Pratt & Whitney R-4360


Pratt & Whitney R-4360

The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major was a large radial piston aircraft engine designed and built during World War II. It was the last of the Pratt & Whitney Wasp family and the culmination of its maker's piston engine technology, but the war was over before it could power airplanes into combat. It did, however, power the last generation of large piston-engined planes before the jet engine and turboprop took over.

It was a 28 cylinder four-row radial engine with each row slightly offset from the previous, forming a semi-helical arrangement (as can be seen in the photograph), to facilitate cooling of the successive rows of cylinders. A mechanical supercharger geared at 6.374:1 ratio to engine speed provided forced induction, while the propeller was geared at 0.375:1 so that the tips did not reach inefficient supersonic speeds.

Although reliable in flight, the Wasp Major was maintenance intensive. Improper starting technique could foul all 56 spark plugs, which would require hours to clean or replace. As with most piston aircraft engines of the era, the time between overhauls of the Wasp Major was about 600 hours when used in commercial service.

Engine displacement was 4,362.50 in³ (71.5 L), hence the model designation. Initial models developed 3,000 hp (2240 kW), but the final models delivered 4,300 hp (3200 kW) using two large turbochargers in addition to the supercharger. Engines weighed 3,482 to 3,870 lb (1,579 to 1,755 kg), heavy but giving a power to weight ratio of 1.11 hp/lb (1.83 kW/kg), matched by very few engines.

Wasp Majors were produced between 1944 and 1955; 18,697 were built.

A derivative engine, the R-2180, was essentially the R-4360 "cut in half". It had two rows of seven cylinders each, and was used on the postwar Saab 90 Scandia airliner.

Aircraft usage

The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 was intended as a new powerplant for the Boeing B-29 Superfortress; Wasp Major-powered Superfortresses were eventually designated B-50. They also powered the Convair B-36 as well as a broad assortment of other aircraft:

;FRA
* Sud-Est SE-2010 Armagnac;USA
* Aero Spacelines, Inc. Pregnant Guppy and Mini Guppy
* Boeing 377 Stratocruiser
* Boeing B-50 Superfortress
* Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter
* Boeing XF8B
* Boeing XB-44 Superfortress
* Convair B-36
* Convair XC-99
* Curtiss XBTC
* Douglas C-74 Globemaster
* Douglas C-124 Globemaster II
* Douglas TB2D Skypirate
* Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar
* Fairchild C-120 Packplane
* Goodyear F2G Corsair
* Hughes H-4 Hercules ("Spruce Goose")
* Hughes XF-11
* Lockheed R6V Constitution
* Martin AM Mauler
* Martin P4M Mercator
* Northrop B-35
* Republic XP-72
* Republic XF-12 Rainbow
* Vultee A-41

pecifications (R-4360-51VDT)

pistonspecs

type=28-cylinder supercharged air-cooled four-row radial engine
bore=5.75 in. (146 mm)
stroke=6.00 in. (152 mm)
displacement=4,362.5 in³ (71.49 L)
length=96.5 in. (2 451 mm)
diameter=55 in (1397 mm)
width=
height=
weight=3,870 lb (1,755 kg)
valvetrain=Poppet, two valves per cylinder
supercharger=Gear-driven single stage variable speed centrifugal type supercharger
turbocharger=General Electric CHM-2
fuelsystem=Stromberg four-barrel pressure carburetor
fueltype=108/135 octane gasoline
oilsystem=
coolingsystem=Air-cooled
power=4,300 hp (3,210 kW)
specpower=0.99 hp/in³ (45.0 kW/L)
compression=6.7 : 1
fuelcon=
specfuelcon=
oilcon=
power/weight=1.11 hp/lb (1.83 kW/kg)

Related contents

Related development
* Pratt & Whitney Wasp series
* R-1340 Wasp
* R-985 Wasp Junior
* R-1830 Twin Wasp
* R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior
* R-2800 Double Wasp

Comparable engines
* Wright R-3350
* Bristol Centaurus
* Napier Sabre

References

* [http://www.pw.utc.com/vgn-ext-templating/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=3330f3b8f77fb010VgnVCM1000000881000aRCRD Pratt & Whitney page on the R-4360]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/4980/engine9.html More info]
* [http://www.enginehistory.org/r-4360.htm Information about the 4360] from the Aircraft Engine Historical Society includes photos of the VDT engine.
*

Further reading

* cite book
last=White
first=Graham
year=2006
title=R-4360: Pratt & Whitney's Major Miracle
location=North Branch, Minn.
publisher=Specialty Press
id=ISBN 1-58007-097-3

External links

* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=850 National Museum of the USAFndash R-4360 fact sheet]
* [http://www.enginehistory.org/P&W/p&w_museum_(2).htm Aircraft Engine Historical Societyndash P&W Museum] ndash "includes photos of R-4360"


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pratt \x26 Whitney R-4360 — Pratt Whitney R 4360 Saltar a navegación, búsqueda R 4360 Wasp Major R 4360 Wasp Major Tipo Motor radial …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pratt & Whitney R-4360 — Un Pratt Whitney R 4360 « Wasp Major » Constructeur …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pratt \x26 Whitney — Pratt Whitney Pratt Whitney Тип Подразделение корпорации UTC …   Википедия

  • Pratt & Whitney R-4360 — Pratt Whitney R 4360 Wasp Major Der Pratt Whitney R 4360 Wasp Major war einer der größten Flugzeug Sternmotoren, die während des Zweiten Weltkrieges entwickelt und gebaut wurden. Der Hubraum betrug 71,25 Liter oder 4.360 Kubikzoll, daher die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pratt and Whitney — Pratt Whitney Unternehmensform Tochterunternehmen von UTC Gründung 1925 Unter …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pratt & Whitney — Pratt Whitney …   Википедия

  • Pratt & Whitney R-2000 — Twin Wasp Twin Wasp Constructeur …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pratt & Whitney Wasp — Мотор P W R 2800, установленный на P 47 По теме Pratt Whitney Wasp должна быть отдельная статья, а не страница разрешения неоднозначностей. После создания основной статьи страницу разрешения неоднозначностей, если в ней будет необходимость,… …   Википедия

  • Pratt & Whitney Wasp Major — Pratt Whitney R 4360 Wasp Major Der Pratt Whitney R 4360 Wasp Major war einer der größten Flugzeug Sternmotoren, die während des Zweiten Weltkrieges entwickelt und gebaut wurden. Der Hubraum betrug 71,25 Liter oder 4.360 Kubikzoll, daher die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pratt&Whitney — Pratt Whitney Unternehmensform Tochterunternehmen von UTC Gründung 1925 Unter …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pratt & Whitney — Pratt Whitney Unternehmensform Tochterunternehmen von UTC Gründung 1925 Unter …   Deutsch Wikipedia