vitreousor semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from nonrefactory fire clay. [Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whiteware and Related Products. ASTM Standard C242.] Its maturation temperatureranges from about 1200°C to 1315 °C. In essence, it is man-made stone. One widely recognized definition is from the Combined Nomenclatureof the European Communities which states, "Stoneware, which, though dense, impermeable and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, and normally only partially vitrified. It may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, and is normally glazed". [Dictionary Of Ceramics. Arthur Dodd & David Murfin. 3rd edition. The Institute Of Minerals. 1994.]
earthenwareis fired at lower temperatures and is not impervious to liquids. Porcelain, which some consider to be a type of stoneware, is distinguished as being whiter than stoneware and always vitreous. Kaolin, or China Clay, has a lower content of impurities than many other clays. It is also fired to a vitreousstate, transforming the constituent silica into glass. Some porcelain bodies are translucentafter firing. Firing a piece of pottery to too high a temperature will result in warping or melting. Vitreous clay bodies can be made at different temperatures ranges, but they are typically fired in the stoneware/porcelain range. Fired stoneware absorbs up to 5% water, porcelain 0%, and earthenware up to 10%. Earthenware, when moist, is typically not freeze resistant.Clay refers to group of minerals that generally exhibit plasticity when mixed with water, and which chemically primarily consist of alumina and silica. Potters refer to combinations of clays mixed with other materials as clay bodies. Different kinds of clay bodies are created by mixing additives, such as feldspar, grog, quartz, flint, many other minerals are used and these can include spodumene, wollastoniteto modify clays. Clay bodies can thereby be formulated to fire at a range of temperatures. Darker clays often contain iron and other metal oxide impurities. The clay used for porcelain and white stoneware clay bodies contain very little of these impurities.
Glaze may be applied to stoneware pottery before a second firing at a different temperature, or a glaze may be applied before a single, raw firing.
American Stonewarebecame the dominant houseware of nineteenth century America.
Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities - EC Commission in Luxembourg, 1987
* [http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/avondster/beardman.html Beardman jugs from the Avondster site] -- Provides photographs and history of early Rhenish stoneware vessels, produced circa 1500s-1700s.
* [http://www.asiasocietymuseum.org/region_results.asp?RegionID=6&CountryID=14&ChapterID=43 Japanese stoneware in the collection of the Asia Society.]
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Stoneware — Stone ware , n. A species of coarse potter s ware, glazed and baked. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
stoneware — [stōn′wer΄] n. a dense, opaque, glazed or unglazed pottery containing clay, silica, and feldspar and fired at a high heat … English World dictionary
stoneware — /stohn wair /, n. a hard, opaque, vitrified ceramic ware. [1675 85; STONE + WARE1] * * * Pottery fired at a high temperature (about 2,200°F, or 1,200°C) until vitrified (made glasslike and impervious to liquid). Because stoneware is nonporous,… … Universalium
stoneware — [[t]sto͟ʊnweə(r)[/t]] N UNCOUNT: oft N n Stoneware is hard clay pottery which is baked at a high temperature. ...a selection of hand painted blue and white stoneware. ...a large stoneware bowl … English dictionary
stoneware — noun Stoneware is used before these nouns: ↑jar … Collocations dictionary
stoneware — noun Date: 1683 a strong opaque ceramic ware that is high fired, well vitrified, and nonporous … New Collegiate Dictionary
stoneware — noun A type of pottery that is fired at a high temperature and is dense, opaque and nonporous … Wiktionary
stoneware — Synonyms and related words: appliances, brassware, chinaware, clayware, copperware, dinnerware, durable goods, durables, earthenware, enamelware, fixtures, flatware, glassware, graniteware, hard goods, hardware, hollow ware, housefurnishings,… … Moby Thesaurus
stoneware — stone|ware [ˈstəunweə US ˈstounwer] n [U] pots, bowls etc that are made from a special hard clay … Dictionary of contemporary English
stoneware — stone|ware [ stoun,wer ] noun uncount objects made from thick clay … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English