- Safety valve theory
The safety valve theory was a theory about how to deal with
unemploymentwhich gave rise to the Homestead Actof 1862 in the United States. Given the concentration of immigrants (and population) on the Eastern coast, it was hypothesized that making free land available in the West, would relieve the pressure for employment in the East. By analogy with steam pressure (= the need for work), the enactment of a free land law, it was believed, would act as a safety valve.
A distinction has to be made between (1) the safety valve theory as an ideal and (2) the safety valve theory as embodied in the
Homestead Actof 1862.
There is a dispute whether and to what extent the Homestead Act did or did not succeed as a safety valve in ameliorating the problem of unemployment in the East.
Opposition to giving away free land came from employers, who anticipated either a shortage of employees or conditions favorable to employees.
* Goodrich, Carter, and Sol Davison, [http://www.ditext.com/goodrich/1.html "The Wage-Earner in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem,"] "Political Science Quarterly", L (June, 1935): 179-180.
* Goodrich, Carter, and Sol Davison, [http://www.ditext.com/goodrich/2.html" "The Wage-Earner in the Westward Movement. II. The Question and the Sources,"] "Political Science Quarterly", LI (March, 1936): 61-116.
* Robbins, Roy M., [http://www.ditext.com/robbins/robbins.html "Horace Greeley: Land Reform and Unemployment, 1837-1862,"] "Agricultural History", VII, 18 (January, 1933).
* Robbins, Roy M., [http://www.ditext.com/robbins/land.html "Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain", 1776-1936] (1942).
* Shannon, Fred A., [http://www.ditext.com/shannon/shannon.html A Post Mortem of the Labor-Safety Valve Theory] , Agricultural History, XIX (January, 1945): 31-37.
* Smith, Henry Nash, "Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth" (1950). [http://www.ditext.com/smith-hn/20s.html Chapter XX: The Garden as Safety Valve]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Safety engineering — is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. Safety engineering assures that a life critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail.In the real world the term safety engineering… … Wikipedia
Valve audio amplifier - technical — Circuitry and performance Characteristics of valves Valves are very high input impedance (near infinite in most circuits) and high output impedance devices. They are also high voltage / low current devices.While valves themselves are described… … Wikipedia
Emissions trading — (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. It is sometimes called cap and trade.A central authority (usually a government … Wikipedia
international relations — a branch of political science dealing with the relations between nations. [1970 75] * * * Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies and political… … Universalium
VRLA — stands for valve regulated lead acid and is the designation for low maintenance lead acid batteries, also called recombinant batteries. [ David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook Of Batteries 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0 07 … Wikipedia
India — /in dee euh/, n. 1. Hindi, Bharat. a republic in S Asia: a union comprising 25 states and 7 union territories; formerly a British colony; gained independence Aug. 15, 1947; became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations Jan. 26, 1950.… … Universalium
Deepwater Horizon oil spill — 2010 oil spill and BP oil spill redirect here. For other oil spills in 2010, see 2010 oil spill (disambiguation). For the 2006 oil spill involving BP, see Prudhoe Bay oil spill. For the drilling rig and explosion, see Deepwater Horizon… … Wikipedia
History of the steam engine — This article primarily deals with the history of the reciprocating type steam engine. The parallel development of turbine type engines is described in the steam turbine article. The history of the steam engine stretches back as far as the first… … Wikipedia
MythBusters (2008 season) — Country of origin Australia United States No. of episodes 20 (includes 8 specials) Broadcast Original channel Discovery Channel … Wikipedia
arts, East Asian — Introduction music and visual and performing arts of China, Korea, and Japan. The literatures of these countries are covered in the articles Chinese literature, Korean literature, and Japanese literature. Some studies of East Asia… … Universalium