toward Shu Commandery (蜀郡, roughly modern
Chengdu, Sichuan). An, caught by surprise, had Cui advance slowly into Chang'an, even though the Tang mayor of Chang'an, Cui Guangyuan (崔光遠), offered to surrender. Also surrendering to Yan forces included the former chancellor Chen Xilieand the key officials Zhang Jun (張均) and Zhang Ji (張垍), and An made Chen and Zhang Ji chancellors as well. Meanwhile, An had Emperor Xuanzong's sister Princess of Huo, as well as a number of other imperial relatives, executed, and sacrificed their organs to An Qingzong. However, due to the slowness of the Yan advance, they were unable to capture either Emperor Xuanzong, who eventually reached Shu Commandery, or Li Heng, who fled to Lingwuand took imperial title there (as Emperor Suzong). (Emperor Xuanzong recognized Li Heng's actions and subsequently took the title " Taishang Huang" (retired emperor).) Meanwhile, hearing news of Chang'an's fall, Guo and Li Guangbi withdrew to Lingwu, allowing Shi to again pacify the region north of the Yellow River and east of the Taihang Mountainswith exception of pockets held by Yan Zhenqing and other Tang officials under his command.
Meanwhile, it was said that An Lushan was having eye problems and had become blind, and was also suffering from ulcers on his body. As a result, his temper became terrible, and his servants, if they had caused him any ill will, would often be whipped or caned, and sometimes even executed. Once he declared imperial title, he spent most of his time inside the Luoyang palace, and his generals rarely saw him, with most important matters going through Yan Zhuang -- but even Yan and a favorite eunuch of An's, Li Zhu'er (李豬兒), were being frequently battered."Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 219.]
Meanwhile, An favored his son An Qing'en (安慶恩), the son of his second wife Lady Duan (who might have carried the title of
empressby this point). An considered letting An Qing'en be his crown prince, instead of An Qingxu, who was otherwise considered in order to receive that honor. An Qingxu often feared that An Lushan would put him to death. He, Yan, and Li Zhu'er therefore plotted. On the night of January 29, 757, with Yan and An Qingxu watching outside, Li Zhu'er took a sword into the palace and attacked An Lushan; An Lushan tried to fight back, but could not locate a sword that he put under his bed, and Li Zhu'er killed him. The next morning, Yan first announced to the Yan officials that An Lushan was seriously ill and was creating An Qingxu crown prince, and then An Qingxu took the throne, before announcing An Lushan's death. After Shi Siming killed An Qingxu in 759 and took imperial title himself, he buried An Lushan with ceremony due an imperial prince, not an emperor, and gave him the rather unflattering posthumous nameof La (剌, meaning "unthinking").
* "Shengwu" (聖武 shèng wǔ) 756-757
** may be surnamed Kang (康) (personal name unknown)
** Lady Ashide
** An Yanyan (安延偃)
** Lady Kang, mother of Prince Qingxu (executed by
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang756)
** Empress Duan, mother of An Qing'en [The sources differ about whether she was An Lushan's wife or concubine, and further were unclear as to her title. The "New Book of Tang" referred to her as "Lady Duan" and indicated that she was favored by him and bore him An Qing'en, and referred to her as his wife when Emperor Xuanzong granted him certain titles in 747. The "Zizhi Tongjian" confirmed her as favored by him and mother of An Qing'en but indicated that she was a concubine. However, the modern historian
Bo Yang, in his "Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian", referred to her as Empress Duan without citing a source, but also stated that she was a concubine. The "Book of Tang" made no reference to her at all but stated that An Qingxu's mother Lady Kang was An Lushan's "original wife." As an empress title would imply that she was a wife, rather than a concubine, she will be treated here as his wife. Compare "Book of Tang", vol. 200, part 1; "New Book of Tang", vol. 225, part 1; "Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 219; and "Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian", vol. 53  .]
** An Qingzong (安慶宗) (executed by
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang756)
An Qingxu(安慶緒), the Prince of Jin (created 756), later emperor
** An Qingzhang (安慶長)
** An Qinghe (安慶和), the Prince of Zheng (created 756, executed by
Emperor Suzong of Tang758)
** An Qing'en (安慶恩)
** Six other sons, names unrecorded in history
* Mu, Weisheng (2000). "The Critical Biography of Guo Ziyi". ISBN 7-80628-406-0.
* Xu, Daoxun et al (1993). "The Biography of Tang Xuanzong". Beijing: People's Press. ISBN 7-01-001210-5.
* Xue, Zongzheng (1992). "A History of Turks". Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8.
* Yu, Taishan (2nd Edition 2003). "A Comprehensive History of Western Regions". Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou Guji Press. ISBN 7-5348-1266-6.
* Yang, Zhijiu, "An Lushan". "
Encyclopedia of China" (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.
* Benn, Charles. 2002. "China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
* Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006)." East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History". Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
* Lin, Tianwei, " [http://ap6.pccu.edu.tw/Encyclopedia/data.asp?id=7794&htm=03-021-1257.htm An Lushan] ". "
Chinese Encyclopedia" (Biography Edition), 1st ed.
* Zhong, Han. "Ah Lushan Dengzahu De Neiya Wenhua Beijing" ("The Cultural Background on An Lushan, etc in Inner Asia——With the Discussion on the Inner Asia-ized of Sute or Sogdian")". Journal of Chinese Historical Studies. 2005.1. ISSN 1002-7963.
* E. G. Pulleyblank, "The Background of the Rebellion of An Lu-Shan", London: Oxford University Press (1955)
* E. G. Pulleyblank, "The An Lu-Shan Rebellion and the Origins of Chronic Militarism in Late T'ang China", in Perry & Smith, "Essays on T'ang Society", Leiden: E. J. Brill (1976)
* Denis Twitchett (ed.), "The Cambridge History of China", Volume 3, "Sui and T'ang China", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1979)
Liu Xuet al., " Book of Tang", [http://www.sidneyluo.net/a/a16/200a.htm vol. 200, part 1] .
Ouyang Xiuet al., " New Book of Tang", [http://www.sidneyluo.net/a/a17/225a.htm vol. 225, part 1] .
Sima Guanget al., " Zizhi Tongjian", vols. 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219.
Bo Yang, "Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian", vols. 51, 52, 53.
* MATSUI, Hitoshi 松井等 (Japan). "Qidan boxing shi 契丹勃興史 (History of the rise of the Khitan)". Mamden chiri-rekishi kenkyu hokoku 1 (1915).
Translated into Chinese by Liu, Fengzhu 劉鳳翥. In Minzu Shi Yiwen Ji 民族史譯文集 (A Collection of Translated Papers on Ethnic Histories) 10 (1981). Repr. in: Sun, Jinji et al. 1988 (vol. 1), pp. 93-141
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