- Israel and the apartheid analogy
State of Israel's treatment of the Palestinians has been likened by many to a system of apartheid, analogous to South Africa's treatment of non-whites during South Africa's apartheid era. [http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=25&pid=522298&agid=2 "Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) - Read an Excerpt,"] " Simon & Schuster" November, 2006, accessed April 9, 2007.] Those who use this analogy argue that a system of control including separate roads, [cite web|author=United Nations Commission on Human Rights|authorlink=United Nations Commission on Human Rights|title=Question of the violation of human rights in the occupied Arab territories, including Palestine|date=2005-04-07|url=http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/fd807e46661e3689852570d00069e918/963d2615f33d208185256fe8005172d2!OpenDocument|format=HTML|accessdate=2008-06-18|quote=96. A system of road apartheid had been established in the Occupied Palestinian Territory whereby highways were reserved for exclusive use by settlers, relegating Palestinians to second-class roads obstructed by checkpoints and roadblocks. Israel had reportedly asked the international donor community to finance upgrading of Palestinian roads, which was yet another attempt to receive outside funding for the occupation.] inequities in infrastructure, legal rights, and access to land and resources between Palestinians and Israeli residents in the Israeli-occupied territoriesconstitutes an apartheid system. [cite web
title=UN expert calls Palestinian terrorism 'inevitable consequence' of Israeli occupation - International Herald Tribune
International Herald Tribune
first=] Certain Israeli commentators and Palestinian rights advocates extend this analogy to include
Arab citizens of Israel, describing their citizenship status as second-class. [Uri Davis, "Apartheid Israel: Possibilities for the Struggle Within,".Zed Books, London 2004pp. 51f] [ [http://www.counterpunch.org/makdisi12202006.html The A Word: Israel, Apartheid and Jimmy Carter] , Counterpunch19 December 2006] [ [http://www.logosjournal.com/pappe.htm Power and History in the Middle East: A Conversation with Ilan Pappe] Logos Journal, vol 3 no 1, Winter 2004] Other users of the analogy use it in relation to the special status that Israel accords to Jews (or to Orthodox Jews) without reference to Palestinians. [cite web|url=http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3429070,00.html|title=Our Apartheid State]
Opponents of the usage argue that the State of Israel's treatment of Palestinians in the occupied territories is driven by security considerations, not racism. [http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1280 Norman Finkelstein, Benny Morris and "Peace not Apartheid"] , February 7, 2007.] They state that the analogy is merely a slanderous epithet, reflecting a double standard applied to Israel but not to its undemocratic neighbours in the Arab world.Gideon. [http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=253&PID=0&IID=1806&TTL=Deconstructing_Apartheid_Accusatio"eeconstructing Apartheid Accusations Against Israel"] ", presented on September 2007Gideon, Shimoni] Rufin, Jean-Christophe. [http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/BRP/044000500/0000.pdf "Chantier sur la lutte contre le racisme et l'antisémitisme"] ", presented on October 19, 2004. Cited in Matas, David "Aftershock: Anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism". Dundurn, 2005, p. 54 and p. 243, footnotes 59 and 60.] [Clarifyme|url=http://www.nationalpost.com/opinion/story.html?id=306670|title=The poisonous myth of 'Israeli apartheid' |publisher=www.nationalpost.com|accessdate=2008-04-20|last=|first=] [cite web |url=http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART1/564/754.html|title=חדשות nrg - (Israeli Arabs in the trap of self-deception)ערביי ישראל – במלכודת ההונאה העצמית|publisher=www.nrg.co.il|accessdate=2008-04-20|last=|first= ]
Use of apartheid analogy in political discourse
The idea of "Israeli Apartheid" emerged in the final years of the white South African regime (in the early 1990s), when Palestinians opposed to South African apartheid drew the link between Israel and South Africa.Ferguson, Sue. " [http://www.thismagazine.ca/issues/2007/09/teardownthatwall.php “Tear Down That Wall!”] ". This Magazine. Retrieved 2008-01-12] Comparisons between Israeli policies and apartheid have been made by groups and individuals, including Archbishop
Desmond Tutu, and other South African anti-apartheidleaders, Jimmy Carter, former President of the United States, [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=799476&contrassID=1&subContrassID=1 Jimmy Carter: Israel's 'apartheid' policies worse than South Africa's] , haaretz.com, 11/12/06. ] former United States National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Israeli journalists, [Verter, Yossi "PM loses vote on Palestinian State," "Haaretz", May 14, 2002] [Benvenisti, Meron "Bantustan plan for an apartheid Israel," "Guardian", April 26, 2004] [ Eldar, Akiva, "Analysis: Creating a Bantustan in Gaza," "Haaretz", April 16, 2004] the Syrian government, [The Syrian government wrote in a letter to the UN Security Council that "Zionist Israeli institutional terrorism in no way differs from the terrorism pursued by the apartheid regime against millions of Africans in South Africa and Namibia…just as it in no way differs in essence and nature from the Nazi terrorism which shed European blood and visited ruin and destruction upon the peoples of Europe." (UN Doc S/16520 at 2 (1984), quoting from "Israel Yearbook on Human Rights 1987". Edited by Y. Dinstein, M. Tabory, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987. ISBN 90-247-3646-3 p.36)] pro-Palestinian student groups in the UK, U.S., and Canada, [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull&cid=1139395420513 "Oxford holds 'Apartheid Israel' week"] at Jerusalem Postby Jonny Paul] the Congress of South African Trade Unions, [The Congress of South African Trade Unions called Israel as an apartheid state and supported the boycott of the Canadian Union of Public Employees. (cite news |url=http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3260201,00.html |title=South African union joins boycott of Israel |date= [2006-08-06] |publisher= ynetnews.com)] the Canadian Union of Public Employees, and Israeli human rights organization B'Tselem. ["Israel has created in the Occupied Territories a regime of separation based on discrimination, applying two separate systems of law in the same area and basing the rights of individuals on their nationality. This regime is the only one of its kind in the world, and is reminiscent of distasteful regimes from the past, such as the apartheid regime in South Africa." B'Tselem, "Land Grab: Israel's settlement Policy in the West Bank", Jerusalem, May 2002.] Contemporary global political discourse regarding Israel incorporates usages of, and controversy over, the phrase "Israeli apartheid" and its variations. [ "To call Israel a Nazi state, however, as is commonly done today, or to accuse it of fostering South African-style apartheid rule or engaging in ethnic cleansing or wholesale genocide goes well beyond legitimate criticism." -- Alvin H. Rosenfeld, " 'Progressive' Jewish Thought and the New Anti-Semitism" [http://www.ajcgermany.org/atf/cf/%7B46AEE739-55DC-4914-959A-D5BC4A990F8D%7D/PROGRESSIVE_JEWISH_THOUGHTalvin%20rosenfeld.pdf] ] [At Durban a large contingent wore T-shirts emblazoned 'Occupation = Colonialism =Racism, End Israeli Apartheid.' " -- Jerusalem Post, 8/22/07, "Stop Durban II." [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1187779137328&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=-og-GZfAuWcC&pg=PA165&dq=%22apartheid+wall%22&ei=cK7gRoOXAajA7AKNz8mXCg&sig=6qAun_8hZfr_tO6OrKYrqtazAh0#PPA165,M1 "Palestinians fear the apartheid wall will become a de facto border..."] ] [ [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20020715/tutu Against Israeli Apartheid." The Nation, July 15] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=Lv95_qJ4hz0C&pg=PA157&dq=%22Israeli+apartheid%22&ei=i6_gRoPQKoXy6gLU3OCXCg&sig=GDDNIoU_-5xzl67S5HaYUQ-a0h8#PPP1,M1 "...border is moved (at Israel's expense) to include these Arabs in the "Palestinian democracy" rather than in the "Israeli apartheid"...] ] [ http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/uk.cfm?id=1312982007 "Their action coincides with the nearby Camp for Climate Action and is part of the growing movement to boycott Israeli apartheid."]
Use of apartheid analogy in relation to the Israeli disengagement plan
In January 2004,
Ahmed Qureia, then the Palestinian Prime Minister, said that the building of the West Bank barrier, and the associated Israeli absorption of parts of the West Bank, constituted "an apartheid solution to put the Palestinians in cantons." [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=381153 Qureia: Israel's unilateral moves are pushing us toward a one-state solution] ," Haaretz", January 9, 2004. Accessed June 26, 2006.] Colin Powell, then U.S. Secretary of State, commented on Queria's statements by affirming U.S. commitment to a two-state solution while saying, "I don't believe that we can accept a situation that results in anything that one might characterize as apartheid or Bantuism." [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=381733Y PMO rejects Palestinian assertion on right to declare state] , " Haaretz", January 11, 2004, accessed June 26, 2006]
An academic paper by Professor Oren Yiftachel, Chair of the Geography Department at the
Ben Gurion University of the Negev, predicted that Israel's unilateral disengagement planwill result in "creeping apartheid" in the West Bank, Gaza, and in Israel itself. Yiftachel argues that, "Needless to say, the reality of apartheid existed for decades in Israel/Palestine, but this is the first time a Prime Minister spells out clearly the strengthening of this reality as a long-term political platform." [Oren Yiftachel, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben Gurion University of the Desert (2005) " [http://users.fmg.uva.nl/vmamadouh/awg/forum2005/AWG83Yiftachel.pdf Neither two states nor one: The Disengagement and "creeping apartheid" in Israel/Palestine] " in The Arab World Geographer/Le Géographe du monde arabe 8(3): 125-129] . Yiftachel argued that the plan would entrench a situation that can be described as "neither two states nor one," separating Israelis from Palestinians without giving Palestinians true sovereignty. Meron Benvenisti, an Israeli political scientist and the former deputy mayor of Jerusalem, predicted that the interim disengagement plan would become permanent, with the West Bank barrier entrenching both the isolation of Palestinian communities and the existence of Israeli settlements. He warned that Israel is moving towards the model of apartheid South Africa through the creation of " Bantustan" like conditions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The Economist", in an article on the debate over withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, asserted that "Keeping the occupied land will force on Israel the impossible choice of being either an apartheid state, or a binational one with Jews as a minority." ["Israel's settlers: Waiting for a miracle", " The Economist", August 11, 2005.]
Michael Tarazi, a Palestinian proponent of the
binational solutionhas argued that it is in Palestine's interest to "make this an argument about apartheid," even to the extent of advocating Israeli settlement: "The longer they stay out there, the more Israel will appear to the world to be essentially an apartheid state". [ [http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/040531fa_fact2_f Among the settlers] , Jeffrey Goldberg, The New Yorker]
Use of apartheid analogy by notable authors
Geoffrey Wheatcroft has noted that, historically, Israeli officials had mulled the possibility of adopting the South African apartheid model as one that the state of Israel itself might emulate. In the late 1970s "(t)hey didn't wish to copy what was once called 'petty apartheid', the everyday harassment of black South Africans, but 'grand apartheid', the Nationalists' attempt to conjure away the problem of minority rule by dividing the country into supposedly autonomous cantons or 'homelands'." [
Geoffrey Wheatcroft, 'No Fairy Tale:The forgotten history of Zionism,' in Times Literary SupplementFeb.22, 2008 pp.3-5,7-8, p.8] Uri Daviswrote in 1987 that apartheid in Israel is a legal reality, even though it has a different legal structure than in the Republic of South Africa. He asserts that where the Republic of South Africa had an official value system of apartheid and made a key legal distinction between "white", "coloured", "Indian" and "black", Israel has an official value system of Zionism and makes a key legal distinction between "Jew" and "non-Jew". He suggests that this distinction is made in a two-tier structure that had concealed Israeli apartheid legislation for "almost four decades" at the time when he wrote. [cite book|last=Davis|first=Uri|authorlink=Uri Davis|coauthors=|title=Israel: An Apartheid State|publisher=Zed Books|month=February | year=1987|location=|pages=55|url=|doi=|id=|isbn=0-86232-317-7] Uri Avneryapplies parts of the analogy to "the reality in the occupied Palestinian territories" which he describes as "in many respects similar to reality under the apartheid regime," but warns that there are also important differences between the two conflicts. [cite web |url=http://world.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/4299/ |title=An Eskimo in Bantustan |publisher=- Media Monitors Network (MMN)|accessdate=2008-04-20|last=Avnery|first=Uri| authorlink =Uri Avnery]
Use of apartheid analogy by Adam and Moodley
Heribert Adamof Simon Fraser Universityand Kogila Moodleyof the University of British Columbia, in their 2005 book-length study "Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and Palestinians", apply lessons learned in South Africa to resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. They divide academic and journalistic commentators on the analogy into three groups:Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. ix.]
*"The majority is incensed by the very analogy and deplores what it deems its propagandistic goals."
*"'Israel is Apartheid' advocates include most Palestinians, many Third World academics, and several Jewish
post-Zionists who idealistically predict an ultimate South African solution of a common or binational state."
* A third group which sees both similarities and differences, and which looks to South African history for guidance in bringing resolution to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.Adam and Moodley also suggest that political actors such as former Israeli Prime Ministers
Ariel Sharonand Ehud Barakused the analogy "self-servingly in their exhortations and rationalizations" and that such actors "have repeatedly deplored the occupation and seeming 'South Africanization' but have done everything to entrench it."
Adam and Moodley argue that notwithstanding universal suffrage within Israel proper "if the Palestinian territories under more or less permanent Israeli occupation and settler presence are considered part of the entity under analysis, the comparison between a disenfranchised African population in apartheid South Africa and the three and a half million stateless Palestinians under Israeli domination gains more validity."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. PDFlink| [http://www.temple.edu/tempress/chapters_1800/1813_ch1.pdf "Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and Palestinians" (2005) excerpt] , University College London Press, p.20f. ISBN 1-84472-130-2
"Second-class citizenship:" "Above all, both Israeli Palestinians and Coloured and Indian South Africans are restricted to second-class citizen status when another ethnic group monopolizes state power, treats the minorities as intrinsically suspect, and legally prohibits their access to land or allocates civil service positions or per capita expenditure on education differently between dominant and minority citizens." "Mandela's vision succeeded because it evoked a universal morality. Common ideological and economic bonds existed between the antagonists inside South Africa. An outdated racial hierarchy eventually clashed with economic imperatives when the costs exceeded the benefits of racial minority rule in a global pariah state. In the Israeli case, outside support sustains intransigence. Only when the colonial policies of occupation embarrass and threaten their stronger patrons abroad or can no longer be so easily contained inside (as apartheid racial capitalism did in the Cold War competition) can outside pressure on Israel be expected. This turning of the tables will impact the Israeli public as much as outside perception is affected by visionary local leaders and events. Despite gains in global empathy, Palestinians are still at the mercy of a superior adversary in every respect, which even a Mandela would not have been able to overcome. In this impasse, hope is offered by Israeli progressive moral dissent on the Left as well as opportunistic calculations on the Right that the occupation harms the occupier. Israel has the capacity to reach a meaningful compromise, but has yet to prove its willingness. The Palestinian mainstream has the willingness, but lacks the capacity, to initiate a fair settlement."]
In part, analysts like Adam and Moodley argue, this controversy over terminology arises because Israel as a state is unique in the region. Israel is perceived as a Western
democracyand is thus likely to be judged by the standards of such a state. Western commentators, too, may feel "a greater affinity to a like minded polity than to an autocratic Third World state."Heriber, Adam & Moodley, Kogila. op cit. p. xiii.] Israel also claims to be a spiritual home for a worldwide Jewish diasporaand a strategic outpost of the Western worldwhich "is heavily bankrolled by U.S. taxpayers" who can be viewed as sharing a collective responsibility for its behaviors. Radical Islamists, according to some analysts, "use Israeli policies to mobilize anti-Western sentiment", leading to a situation in which "(u)nconditional U.S. support for Israeli expansionism potentially unites Muslim moderates with jihadists." As a result of these factors, according to this analysis, the West Bank Barrier — nicknamed the "apartheid wall" — has become a critical frontline in the War on Terrorism.
At the same time, Adam and Moodley note that Jewish historical suffering has imbued Zionism with a subjective sense of moral validity that the whites ruling South Africa never had: "Afrikaner moral standing was constantly undermined by exclusion and domination of blacks, even subconsciously in the minds of its beneficiaries. In contrast, the similar Israeli dispossession of Palestinians is perceived as self-defense and therefore not immoral."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. xv.] They also suggest that academic comparisons between Israel and apartheid South Africa that see both dominant groups as "settler societies" leave unanswered the question of "when and how settlers become indigenous," as well as failing to take into account that Israeli's Jewish immigrants view themselves as returning home.Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. 22.] "In their self-concept, Zionists are simply returning to their ancestral homeland from which they were dispersed two millennia ago. Originally most did not intend to exploit native labor and resources, as colonizers do." Adam and Moodley stress that "because people give meaning to their lives and interpret their worlds through these diverse ideological prisms, the perceptions are real and have to be taken seriously."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. 25.]
Adam and Moodley also argue that "apartheid ideologues" who justified their rule by claiming self-defense against "
African National Congress(ANC)-led communism" found that excuse outdated after the collapse of the Soviet Union, whereas "continued Arab hostilities sustain the Israeli perception of justifiable self-defense."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. xvi.]
Adam and Moodley argue that notwithstanding universal suffrage within Israel proper, "if the Palestinian territories under more or less permanent Israeli occupation and settler presence are considered part of the entity under analysis, the comparison between a disenfranchised African population in apartheid South Africa and the three and a half million stateless Palestinians under Israeli domination gains more validity."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. PDFlink| [http://www.temple.edu/tempress/chapters_1800/1813_ch1.pdf "Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and Palestinians"] , University College London Press, p.20f. ISBN 1-84472-130-2
"Mandela's vision succeeded because it evoked a universal morality. Common ideological and economic bonds existed between the antagonists inside South Africa. An outdated racial hierarchy eventually clashed with economic imperatives when the costs exceeded the benefits of racial minority rule in a global pariah state. In the Israeli case, outside support sustains intransigence. Only when the colonial policies of occupation embarrass and threaten their stronger patrons abroad or can no longer be so easily contained inside (as apartheid racial capitalism did in the Cold War competition) can outside pressure on Israel be expected. This turning of the tables will impact the Israeli public as much as outside perception is affected by visionary local leaders and events. Despite gains in global empathy, Palestinians are still at the mercy of a superior adversary in every respect, which even a Mandela would not have been able to overcome. In this impasse, hope is offered by Israeli progressive moral dissent on the Left as well as opportunistic calculations on the Right that the occupation harms the occupier. Israel has the capacity to reach a meaningful compromise, but has yet to prove its willingness. The Palestinian mainstream has the willingness, but lacks the capacity, to initiate a fair settlement."]
Adam and Moodley contend that the relationship of South African apartheid to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been misinterpreted as "justifying suicide bombing and glorifying martyrdom." They argue that the ANC "never endorsed terrorism," and stress that "not one suicide has been committed in the cause of a thirty-year-long armed struggle, although in practice the ANC drifted increasingly toward violence during the latter years of apartheid."Adam, Heribert & Moodley, Kogila. op. cit. p. x.]
Use of apartheid analogy by the United Nations
Israel has been accused by Palestinian organizations and their supporters of the
crime of apartheidunder international law. For example, in 2006, at the UN-sponsored International Conference of Civil Society in Support of the Palestinian People, Phyllis Bennis, co-chair of the International Coordinating Network on Palestine, opened the speeches of the civil society at the first plenary of the conference by alleging "Once again, the crime of apartheid [is] being committed by a United Nations Member State [Israel] ."cite web|title=UN CIVIL SOCIETY CONFERENCE SLAMS 'ISRAELI APARTHEID': Worldwide Activism, Palestinian Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign|date=10 September 2006|accessdate=2007-08-31|url=http://stopthewall.org/worldwideactivism/1300.shtml]
The crime of apartheid first became part of international law in 1973 when the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (ICSPCA) was adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly. It defined it as "inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group ... over another racial group ... and systematically oppressing them."cite web|title=Apartheid By Any Other Name|author=Ronald Bruce St John|publisher= Foreign Policy in Focus|date=February 1, 2007|accessdate = 2007-05-20|url=http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/3951] Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States refused to ratify it. At the outset the US stated: " [W] e cannot...accept that apartheid can in this manner be made a crime against humanity. Crimes against humanity are so grave in nature that they must be meticulously elaborated and strictly construed under existing international law..." [Statement by Ambassador Clarence Clyde Ferguson Jr. before General Assembly in explanation of vote on Apartheid Convention, November 30, 1973. Review of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights: Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements of the House Foreign Affairs Committee (1974) p.58]
In 2002, a different definition of the crime of apartheid was provided by Article 7 of the
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The crime of apartheid was listed as one of several crimes against humanity, and was defined as including inhumane acts such as torture, murder, forcible transfer, imprisonment, or persecution of an identifiable group on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, or other grounds, "committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime."cite web
title=Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Part 2, Article 7
accessyear=2007] This change to defining the crime of apartheid as discrimination on the grounds of national, ethnic or cultural group rather than racial group alone increased the applicability of the law to Israeli policy in the West Bank.
No mechanism exists to prosecute any state for the crime of apartheid except referral from the
UN Security Councilto the International Criminal Court, and no such referral has ever taken place.
Other UN-related allegations of Israeli apartheid
John Dugard, a South African professor of international law and an ad hoc Judge on the International Court of Justice, serving as the Special Rapporteur for the United Nations on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories described the situation in the West Bank as "an apartheid regime ... worse than the one that existed in South Africa." [Benn, Aluf. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=468456 "UN agent: Apartheid regime in territories worse than S. Africa"] , " Ha'aretz", August 24, 2004.] In 2007, in advance of a report from the United Nations Human Rights Council, Dugard wrote that "Israel's laws and practices in the OPT [occupied Palestinian territories] certainly resemble aspects of apartheid." Referring to Israel's actions in the occupied West Bank, he wrote, "Can it seriously be denied that the purpose [...] is to establish and maintain domination by one racial group (Jews) over another racial group (Palestinians) and systematically oppressing them? Israel denies that this is its intention or purpose. But such an intention or purpose may be inferred from the actions described in this report." [McCarthy, Rory. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/Story/0,,2019547,00.html "Occupied Gaza like apartheid South Africa, says UN report"] , " The Guardian", February 23, 2007.] [John Dugard, PDFlink| [http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/4session/A.HRC.4.17.pdf "Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967"] |243 KB (Advance Edited Version), United Nations Human Rights Council, 29 January 2007.] Danny Rubinstein, a columnist at Ha'aretzalso reportedly likened Israel to apartheid South Africa during a United Nations conference at the European Parliamentin Brusselson 30 August 2007, stating: "Israel today was an apartheid State with four different Palestinian groups: those in Gaza, East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Israeli Palestinians, each of which had a different status."cite web|title=Zionist Federation cancels Haaretz journalist: Columnist Danny Rubinstein reportedly likens Israel to apartheid South Africa|author=Yaakov Lappin|publisher=Ynetnews.com|date=31 August 2007|accessdate=2007-08-31|url=http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3444320,00.html#n]
Use of apartheid analogy by academic and media figures
Jimmy Carter, former President of the United States, Camp David Accordsnegotiator, Nobel Peace Prizewinner, and author of the 2006 book entitled " Palestine Peace Not Apartheid," maintained in that book that Israel's options included a "system of apartheid, with two peoples occupying the same land but completely separated from each other, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights. This is the policy now being followed ..." [http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=25&pid=522298&agid=2 "Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) - Read an Excerpt,"] " Simon & Schuster" November, 2006, accessed April 9, 2007.] Carter has also argued that the Israeli system is in some cases more onerous than that of the apartheid government of South Africa. [Meet the Press, December 3, 2006 [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15936711/page/6/] Tim Russert quotes Carter, speaking to the Louisville Courier-Journal, 23 November 2006: "I would say that in many ways the treatment of the Palestinians by the Israeli occupying forces is as onerous - and in some cases more onerous - as the treatment of black people in South Africa by the apartheid government."] Carter's use of the term "apartheid" has been calibrated to avoid specific accusations of racism against the government of Israel, and has been carefully limited to the situation in Gaza and the West Bank. For instance, in a news release, Carter described discussing his book and his use of the word "apartheid" with the Board of Rabbis of Greater Phoenix, and noted, "I made clear in the book's text and in my response to the rabbis that the system of apartheid in Palestine is not based on racism but the desire of a minority of Israelis for Palestinian land and the resulting suppression of protests that involve violence." [ [http://www.cartercenter.org/news/pr/carter_letter_121506.html "Jimmy Carter Issues Letter to Jewish Community on Palestine Peace Not Apartheid"] Carter Center, 15 December 2006, accessed April 9, 2007] [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/12/16/america/NA_GEN_US_Jimmy_Carter_Criticism.php Carter explains "apartheid" reference in letter to U.S. Jews] International Herald Tribune, December 15, 2006, accessed 23 April 2007"
The six rabbis...and I...discussed the word "apartheid," which I defined as the forced segregation of two peoples living in the same land, with one of them dominating and persecuting the other. I made clear in the book's text and in my response to the rabbis that the system of apartheid in Palestine is not based on racism but the desire of a minority of Israelis for Palestinian land and the resulting suppression of protests that involve violence...my use of "apartheid" does not apply to circumstances within Israel."]
Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Agency(NSA) advisor to President Carter commented that the absence of a resolution to the Israel-Palestine conflict is likely to produce a situation which de facto will resemble apartheid. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/a2be2f0e-83c4-11db-9e95-0000779e2340.html Ask the Expert: US policy in the Middle East] , Zbigniew Brzezinski, London Financial Times, December 4, 2006.] University of Chicagopolitical science professor John Mearsheimerstated in June 2008 that, "Five, 10 or 15 years ago, it was unthinkable to mention ‘apartheid’ in relation to Israel. Now [Jimmy] Carter has used it in the title of his book,” "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid". Mearsheimer added, "Israel is, in effect, creating an apartheid state." [ [http://www.xpress4me.com/news/uae/dubai/20008076.html Open talks needed on Israel's apartheid,] Xpress (UAE), 16 June 2008.] Bill Fletcher, Jr., former president of the TransAfrica Forum, which led the U.S. movement to overthrow apartheid in South Africa during the 1980s, published an article in the San Jose Mercury Newsheadlined, "Tactics that ended apartheid in S. Africa can end it in Israel," calling for support for boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel. [Bill Fletcher, Jr., [http://www.mercurynews.com/opinion/ci_9681308 Tactics that ended apartheid in S. Africa can end it in Israel] , San Jose Mercury News, 24 June 2008.] Yakov Malik, the Soviet Ambassador to the United Nations accused Israel--an ally of the US in the Cold Waragainst the Soviets-- of promulgating a "racist policy of apartheid against Palestinians" following the imposition of Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the Six-Day Warof 1967.Summary of news events, "New York Times", December 10, 1971.] Israel accused the Soviet Unionof publishing anti-Zionist tracts. [ [http://countrystudies.us/israel/109.htm Israel - Soviet Union] Library of Congress Country Studies] Raja G. Khouri, a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commissionand former president of the Canadian Arab Federation, supports the apartheid analogy, and holds that the Israeli policies in question are not motivated by racism. [e.g. Jimmy Carter, author of "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid", has stated "I have made it clear that the motivation is not racism..." ( [http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-carter8dec08,0,7999232.story?coll=la-home-commentary "Speaking frankly about Israel and Palestine"] , " Los Angeles Times", December 8, 2006.) Raja G. Khouri, a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commissionand former president of the Canadian Arab Federation, has said "Indeed, the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians has always been a political one about land and identity, not about race." (Khouri, Raja G. [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20061213.wxcosemite13/BNStory/specialComment/home "Time for Canadian Arabs and Jews to work together"] , " The Globe and Mail", December 13, 2006).]
Melanie Phillipshas criticized Desmond Tutufor comparing Israel to Apartheid South Africa. Having made the comparison in an article for "The Guardian" in 2002, Tutu stated that people are scared to say the " Jewish lobby" in the U.S. is powerful. "So what?" he asked. "The apartheid government was very powerful, but today it no longer exists. Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Pinochet, Milosevic and Idi Amin were all powerful, but in the end they bit the dust." [Tutu, Desmond. "Apartheid in the Holy Land, "The Guardian", April 29, 2002, cited in Phillips, Melanie. "Christian Theology and the New Antisemitism" in Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) A New Anti-Semitism? Debating Judeophobia in 21st century Britain. Profile Books, 2003, p. 196.] Phillips wrote of Tutu's article: "I never thought that I would see brazenly printed in a reputable British newspaper not only a repetition of the lie of Jewish power but the comparison of that power with Hitler, Stalin and other tyrants. I never thought I would see such a thing issuing from a Christian archbishop ... How can Christians maintain a virtual silence about the persecution of their fellow worshippers by Muslims across the world, while denouncing the Israelis who are in the front line against precisely this terror?" [Phillips, Melanie. "Christian Theology and the New Antisemitism" in Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) "A New Anti-Semitism? Debating Judeophobia in 21st century Britain". Profile Books, 2003, p. 197.]
In December, 2006, Maurice Ostroff of the "
Jerusalem Post" criticized Tutu for being well-intentioned, but ultimately misguided: "If he took the opportunity during his forthcoming visit to impartially examine all the facts, he would discover - to his pleasant surprise - that accusations of Israeli apartheid are mean-spirited and wrong-headed... He would find that whereas the apartheid of the old South Africa was entrenched in law, Israel's Declaration of Independence absolutely ensures complete equality of social and political rights to all inhabitants, irrespective of religion, race, or gender. [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1164881826126&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull Archbishop Tutu, please be fair Jerusalem Post5 December 2006] ]
Norman Finkelstein, an outspoken opponent of Israeli policies toward the Palestinians and author of numerous books relating to the Arab-Israeli conflict, defends Carter's analysis in "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid" as in his view both historically accurate and non-controversial outside the United States: "After four decades of Israeli occupation, the infrastructure and superstructure of apartheid have been put in place. Outside the never-never land of mainstream American Jewry and U.S. media, this reality is barely disputed." Norman Finkelstein, [http://www.counterpunch.org/finkelstein12282006.html The Ludicrous Attacks on Jimmy Carter's Book] , " CounterPunch" December 28, 2006, accessed January 3, 2006.] [In several subsequent [http://www.normanfinkelstein.com/content.php?pg=9 "Speaking engagements"] as these are featured on his website (accessed February 13, 2007), Finkelstein has apparently been focusing on the subject of Carter's book "Palestine Peace Not Apartheid".] In claiming the apartheid comparison "is a commonplace among informed commentators", Finkelstein cited such a comparison by historian Benny Morris, a widely quoted scholar on the Arab-Israeli conflict (whom Finkelstein has also fiercely criticized in other contexts). Morris responded to the Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in Americathat
"Norman Finkelstein is a notorious distorter of facts and of my work, not a serious or honest historian. ... As to the occupied territories, Israeli policy is fueled by security considerations (whether one agrees with them or not, or with all the specific measures adopted at any given time) rather than racism (though, to be sure, there are Israelis who are motivated by racism in their attitude and actions towards Arabs) — and indeed the Arab population suffers as a result. But Gaza's and the West Bank's population (Arabs) are not Israeli citizens and cannot expect to benefit from the same rights as Israeli citizens so long as the occupation or semi-occupation (more accurately) continues, which itself is a function of the continued state of war between the Hamas-led Palestinians (and their Syrian and other Arab allies) and Israel." [ [http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1280 Norman Finkelstein, Benny Morris and "Peace not Apartheid"] , February 7, 2007]
Adrian Guelke, Professor of Comparative Politics at Queen's University Belfastand Director of the Centre for the Study of Ethnic Conflict wrote that "Comparison of Israel's policies with the South African policy of apartheid has become a very common theme of Palestinian discourse at both an analytical and polemical level and, it should be noted, use of the analogy is by no means confined to Palestinians." Since the breakdown of the peace process in 2000, he observed, "the use of this analogy has mushroomed." [Guelke, Adrian, "Israeli Flags Flying Alongside Belfast's Apartheid Walls: A New Era of Comparisons and Connections," in Guy Ben-Porat (editor), "The Failure of the Middle East Peace Process?", London/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 30-31.]
Stanford Universityfaculty from various fields other than Middle East, Palestine or Israel studies, as well as staff from Stanford's conservative think tank, the Hoover Institutionsigned a letter expressing the view that "Israel is not an Apartheid State" and that "the State of Israel has nothing in common with apartheid"; that within its national territory Israel is a liberal democracyin which Arab citizens of Israel enjoy civil, religious, social, and political equality. They alleged that likening Israel to apartheid South Africa was a "smear," part of a campaign of "malicious propaganda." [cite web |url=http://www.spme.net/cgi-bin/articles.cgi?ID=3567 |title=SPME: 53 Distinguished Stanford Faculty State Publicly, "Israel is Not An Apartheid State!" |publisher=www.spme.net |accessdate=2008-04-20 |last= |first= ] Ian Burumahas argued that even though there is social discrimination against Arabs in Israel and that "the ideal of a Jewish state smacks of racism", the analogy is "intellectually lazy, morally questionable and possibly even mendacious", as " [n] on-Jews, mostly Arab Muslims, make up 20% of the Israeli population, and they enjoy full citizen's rights" and " [i] nside the state of Israel, there is no apartheid".Buruma, Ian. [http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/comment/story/0,9828,761784,00.html "Do not treat Israel like apartheid South Africa"] ," The Guardian", July 23, 2002.]
Use of apartheid analogy by South Africans
AnglicanArchbishop and Nobel Peace Prizewinner Desmond Tutuwrote a series of articles in major newspapers,
Tutu, Desmond [http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/comment/0,10551,706911,00.html "Apartheid in the Holy Land"] . "
The Guardian", April 29, 2002.
*Tutu, D., and Urbina, I. [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20020715/tutu "Against Israeli apartheid"] , "
The Nation" 275:4-5, posted June 27, 2002 (July 15, 2002 issue).
""It reminded me so much of what happened to us black people in South Africa. I have seen the humiliation of the Palestinians at checkpoints and roadblocks, suffering like us when young white police officers prevented us from moving about. Many South Africans are beginning to recognize the parallels to what we went through."] comparing the Israeli occupation of the West Bank to apartheid South Africa, and calling for the international community to divest support from Israel until the territories were no longer occupied.
Other prominent South African
anti-apartheidactivists have used apartheid comparisons to criticize the occupation of the West Bank, and particularly the construction of the separation barrier. These include Farid Esack, a writer who is currently William Henry Bloomberg Visiting Professor at Harvard Divinity School, ["The logic of Apartheid is akin to the logic of Zionism... Life for the Palestinians is infinitely worse than what we ever had experienced under Apartheid... The price they (Palestinians) have had to pay for resistance much more horrendous" http://cjpip.org/0609_esack.html Audio: Learning from South Africa -- Religion, Violence, Nonviolence, and International Engagement in the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle] Ronnie Kasrils, [ [http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2006%20Opinion%20Editorials/September/5%20o/Rage%20of%20the%20Elephant%20Israel%20in%20Lebanon%20By%20Ronnie%20Kasrils,%20MP.htm Rage of the Elephant: Israel in Lebanon] Accessed November 3, 2006. ] Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, ["Apartheid Israel can be defeated, just as apartheid in South Africa was defeated" [http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=139&art_id=qw1080274862652B243&set_id=1 Winnie Mandela on apartheid Israel] , Independent Online, March 26, 2004, accessed November 3, 2006] Dennis Goldberg, [ The [http://www.ameu.org/summary1.asp?iid=165 "Israeli-South African-U.S. Alliance"] accessed November 6, 2006] and Arun Ghandhi, [ Arun Ghandhi. [http://www.ipc.gov.ps/ipc_e/ipc_e-1/e_News/news2004/2004_08/179.html Occupation "Ten Times Worse than Apartheid"] , Speech, Palestinian International Press Center, August 29, 2004, accessed September 17, 2006] [ Arun Ghandhi. [http://www.ipc.gov.ps/ipc_e/ipc_e-1/e_News/news2004/2004_08/179.html Occupation "Ten Times Worse than Apartheid"] , Speech, Palestinian International Press Center, August 29, 2004, accessed September 17, 2006.
""When I come here and see the situation [in the Palestinian territories] , I find that what is happening here is ten times worse than what I had experienced in South Africa. This is Apartheid"]
On 15 May 2008, 34 leading South African activists published an open letter in The Citizen, under the heading "We fought apartheid; we see no reason to celebrate it in Israel now!". The signatories, who included Kasrils and several other government ministers, COSATU General Secretary
Zwelinzima Vavi, Ahmed Kathrada, Sam Ramsamyand Blade Nzimande, wrote
We, South Africans who faced the might of unjust and brutal apartheid machinery in South Africa and fought against it with all our strength, with the objective to live in a just, democratic society, refuse today to celebrate the existence of an Apartheid state in the Middle East... Apartheid is a crime against humanity. It was when it was done against South Africans; it is so when it is done against Palestinians! [cite web|url=http://www.endtheoccupation.org.za/index.html|title=End The Occupation South Africa|publisher=www.endtheoccupation.org.za|accessdate=2008-05-17|last=|first=]
On 6 June 2008, Mr.
Kgalema Motlanthe, the Deputy President of the African National Congress, who had recently visited the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, told a delegation of Arab Knessed members visiting South Africa to study its democratic constitution that conditions for Palestinians under occupation were "worse than conditions were for Blacks under the Apartheid regime." [ [http://www.adalah.org/eng/pressreleases/pr.php?file=08_06_09 Delegation of Arab Political Leaders and Adalah Representatives in South Africa Meet with Lawyers from the Legal Resources Center, Ministers and Government Officials to Discuss Constitution Building and Human Rights] , Adalah, 9 June 2008]
In a letter to the President of the
Canadian Union of Public Employees(CUPE), Ontario, Willie Madisha, the President of COSATUwrote, "As someone who lived in apartheid South Africa and who has visited Palestine I say with confidence that Israel is an apartheid state. In fact, I believe that some of the atrocities committed against the South Africans by the erstwhile apartheid regime in South Africa pale in comparison to those committed against the Palestinians." [ [http://www.cosatu.org.za/news/weekly/20060609.htm COSATU Weekly newsletter for June 9, 2006] ] Hendrik Verwoerd, then prime minister of South Africa and the architect of South Africa's apartheid policies, said in 1961 that "The Jews took Israel from the Arabs after the Arabs had lived there for a thousand years. Israel, like South Africa, is an apartheid state." Israel was critical of apartheid through the 1950s and 60s as it built alliances with post-colonial African governments."McGreal, Chris. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/Story/0,,1703245,00.html "Worlds apart"] , " The Guardian", February 6, 2006.] cite news
title=Brothers in arms - Israel's secret pact with Pretoria
The Guardian] ["Rand Daily Mail", November 23, 1961] For example, also in 1961, Israel voted for the General Assembly censure of Eric Louw's speech defending apartheid. [cite book
last = Shimoni
first = Gideon
title = Community and conscience : the Jews in apartheid South Africa
format = Googlebooks account required
accessdate = 2006-08-23
date= June 1, 2003
Brandeis UniversityPress, published by University Press of New England
location = Lebanon,
id = ISBN 1-58465-329-9 LCCN|2003|00|4623
pages = 46–47
chapter = Coping with Israel’s intrusion
chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1584653299&id=wRkpQAmnL8oC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&vq=Israel&dq=Jews+and+Zionism:+The+South+African+Experience&sig=-mMn5v7B_Qvu_cPovY-zXvxQ8ZY ] cite web
url = http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/main-chronology-1960snew.html
title = 1960's
accessdate = 2007-12-03
work = Chronology
publisher = South African History Online]
Former deputy mayor of
Jerusalem Meron Benvenistirelates in his 1986 book "Conflicts and Contradictions" that during the 1970s, an official of the South African apartheid compared Israeli-Palestinian relations to South African policy for the Transkeiin a meeting. The Israeli officials present expressed shock at the comparison, and the South African official said "I understand your reaction. But aren't we actually doing the same thing? We are faced with the same existential problem, therefore we arrive at the same solution. The only difference is that yours is pragmatic and ours is ideological." [Benvenisti, Meron, "Conflicts and Contradictions", New York: Villard Books, 1986. p. 112]
In 2008 a delegation of ANC veterans visited Israel and the Occupied Territories, and said that in some respects it was worse than apartheid.cite news
title='This is like apartheid': ANC veterans visit West Bank
author=Donald Macintyre] cite news
title=Twilight Zone / 'Worse than apartheid'
Gideon Levy] One member said "The daily indignity to which the Palestinian population is subjected far outstrips the apartheid regime." Another member, human rights lawyer Fatima Hassan, cited the separate roads, different registration of cars, the indignity of having to produce a permit, and long queues at checkpoints as worse than what they had experienced during apartheid. But she also thought the apartheid comparison was a potential "red herring". ["... the context is different and the debate on whether this is Apartheid or not deflects from the real issue of occupation, encroachment of more land, building of the wall and the indignity of the occupation and the conduct of the military and police. I saw the check point at Nablus, I met with Palestinians in Hebron, I met the villagers who are against the wall- I met Israeli's and Palestinians who have lost family members, their land and homes. They have not lost hope though ---and they believe in a joint struggle against the occupation and are willing in non-violent means to transform the daily direct and indirect forms of injustice and violence. To sum up – there is a transgression that is continuing unabated– call it what you want, apartheid/separation/closure/security – it remains a transgression".cite web | last = Ngugi | first =Mukoma Wa | authorlink = Mukoma Wa Ngugi | title =What Palestine is to me: An interview with Fatima Hassan | work = Pambazuka News| publisher = Fahamu - Networks For Social Justice | date =2008-07-23 | url = http://pambazuka.org/en/category/features/49608 | accessdate =2008-08-13] Andrew Feinstein, a former ANC parliament member, was shocked to see footage of teenagers heaping abuse on and throwing stones at Palestinian children, especially done in the name of Judaism. The delegation's final formal statement made no mention of comparisons with apartheid and Dennis Davis, a high court judge, said he thought the use of the term in the Middle East context was "very unhelpful".. Davis also noted that "There's no racial superiority here. There's no pervading ideology that confirms the inferiority of Palestinians." and concluded "But I think it's incredibly unhelpful to say you can simply take this to be apartheid and therefore the South African struggle is the same and the South African solution is the same. That's a very lazy form of reasoning." [ [http://www.worldpress.org/link.cfm?http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=43404] ] One of the Jewish members of the delegation said that the comparison with apartheid is very relevant and that the Israelis are even more efficient in implementing the separation-of-races regime than the South Africans were, and that if he were to say this publicly, he would be attacked by the members of the Jewish community..
Use of apartheid analogy by Israelis
Jamal Zahalka, an Israeli-Arab member of the Knessetargued that an apartheid system has already taken shape in that the West Bank and Gaza Strip are separated into "cantons" and Palestinians are required to carry permits to travel between them. [http://www.palestinecenter.org/cpap/pubs/20020611ftr.html "New Laws Legalize Apartheid in Israel. Report from a Palestine Center briefing by Jamal Zahalka"] , "For the Record", No. 116, June 11, 2002.] Azmi Bishara, a former Knesset member, argued that the Palestinian situation had been caused by "colonialist apartheid."Bishara, Azmi. [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/690/sc4.htm "Searching for meaning"] , "Al-Ahram", May 13-May 19, 2004.] Michael Ben-Yair, attorney-generalof Israel from 1993 to 1996 referred to Israel establishing, "an apartheid regime in the occupied territories", in an essay published in Haaretz. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=136433 The war's seventh day - Haaretz - Israel News ] ]
Some Israelis have compared the separation plan to apartheid, such as political scientist
Meron Benvenisti, Meron Benvenisti, [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1203156,00.html "Bantustan plan for an apartheid Israel"] , " The Guardian", April 26, 2005.] and journalist Amira Hass. ["An apartheid-like system is when we are talking about two peoples who live in the same territory, between the sea and the river, the Mediterranean and the River of Jordan, two peoples. And there are two sets of laws which apply to each separate people. There are two -- there are privileges and rights for the one people, for the Israeli people, and mostly for the Jews among -- within -- of the Israeli people, and there are restrictions and decrees and military laws which apply to the other people, to the Palestinians." [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/04/12/1344230 Interview with Amy Goodman] , " Democracy Now!", April 12, 2005] Ami Ayalon, Israeli admiral and former leader of the Israel Security Agencycriticized the model, claiming it "ha [d] some apartheid characteristics." ["Israel must decide quickly what sort of environment it wants to live in because the current model, which has some apartheid characteristics, is not compatible with Jewish principles." [http://www.dispatch.co.za/2000/12/05/foreign/IISRAEL.HTM Israel warned against emerging apartheid] ] Shulamit Aloni, former education minister, Israel Prizewinner, and a former leader of Meretz, said that the state of Israel is "practicing its own, quite violent, form of Apartheid with the native Palestinian population." [cite web
url = http://counterpunch.com/aloni01082007.html
title = Yes, There is Apartheid in Israel
accessdate = 2007-12-06
Shulamit Aloni(Translated by Sol Salbe)
date= January 8, 2007
language = English ]
Academic and political activist
Uri Davis, an Israeli citizen who describes himself as an " anti-Zionist Palestinian Jew", [http://archiveshub.ac.uk/news/04052702.html Uri Davis Collection] , Archives Hub, accessed August 31, 2007] has written several books on the subject, including "Israel: An Apartheid State" in 1987.Davis, Uri. "Israel: An Apartheid State". 1987. ISBN 0-86232-317-7]
The [http://www.maiap.org/ Movement Against Israeli Apartheid in Palestine] , a campaigning group based in Israel, has established a web-based petition in which [http://www.maiap.org/maiap/petition/petition.htm#petition Palestinians & Israeli Jews Call for Boycotting of Apartheid Israel] .
Israeli politician and former
Knessetmember Yossi Saridexplicitly compared an array of Israeli practices to apartheid in a Ha'aretzcolumn entitles "Yes, It's apartheid" on April 25, 2008. Sarid wrote,'And what acts like apartheid, is run like apartheid and harasses like apartheid, is not a duck - it is apartheid. Nor does it even solve the problem of fear' and added, 'One essential difference remains between South Africa and Israel: There a small minority dominated a large majority, and here we have almost a tie. But the tiebreaker is already darkening on the horizon.' [cite web
title=Yes, it is apartheid - Haaretz - Israel News
authorlink =Yossi Sarid]
Daphna Golan-Agnon, co-founder of B'Tselemand founding director of Bat Shalomwrites in her 2002 book "Next Year in Jerusalem", "I'm not sure if the use of the term "apartheid" helps us to understand the discrimination against Palestinians in Israel or the oppression against Palestinians in the Occupied Territories. I'm not sure the discussion about how we are like or unlike South Africa helps move us forward to a solution. But the comparison reminds us that hundreds of laws do not make discrimination just and that the international community, the same international community we want to belong to, did not permit the perpetuation of apartheid. And it doesn't matter how we explain it and how many articles are written by Israeli scholars and lawyers -- there are two groups living in this small piece of land, and one enjoys rights and liberty while the other does not." [Golan-Agnon, Daphna, "Next Year in Jerusalem", New York: The New Press, 2002. p. 206.]
Counterarguments to the apartheid analogy
Israel policies are unlike South African polices
StandWithUs, a pro-Israel advocacy organization, argues that apartheid in the Republic of South Africa was an official policy of discrimination against blacks enforced through police violence, based on minority control over a majority population who could not vote. They contend that in contrast, Israel is a majority-rule democracy with equal rights for all citizens including Arab citizens of Israel. Israel contends with prejudice in its population as all societies do, but such prejudices are opposed by law. They argue that the West Bank and Gaza are not governed by Israel. [cite web|url=http://www.standwithus.com/pdfs/flyers/english/MythFact.pdf |title=Truth, Lies & Stereotypes... |accessdate = 2006-12-29 |format=PDF |work= StandWithUs]
Unlike South Africa, where Apartheid prevented Black majority rule, within Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip -- the territory Israel controls -- there is currently a Jewish plurality with Jews forming just over 48 percent of the population. [ [http://www.thejerusalemfund.org/images/informationbrief.php?ID=192 "Palestinians on the Verge of a Majority: Population and Politics in Palestine-Israel"] Palestine Center Information Brief No. 162 (12 May 2008)] ] [cite web
title=Myth and Fact: Apartheid?
publisher=Jewish Federation of Greater Santa Barbara / Jewish Virtual Library
accessdate = 8 November
Criticising the use of the analogy, Israeli anti-Zionist activist Professor
Moshé Machoverstates "... talk of Israeli 'apartheid' serves to divert attention from much greater dangers. For, as far as most Palestinians are concerned, the Zionist policy is far worse than apartheid. Apartheid can be reversed. Ethnic cleansing is immeasurably harder to reverse; at least not in the short or medium term." [cite web | last = Machover | first = Moshé | authorlink = Moshé Machover| title = Is it Apartheid? an Analysis of Israel-South Africa Analogy | publisher = Jewish Voice for Peace | date = 15 December 2004 | url = http://www.jewishvoiceforpeace.org/publish/article_417.shtml#Article2 | accessdate = 2008-03-04 ]
The motivation(s) of Israeli policies
Critics of the claim that Israel is motivated by racism argue that, unlike apartheid, Israeli practices, even if they deserve to be criticized, are not prompted by racial hatred. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,913724-2,00.html Zionism Vote: Rage & Discord - TIME ] ]
"In any event, what is racism? Under apartheid it was skin colour. Applied to Israel that's a joke: for proof of that, just look at a crowd of Israeli Jews and their gradations in skin-colour from the "blackest" to the "whitest"... Occupation is brutalising and corrupting both Palestinians and Israelis... [b] ut it is not apartheid. Palestinians are not oppressed on racial grounds as Arabs, but, rather, as competitors — until now, at the losing end — in a national/religious conflict for land."
Michael Kinsley's article "It's Not Apartheid", published in "Slate" and the " Washington Post", states that Carter "makes no attempt to explain [the use of the word 'apartheid'] " and refers to Carter's usage of the term as "a foolish and unfair comparison, unworthy of the man who won -- and deserved -- the Nobel Peace Prize..."
"To start with, no one has yet thought to accuse Israel of creating a phony country in finally acquiescing to the creation of a Palestinian state. Palestine is noCiting what he calls "the most tragic difference," Kinsley concludes: "If Israel is white South Africa and the Palestinians are supposed to be the blacks, where is their Mandela?" [
Bantustan... Furthermore, Israel has always had Arab citizens.... No doubt many Israelis have racist attitudes toward Arabs, but the official philosophy of the government is quite the opposite, and sincere efforts are made to, for example, instill humanitarian and egalitarian attitudes in children. That is not true, of course, in Arab countries, where hatred of Jews is a standard part of the curriculum." Michael Kinsley, [http://www.slate.com/id/2155277/fr/rss/ "It's Not Apartheid"] , "Slate" December 11, 2006, accessed March 15, 2007.] [Michael Kinsley, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101225.html "It's Not Apartheid"] , " The Washington Post" December 12, 2006, accessed March 8, 2007.]
Criticism of the "Israeli apartheid" usage for its inherent implication of racism has been widespread. In 2003, South Africa's minister for home affairs Chief
Mangosuthu Buthelezisaid that "The Israeli regime is not apartheid. It is a unique case of democracy". [ [http://www.dailyalert.org/archive/2003-09/2003-09-23.html S. African Minister: Israel is Not Apartheid] by Yossi Melman (Haaretz) September 23, 2003] According to Fred Taub, the President of Boycott Watch, " [t] he assertion ... that Israel is practicing apartheid is not only false, but may be considered libelous. ... The fact is that it is the Arabs who are discriminating against non-Muslims, especially Jews." [ [http://www.boycottwatch.com/abi/divest002.htm Presbyterian Church Violates US Antiboycott Laws. General Assembly of Presbyterian Church, USA, votes For Illegal Action at Convention] August 1, 2004 (Boycott Watch)] Similarly, in 2004, Jean-Christophe Rufin, former vice-president of Médecins Sans Frontièresand president of Action Against Hunger, recommended in a report about anti-Semitism [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51552.htm "France: International Religious Freedom Report 2005"] , U.S. Department of State.] commissioned by French Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3759834.stm "French concern about race attacks"] , BBC News, October 2004.] that the charge of apartheid and racism against Israel be criminalized in France. He wrote:
" [T] here is no question of penalising political opinions that are critical, for example, of any government and are perfectly legitimate. What should be penalised in the perverse and defamatory use of the charge of
racismagainst those very people who were victims of racism to an unparalleled degree. The accusations of racism, of apartheid, of Nazismcarry extremely grave moral implications. These accusations have, in the situation in which we find ourselves today, major consequences which can, by contagion, put in danger the lives of our Jewish citizens. It is why we invite reflection on the advisability and applicability of a law ... which would permit the punishment of those who make without foundation against groups, institutions or states accusations of racism and utilise for these accusations unjustified comparisons with apartheid or Nazism."
The idea that "Israeli apartheid" implies a policy of racial or other discrimination against Arabs or Muslims has been rejected by other prominent figures. In 2004's "
The Trouble with Islam Today", Irshad Manjiargues that the allegation of apartheid in Israel is deeply misleading, noting that there are in Israel several Arab political parties; that Arab-Muslim legislators have veto powers; and that Arab parties have overturned disqualifications. She also points to Arabs like Emile Habibi, who have been awarded prestigious prizes. She also observes that Israel has a free Arab press; that road signs bear Arabic translations; and that Arabs live and study alongside Jews. She also claims that Palestinans commuting from the West Bank are entitled to state benefits and legal protections. [Manji, Irshad. "The Trouble with Islam Today: A Muslim's Call for Reform in Her Faith". St. Martin's Griffin, 2005, pp. 108-109. ISBN 0-312-32699-8]
Policies in Israel compared to the West Bank and Gaza
Benny Morristold CAMERA:
"Israel is not an apartheid state — rather the opposite, it is easily the most democratic and politically
egalitarianstate in the Middle East, in which Arabs Israelis enjoy far more freedom, better social services, etc. than in all the Arab states surrounding it. Indeed, Arab representatives in the Knesset, who continuously call for dismantling the Jewish state, support the Hezbollah, etc., enjoy more freedom than many Western democracies give their internal Oppositions. (The U.S. would prosecute and jail Congressmen calling for the overthrow of the U.S. Govt. or the demise of the U.S.) The best comparison would be the treatment of Japanese Americans by the US Govt ... and the British Govt. [incarceration] of German émigrés in Britain WWII ... Israel's Arabs by and large identify with Israel's enemies, the Palestinians. But Israel hasn't jailed or curtailed their freedoms en masse (since 1966 [when Israel lifted its state of martial law] ).
Morris later added: "Israel ... has not jailed tens of thousands of Arabs indiscriminately out of fear that they might support the Arab states warring with Israel; it did not do so in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973 or 1982 — despite the Israeli Arabs' support for the enemy Arab states."
"As to the occupied territories, Israeli policy is fueled by security considerations (whether one agrees with them or not, or with all the specific measures adopted at any given time) rather than racism (though, to be sure, there are Israelis who are motivated by racism in their attitude and actions towards Arabs) — and indeed the Arab population suffers as a result. But Gaza's and the West Bank's population (Arabs) are not Israeli citizens and cannot expect to benefit from the same rights as Israeli citizens so long as the occupation or semi-occupation (more accurately) continues, which itself is a function of the continued state of war between the Hamas-led Palestinians (and their Syrian and other Arab allies) and Israel."
President Carter has frequently reiterated the point that his "use of 'apartheid' does not apply to circumstances within Israel." Regarding the title of his book Carter has said:
"It's not Israel. The book has nothing to do with what's going on inside Israel which is a wonderful democracy, you know, where everyone has guaranteed equal rights and where, under the law, Arabs and Jews who are Israelis have the same privileges about Israel. That's been most of the controversy because people assume it's about Israel. It's not. [http://www.kcet.org/lifeandtimes/archives/200612/20061214.php Life & Times - Transcript - 12/14/06 ] ]
"I've never alleged that the framework of apartheid existed within Israel at all, and that what does exist in the West Bank is based on trying to take Palestinian land and not on racism. So it was a very clear distinction." [ [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0701/21/le.01.html CNN.com - Transcripts ] ]
In his review of Carter's book
Joseph Lelyveldnotes that South Africa's Apartheid policy was also about land as much as racism, and comments that the use of "apartheid" by Carter is "basically a slogan, not reasoned argument". [ [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19993 Jimmy Carter and Apartheid - The New York Review of Books ] ]
Petty apartheid does not exist in Israel
Benjamin Pogrund, author and member of the Israeli delegation to the United Nations World Conference against Racism, has argued that does not exist within Israel:cite web
title=Response to the Guardian's G2 supplement
publisher=Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre
accessdate = 2 November
accessyear=2006] Dead link|date=December 2007
"The difference between the current Israeli situation and apartheid South Africa is emphasized at a very human level: Jewish and Arab babies are born in the same delivery room, with the same facilities, attended by the same doctors and nurses, with the mothers recovering in adjoining beds in a ward. Two years ago I had major surgery in a Jerusalem hospital: the surgeon was Jewish, the anaesthetist was Arab, the doctors and nurses who looked after me were Jews and Arabs. Jews and Arabs share meals in restaurants and travel on the same trains, buses and taxis, and visit each other’s homes. Could any of this possibly have happened under apartheid? Of course not."Pogrund, Benjamin. [http://www.mideastweb.org/israel_apartheid.htm "Apartheid? Israel is a democracy in which Arabs vote"] , MidEastWeb. First published in "Focus 40" (December 2005). Accessed December 29, 2006.]
The Israeli government has established a committee to consider, among other issues, policies of
affirmative actionfor housing Arab citizens. [cite web
last = Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
title = Israel Government Action in the Arab Sector - February 2000
work = www.mfa.gov.il
date = 2000-02-23
url = http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2000/2/Israel%20Government%20Action%20in%20the%20Arab%20Sector%20-%20Febr
format = HTML
accessdate = 2008-06-13
quote = The Director Generals' Committee was assigned the responsibility of devising a program of action for the development and advancement of the Arab sector, and drawing up a cooperation framework involving the various government ministries. This program will include the raising of resources and promotion of investment, while applying an affirmative action policy in the areas of housing, employment, industry, transport, infrastructures, agriculture, and education in the non-Jewish sector.] The city of
Jerusalemgives Arab residents free professional advice to assist with the house permit process and structural regulations, advice which is not available to Jewish residents on the same terms. [ [http://www.standwithus.com/pdfs/flyers/Demolitions.pdf Jerusalem Houses] ] Verify credibility|date=August 2008
In an op-ed for the Jerusalem Post, Gerald Steinberg, Professor of Political Studies at
Bar Ilan University, argued that "Black labor was exploited in slavery-like conditions under apartheid; in contrast, Palestinians are dependent on Israeli employment due to their own internal corruption and economic failures."Steinberg, Gerald M. [http://www.ngo-monitor.org/archives/op-eds/082404-1.htm Abusing 'Apartheid' for the Palestinian Cause] , " Jerusalem Post", August 24, 2004.]
uggestion to criminalize the analogy in France
Jean-Christophe Rufin, in a report prepared for French Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin, mooted the idea of amending the Gayssot Law, which criminalizes Holocaust denial, to forbid allegations of Israeli apartheid "which might, by contagion, threaten the lives of our fellow Jews:" [Breton, Thierry. (19 October 2004.) [http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/BRP/044000500/0000.pdf Chantier sur la lutte contre le racisme et l'antisemitisme.] (French.) Translation after "shifting sands" is from Matas, David. "Aftershock: Anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism". Dundurn, 2005, pp. 54.]
Radical anti-Zionism locks the Jews in a terrible trap [...] It would be a great cowardice to leave the Jewish community to struggle alone on these shifting sands. [...] Certainly, there is no question of penalising political opinions that are critical, for example, of any government and are perfectly legitimate. What should be penalised is the perverse and defamatory use of the charge of racism against those very people who were victims of racism to an unparalleled degree. [...] We invite reflection on the advisability and applicability of a law [...] which would permit the punishment of those who make without foundation against groups, institutions, or states accusations of racism and utilise for these accusations unjustified comparisons with apartheid or Nazism.
Academic boycotts of Israel
Israeli West Bank barrier
South Africa under apartheid
Israeli Apartheid Week
Endorse the Analogy
* [http://www.caiaweb.org Coalition Against Israeli Apartheid]
* [http://www.apartheidweek.org Israeli Apartheid Week site]
* [http://www.exposingisraeliapartheid.com Exposing Israeli Apartheid site]
* [http://socialistworker.org/2008/05/22/israels-apartheid-60 Socialist Worker site on Israeli Apartheid]
* [http://www.stopthewall.org "Stop the Wall" anti-apartheid campaign site]
* [http://www.ceia-sc.org Campaign to End Israeli Apartheid]
* [http://www.palestinehistory.com/issues/wall/wall.htm Palestine History: The Apartheid Wall]
* [http://www.zionismexplained.org/apartheid/apartheid.html Zionism Explained]
Counter the Analogy
* [http://www.zionismontheweb.org/israeli_apartheid Zionism on the Web]
* [http://www.adl.org/Israel/apartheid/default.asp Anti-Defamation League: The Apartheid Lie]
* [http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=69 CAMERA: The Apartheid Canard]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths/mf18.html#i Myths & Facts: Human Rights in Israel and the Territories]
* [http://www.israelcc.org/resources/Israel_Apartheid_Resource_Guide.htm Israel Apartheid Resource Guide]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/comment/0,,2022244,00.html "No apartheid in the Middle East"] "
The Guardian" February 27, 2007
* Adam, Heribert and Kogila Moodley. "Seeking Mandela : peacemaking between Israelis and Palestinians. Politics, history, and social change." Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005. ISBN 1592133959; 1592133967.
*Bard, Mitchell. [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths/mf18.html#i "Myths & Facts Online. Human Rights in Israel and the Territories"] , "
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise".
*Barghouti, Omar. [http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article11762.htm "Israeli Apartheid - Time for the South African Treatment"] .
*Buruma, Ian. [http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/comment/story/0,9828,761784,00.html "Do not treat Israel like apartheid South Africa"] , "
The Guardian, July 23, 2002.
*Carey Ron et al. "The New Intifada: Resisting Israel's Apartheid". Verso, 2001. ISBN 1-85984-377-8
*Carter, Jimmy. "". Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-8502-6
* Collins, Frank. "Israel Prepares The Ground for An Apartheid Autonomy in The Territories" in "Washington Report on Middle East Affairs" October/November 1995, pg. 10 [http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/1095/9510010.htm web archive]
*Davis, Uri. "Apartheid Israel: Possibilities for the Struggle Within". Zed Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84277-339-9
*Dugard, John. PDFlink| [http://www.pchrgaza.ps/Library/Dugard.pdf Statement by MR. JOHN DUGARD, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel since 1967] |101 KB 59th Session of the General Assembly Third Committee, Item 105, 28 October 2004
*Farsakh, Leila: [http://mondediplo.com/2003/11/04apartheid "Israel an apartheid state?"] , "
Le Monde diplomatique", November 2003
*__________. "Independence, Cantons, or Bantustans: Whither the Palestinian State?" in "The Middle East Journal", 59:2, April 2005, pp. 230-245
*Falkson, Jock L. [http://www.masada2000.org/Apartheid-State.html "An Apartheid State? Or The Greatest Lie Ever Told?"]
*Herman, Edward "Israeli Apartheid And Terrorism" in Zmag, May 1994 [http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/may94herman.htm Zmag archive]
*Giraut F., 2004, “Apartheid et Israël/Palestine, enseignements et contresens d’une analogie”, Cybergéo (Revue Européenne en ligne de Géographie) Points Chauds, 20 p, [http://www.cybergeo.eu/docannexe/file/5454/apartheid.pdf web version]
*Giraut F., 2004, “Apartheid et Israël/Palestine, analogie et contresens”,Outre-Terre 9, pp. 145-154. [http://cairn.webnext.com/sommaire.php?ID_REVUE=OUTE&ID_NUMPUBLIE=OUTE_009 web version]
* Glaser, D. J. "Zionism and Apartheid: a moral comparison" in "Ethnic and Racial Studies", 26:3 2003
* Lewan, Kenneth M. "Ist Israel Südafrika?" Tossens: Dura-Verlag, 1993. ISBN 3926703024.
* Ornan, Uzi. (Hebrew article on Israel and apartheid laws) in "Ha'aretz" May 17, 1991
*Pogrund, Benjamin. [http://www.mideastweb.org/israel_apartheid.htm "Apartheid? Israel is a democracy in which Arabs vote"] , MidEastWeb.
* Shahak, Israel. "Israeli apartheid and the intifada" in "Race & Class", 30:1, 1-12 (1988)
*Siegel, Jennifer. [http://www.forward.com/articles/carter-book-slaps-israel-with-‘apartheid’-tag "Carter Book Slaps Israel With ‘Apartheid’ Tag, Provides Ammo to GOP"] , "
The Forward", October 17, 2006.
*Shimoni, Gideon. [http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=253&PID=0&IID=1806&TTL=Deconstructing_Apartheid_Accusations_Against_Israel "Deconstructing Apartheid Accusations Against Israel"] , "
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs", September 2, 2007.
*Tutu, Desmond & Urbina Ian. [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20020715/tutu Against Israeli apartheid] .
* Yiftachel, O. "From Fragile ‘Peace’ to Creeping Apartheid: Notes on the Recent Politics of Israel/Palestine" "Arena Journal" (New Series) 16(1), 13-25, 2001 [http://www.geog.bgu.ac.il/members/yiftachel/new_papers_eng/arena-print.htm]
* Yiftachel, O. “Between Apartheid and Peace: Can Israel Learn from International Experience?”, "Tikkun Magazine", Jan/Feb 2001, [http://www.tikkun.org]
*PDFlink| [http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/docs/ngos/ai_En.pdf Briefing to the committee on the elimination of racial discrimination] |345 KB, United Nations, January 2006.
* [http://counterpunch.com/aloni01082007.html "This Road is for Jews Only. Yes, There is Apartheid in Israel." By SHULAMIT ALONI]
* [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/812014.html "Labor MK Raleb Majadele to be appointed first Arab minister" By Yoav Stern, Haaretz]
* [http://eumc.europa.eu/eumc/material/pub/muslim/Manifestations_EN.pdf Muslims in Europe - Discrimination]
* [http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-schwartz120401.shtml An Old Story: Anti-Semitism, past and present by Jack Schwartz, NRO
* [http://www.apartheidweek.org/ Israeli Apartheid Week 2008]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BpjQEvmtNdk/ Is Israel an Apartheid State ?]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Human_Rights/Israel_&_apartheid.html Israel Is Not An Apartheid State]
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101225.html It's Not Apartheid]
* [http://www.insight-info.com/articles/item.aspx?i=807 Cheerleading genocide]
* [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/this-is-like-apartheid-anc-veterans-visit-west-bank-865063.html 'This is like apartheid': ANC veterans visit West Bank]
* [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1170359860111&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull The "Israel Apartheid Week" libel] ("
Jerusalem Post" editoral)
* [http://www.mg.co.za/article/2005-06-28-zionism-is-not-a-settlercolonial-undertaking David Hoffman, "Zionism is not a 'settler-colonial undertaking']
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