The terms empathogen and entactogen are used to describe a class of psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to those of MDMA. Putative members of this class include 2C-B, 2C-I, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MBDB, 2C-T-7, and 2C-T-2, among others. The chemical structure of many entactogens contains a substituted amphetamine core, and most belong to the phenethylamine class of psychoactive drugs, although several (AET and AMT) are tryptamines. When referring to MDMA and its counterparts, the term 'MDxx' is often used with the exception of MDPV. Entactogens are sometimes incorrectly referred to as major hallucinogens or stimulants, which is often thought to be incorrect although their effects are often somewhat similar.



The term "empathogen" was coined in 1983 by Ralph Metzner to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of empathy. "Entactogen" was coined by David E. Nichols as an alternative to "empathogen", attempting to avoid the potential for improper association of the latter with negative connotations related to the Greek root "pathos" (suffering); Nichols also thought the word was limiting, and did not cover other therapeutic uses for the drugs that go beyond instilling feelings of empathy. The word "entactogen" is derived from the roots "en" (Greek: within), "tactus" (Latin: touch) and "gen" (Greek: produce) (Nichols 1986: 308). Neither term is dominant in usage, and, despite their difference in connotation, they are essentially interchangeable, as they refer to precisely the same chemicals.

Psychological Effects

These drugs appear to produce a different spectrum of psychological effects from major stimulants such as methamphetamine and amphetamine or from major psychedelic drugs such as LSD or psilocybin. As implied by the category names, users of entactogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. However, there have been only very preliminary comparisons of these different drugs in humans in properly-controlled laboratory studies.


If MDMA is taken as a representative entactogen, the pharmacological mechanisms of this class—increased extracellular dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine—closely resemble those of methamphetamine. In a study of rodents, MDMA was recently shown to induce release of oxytocin, a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in social bonding. [1] [2] This may contribute to the emotional effects of MDMA. However, many other serotonergic drugs also increase oxytocin without producing the unusual effects of MDMA[citation needed]. Entactogens other than MDMA have received relatively little scientific attention, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the mechanisms of entactogens in general.


The chemicals below have a varying degree of entactogenic effects. Some of the chemicals have a minimal entactogenic effect while others may have a strong entactogenic effect. These substance possess other effects including serenic effects, stimulant effects, antidepressant effects, anxiolytic effects, and psychedelic effects.


  1. ^ Young, Emma (April 2007). "Ecstasy really does unleash the love hormone". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11530-ecstasy-really-does-unleash-the-love-hormone.html. 
  2. ^ Thomsopson MR, "et al." (May 2007). "A role for oxytocin and 5-HT1A receptors in the prosocial effects of 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”)". Neuroscience 146 (2): 509–14. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.02.032. PMID 17383105. 
  • Nichols, D.E., Hoffman, A.J., Oberlender, R.A., Jacob P 3rd & Shulgin A.T. Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine: representatives of a novel therapeutic class 1986 J Med Chem 29 2009-15
  • Nichols, D.E. Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens 1986 J Psychoactive Drugs 18 305-13

External links

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См. также в других словарях:

  • Entactogen — Als Entaktogen (Adj. entaktogen, „das Innere berührend“, aus gr. en, „innen“, lat. tactus „berührt“) werden psychoaktive Substanzen bezeichnet, unter deren Einfluss die eigenen Emotionen intensiver wahrgenommen werden. Der Terminus wurde von dem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • entactogen — noun An empathogen …   Wiktionary

  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine — Systematic (IUPAC) name (R) 1 (benzo[1,3]dioxol …   Wikipedia

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  • List of psychology topics — This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. It is also to see the gaps in Wikipedia s coverage of the… …   Wikipedia

  • 2C-I — Chembox new ImageFile1 = 2C I.svg ImageSize1 = 180px ImageFileL2 = 2C I 3d sticks.png ImageSizeL2 = 100px ImageFileR2 = 2C I animation.gif ImageSizeR2 = 120px IUPACName = 2,5 Dimethoxy 4 iodophenethylamine OtherNames = Section1 = Chembox… …   Wikipedia

  • Phenethylamine — Chembox new Name = Phenethylamine Reference = Merck Index , 12th Edition, 7371.] ImageFile = Fenyloetyloamina.svg ImageName = Chemical structure of Phenethylamine IUPACName = 2 Phenylethylamine OtherNames = Phenethylamine β Phenylethylamine 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Erowid — The information on the site is a compilation of the experiences submitted by the site s users. Erowid acts as a publisher of new information as well as a library for the collection of documents and images published elsewhere. Organizational… …   Wikipedia

  • MDEA — chembox new ImageFile = MDEA.png ImageFileSize = ImageFile1 = ImageFileSize1 = ImageFile2 = ImageFileSize2 = ImageFile3 = ImageFileSize3 = IUPACName = 3,4 methylenedioxy N ethylamphetamine OtherNames = Formula = C12H17NO2 Section1 = Chembox… …   Wikipedia

  • MDE — may refer to:* MDE, Mexican Dance Ensemble, dance company in Chicago * MDEA, 3,4 methylenedioxy N ethylamphetamine, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and empathogen entactogen * In Microsoft Access, .mde, the file extension for protected… …   Wikipedia

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