Integral imaging


Integral imaging

Integral imaging is a true auto-stereo method (stereo imagery viewable without the requirement of special glasses). An integral image consists of a tremendous number of closely-packed, distinct micro-images, that are viewed by an observer through an array of spherical convex lenses, one lens for every micro-image. The term “Integral” comes from the integration of all the micro images into a complete three dimensional image through the lens array. This special type of lens array is known as a fly's-eye or integral lens array; see Fig. 1.

or barrier strip methods. In addition to three dimensional effects, elaborate animation effects can also be achieved in integral images, or even a combination of these effects.

Sampling effect

(picture element), in the picture, with the visual state of each dot being a function of the viewing angle.

Integral photography

The first integral imaging method was “Integral Photography”. In this method the lens array is used to both record and play back a composite three-dimensional image. When an integral lens array sheet is brought into contact with a photographic emulsion at its focal plane, and an exposure is made of an illuminated object that is placed close to the lens side of the sheet, each individual lens (or pin-hole) will record its own unique micro-image of the object. The content of each micro-image changes slightly based on the position, or vantage point, of the lenslet on the array. In other words, the integral method produces a huge number of tiny, juxtaposed pictures behind the lens array onto the film. After development, the film is realigned with the lens sheet and a composite, spatial reconstruction of the object is re-created in front of the lens array, that can be viewed from arbitrary directions within a limited viewing angle.

Integral digital printing

Like lenticular, integral images can be created by digitally interlacing a set of pre-determined two-dimensional views to create three-dimensional and/or animation effects. Unlike lenticular, the imagery is viewable in all directions, within a limited viewing angle. Interlaced files can be printed using a variety of devices including ink-jet printers, film recorders, half-tone proofers, digital presses and press plates for lithographic reproduction. Unique, integral-specific, half-toning methods have been proposed by Dr. Daniel Lau and Trebor Smith; [http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=89306 see Optics Express paper]

Integral digital printing holds great promise. While the mass-production of integral lens arrays remains limited, they will inevitably become widely accessible in the near future as the relevant replication technologies continue to evolve. Once available, these lenses, when coupled with readily-available digital interlacing and effects generation software, will enable lithographic integral imagery to develop as an important advertising medium.

History of integral imaging

On March 3rd, 1908, physicist Professor Gabriel M. Lippmann (1845-1921) proposed the use of a series of lenses placed at the picture surface to form true three dimensional pictures. He announced this to the French Academy of Sciences under the title “La Photographie Integrale”.

The first in depth study of lithographic printing of integral imagery was described in 1936 by Carl Percy and Ernest Draper of the Perser Corporation. The first integral animation effect printing was proposed in 1958 by Juan Luis Ossoinak of Argentina. A number of researchers continued to advance the process of Integral Photography over the last 40 years including, most prominently; Roger de Montebello, Lesley Dudley and Robert Collier of the US, Neil Davis and Malcolm McCormick of the UK and Yu. A. Dudnikov and B. K.Rozhkov of the former Soviet Union.

Creating 3-D integral imagery, by digitally interlacing a set of computer generated two-dimensional views, was first demonstrated in 1978 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan. They and others also developed experimental integral television methods. Digitally interlacing integral imagery for high-resolution color pictures was first proposed in 1989 by Ivars Villums. Many thousands of experimental images have been produced throughout the last century, by a wide variety of methods, exhibiting 3-D, animation and other impressive effects. Research and commercialization of integral methods remains very active today including a wide body of work in integral television and other electronic displays. Integral imaging has not yet achieved significant commercial success, in part because diamond tooling molds for large plastic arrays is difficult, and in most cases prohibitively expensive. Inexpensive lens array sheets have been produced using extrusion embossing (in the same manner as lenticular sheets are made), using anilox patterned rolls, but the resulting lens array pattern, while adequate for moiré effects, is not suitable for integral imagery due to its lack of predictable geometry.

External links

* [http://www.integralresource.org/Integral_History.pdf Integral History] Comprehensive integral imaging history in PDF form.
* [http://people.csail.mit.edu/fredo/PUBLI/Lippmann.pdf Translation] of Lippmann's 1908 article


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Integral (disambiguation) — Integral may refer to: *constituting, belonging to or making up a whole, necessary for completeness;in mathematics * Of or related to an integer * integral (calculus), the generalization of area, mass, etc. * Integral (measure theory), or… …   Wikipedia

  • Imaging spectrometer — An imaging spectrometer is an instrument used in the field of imaging spectroscopy to acquire a spectrally resolved image of an object or scene, often referred to as a datacube due to the three dimensional representation of the data. Namely, two… …   Wikipedia

  • INTEGRAL — Infobox Space telescope name = International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) caption = Artist s illustration of INTEGRAL in orbit (credit: ESA) organization = ESA / NASA / RKA alt names = nssdc id = location = orbit type = height = 9 …   Wikipedia

  • Steady-state free precession imaging — Steady state free precession (SSFP) imaging is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which uses steady states of magnetizations. In general, SSFP MRI sequences are based on a (low flip angle) gradient echo MRI sequence with a short… …   Wikipedia

  • Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph — Caractéristiques Organisation NASA Domaine Télescope Ultraviolet Statut en cours de développement Masse 167 kg Lancement fin 2012 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Product integral — Product integrals are a counterpart of standard integrals of infinitesimal calculus. They were first developed by the mathematician Vito Volterra in 1887 to solve systems of linear differential equations. Since then, product integrals have found… …   Wikipedia

  • Line Integral Convolution — Die Line Integral Convolution (Abkürzung: LIC, zu deutsch: Linienintegralfaltung) ist eine Methode zur wissenschaftlichen Visualisierung von Vektorfeldern (z. B. Strömungsfeldern). Sie stellt ein globales Verfahren zur Verfügung, um alle… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Veritas. VERITAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Autostereoscopy — The Nintendo 3DS uses parallax barrier autostereoscopy to display a 3D image. Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic images (adding binocular perception of 3D depth) without the use of special headgear or glasses on the part of… …   Wikipedia

  • Holography — (from the Greek, ὅλος hólos whole + γραφή grafē writing, drawing) is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in the same position relative to the… …   Wikipedia