Barnaul


Barnaul

:"For the Barnaul meteorite of 1904, see Meteorite falls. For the bird, see barn owl."Infobox Russian city
EnglishName=Barnaul
RussianName=Барнаул
Skyline=Barnaul Skyline 2007.jpg
Skyline

LatDeg=53
LatMin=21
LatSec
LonDeg=83
LonMin=45
LonSec
LocatorMap
LocatorMapLegend




CityDay=One of Sundays in August or September
FederalSubject=Altai Krai
MunStatus=Urban okrug
InJurisdictionOf=Altai Krai
AdmCtrOf=Altai Krai
LeaderType=Head
LeaderName=Vladimir Kolganov
Legislature=City Duma
Charter=Charter of Barnaul
Area_km2=321
AreaRank
Population=600749
PopulationRank=22nd
FoundationDate=1730
Event1=Town status
Event1Date=1771
PostalCode=656xxx
DialingCode=3852
Website=http://www.barnaul.org/

Barnaul ( _ru. Барнау́л) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia. Barnaul is situated in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District on the Ob River. Population: 649,600 (2007 est.); 600,749 (2002 Census).

Geography

The city lies along the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. It is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south. Barnaul is also situated relatively close to the border with the countries of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.

Climate

The continental climate of Barnaul is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long, frigid winters, with an average of -17.5 C/0 F in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average high of 19.8 C (68 F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from -40 C (-40 F) in the winter to above 40 C (104 F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. Average rainfall in the area is 538 mm (21 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.

History

Barnaul was one of the earlier cities established in Siberia. Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s. In addition to the copper which had originally attracted the Demidovs, substantial deposits of silver were soon found as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown, and soon became the major silver center of Russia.

By the 18th and early 19th centuries, 90% of Russian silver was produced in the Altai region. Barnaul was the site of the country's largest silver-smelting factory, and as production expanded, so did the population. In 1771, the once-small settlement acquired the status of a mining town that was one of the largest in Siberia.

By the 1900s, Barnaul had grown into a major center for trade and culture of the region, especially after the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway.

World War II

Despite the fact that Barnaul was thousands of miles away from the actual fighting, hundreds of thousands of citizens from Altai Krai were killed on the front during World War II. As there are in many Russian cities, a large Soviet memorial dedicated to those who died can be found in the city center.

Economically speaking, Barnaul benefited during the World War II period as a result of the relocation of major Soviet factories from the west of Russia and Ukraine to areas less likely to be overrun by enemy forces in Siberia.

As a legacy of this period, today Barnaul continues to be home to one of the largest ammunition factories in Russia.

Economy

Barnaul is an important industrial center in Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120 thousand people. Leading industries in the city work with diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear. It is also home to a newly established diamond faceting industry, which the city hopes will expand and become a major source of revenue in the future. Barnaul is currently one of the only locations in Russia which has an industry specializing in diamond-faceting.

The main business street of the city is Leninsky Prospect, which runs southwest from the Ob River through the center of the city. Thanks to the currently surging Russian economy, a number of new high-end shopping centers have appeared in recent years to meet demand for products desired by the city's "nouveau riche". Another industry quickly changing the face of Barnaul's downtown area is the restaurant industry: while choices had been extremely limited until recently, a growing number of eating establishments catering to people of differing income levels are becoming available, coinciding with the upturn in the region's economy.

Transport

Barnaul is linked by air, railways, roads and riverboats with other parts of Russia. The city lies approximately km to mi|220 south of Novosibirsk, the largest city in Siberia and the third-largest in Russia. It is at a junction of the Novosibirsk–Almaty and Biysk train lines. There are also frequent buses to nearby cities Biysk and Gorno-Altaysk. It takes about four hours to reach the Altai Mountains in the south by car along the Chuysky highway.

Barnaul airport is distant about an hour from the center of the city, which offers daily flights to and from Moscow and Saint Petersburg among other more local flights. Barnaul is approximately four hours by plane to Moscow, and slightly longer to Saint Petersburg. It also takes approximately four hours by plane to reach Vladivostok on the Pacific coast of Russia.

Any part of the city can be reached using public transport, whether one decides to use the city's many buses, trolleys, or taxis.

Education and culture

Barnaul is known as a Siberian scientific center. Five universities, including I. I. Polzunov Altai State Technical University, Barnaul State Pedagogical University, Altai State Medical University and Altai State University, as well as 35 libraries are located there. It also has five theatres and three museums. The city's Museum of Local Lore was founded in 1823 and is one of the oldest museums in Siberia, displaying local artists' work as well as unique artifacts from the nearby Altai region and more.

port

FC Dynamo Barnaul is a professional football club, founded in 1957. The club has recently advanced from the Russian Second Division to the Russian First Division.

ister cities

*flagicon|United States Flagstaff, United States
*flagicon|China Baicheng, People's Republic of China
*flagicon|China Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, People's Republic of China (2007)

Images of Barnaul

ee also

* Nagorny park, Barnaul
* Tsentralny City District, Barnaul

External links

* [http://www.barnaul.org Barnaul.org Official website of Barnaul]
* [http://www.wunderground.com/cgi-bin/findweather/getForecast?query=Barnaul%2c+Russia Weather in Barnaul]
* [http://www.suvenirograd.ru/geography.php?id=20&lang=2 Barnauls places of interest]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Barnaul — Barnaul, 1) Kreis im russischen Gouvernement Tomsk an dem Kolywanschen Erzgebirge, am Ob, Irtysch u. dem See Telezkoi; 1851 77,720 Ew.; 2) Kreisstadt an der in den Ob fallenden Barnaulka; Sitz der altaischen Hüttenverwaltung, 6 Kirchen, 2… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Barnaūl — Barnaūl, Bezirk im russisch sibir. Gouv. Tomsk, 125,730 qkm groß mit (1897) 585,344 Einw. Der Bezirk wird vom Ob durchflossen, linkes Uferland ist die Baraba (s. d.), hier Kulundinsche Steppe genannt, während sich rechts Ebenen, Hügelland und… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Barnaul — Barnaūl, Kreisstadt im sibir. Gouv. Tomsk, am Ob, 29.850 E., Mittelpunkt des Bergbaus im Altai …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Barnaul — Barnaul, russ. Stadt im sibir. Gouvernement Tomsk am Obi, 10000 E., Hauport der Bergwerke im kleinen Altai; viele Schmelzöfen, Schmieden, Glashütten; Bergschule …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Barnaul — [bär΄nä o͞ol′] city in SC Russia, on the Ob River: pop. 596,000 …   English World dictionary

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  • Barnaul — Original name in latin Barnaul Name in other language BARNAUL, BAX, Barnaoel, Barnaoul, Barnauel, Barnaul, Barnaul Barnaul, Barnaul Барнаул, Barnaula, Barnaulas, Barnaulia, Barnauyl, Barnau Barnal, Barnal, Gorad Barnaul, Mparnaoul, ba er nao er,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Barnaul — /bahr neuh oohl /; Russ. /beuhrdd nu oohl /, n. the capital of the Altai territory in the Russian Federation, on the Ob River, S of Novosibirsk. 602,000. * * * ▪ Russia       city and administrative centre, Altay kray (region), south central… …   Universalium

  • barnaul — |bärnə|ül adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Barnaul, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : of or from the city of Barnaul, Altai territory, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : of the kind or style prevalent in Barnaul …   Useful english dictionary


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