Fort Langley National Historic Site


Fort Langley National Historic Site

Fort Langley, is a Parks Canada National historic site, a former trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, now located in the village of Fort Langley, British Columbia. It is commonly referred to as "the birthplace of British Columbia."

History

A new fort

After John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company sold its assets in the Oregon Country to the North West Company following the War of 1812, Astor's Fort Astoria was renamed Fort George and became the main depot for Pacific interior trade. Pelts collected in the northern New Caledonia district travelled south along the Fraser River to Fort Alexandria, then overland via a route known as tge Brigade Trail to Fort Okanagan then along the Columbia River to Fort George on the coast.

The Oregon Country/Columbia District was shared between the British and Americans in the Treaty of 1818, but the treaty was to expire in 1828 and since Fort George stood on the south side of the Columbia River, it would likely be awarded to the United States in any boundary agreement. After the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the HBC administrator George Simpson suggested the creation of Fort Vancouver on the northern bank of the Columbia, but that it serve as secondary post to a larger trade hub further north near the mouth of the Fraser River.Cullen, Mary K. The History of Fort Langley, 1927-96. Canadian Historical Site: Occasional Papers in Archeology & History, 1972.] Simpson felt such a location help secure the coast from ocean-based American competition, and believed the Fraser to be more navigable than the Columbia River. He sent Chief Trader James McMillan to explore the region, and McMillan proposed an area near the Salmon River suitable to agriculture, and where fish were plentiful.

Erecting the fort

James McMillan returned to the Fraser with 24 men in 1827 to begin the construction of Fort Langley (named for Thomas Langley, a prominent HBC director [http://www.fortlangley.ca/langley/1bfort.html First Fort Langley National in The Langley Story Illustrated] ] ) 50 kilometres (30 miles) from the mouth of the Fraser River, across from a small island named for McMillan. But when they arrived at the end of July, five of the men were incapacitated with gonorrhea, another with "venereal disease", and all the horses were either dead, crippled, or exhausted. Despite these setbacks and the heavy brambles at the site, the remaining 19 men began to clear the land in preparation for the fort. The first bastion was built by mid-August, a second at the end of the month, and the palisade walls were completed in early September. Some of the Hudson's Bay men were nervous about the indigenous people of the Fraser, and the bastions were completed first "to command respect in the eyes of the Indians, who begin, shrewedly, to conjecture for what purpose the Ports and loopholes are intended."Harris, Cole. The Resettlement of British Columbia. 1997] A number of buildings were built through autumn, and Fort Langley was officially completed on November 26.

Early use

During the first few years, trade in furs with the indigenous people along the Stóːlō (Fraser River) was surprisingly poor from the HBC point of view. Firstly, traders from Boston controlled most of the pacific fur trade, travelling along the coast by boat. Such strong competition kept the price of pelts very high, much higher than Hudson's Bay was paying elsewhere. McMillan was advised by his superiors to intentionally undersell Americans in order to force them out of the region and assure a monopoly for the HBC. Second, indigenous people living along the river were not particularly interested in hunting, since they lived primarily from seafood. As they had little contact with Europeans, they were quite self-sufficient and not in serious need of European goods. In the first year, guns were in high demand by the Stóːlō to fend off attacks from the Laich-kwil-tach, but when this threat died down, firearms became mainly symbolic yet infrequent items of trade.

Also a disappointment to the HBC, was Simpson's discovery that the Fraser was not as navigable as he had imagined. Along with Archibald McDonald (who would later replace McMillan at Fort Langley), Simpson travelled from York Factory to Fort St. James, the centre of trade for New Caledonia before assembling a group of men (including James Murray Yale, who would later replace McMillan) to descend the Fraser towards Fort Langley. Their party found that travel down the Fraser was relatively easy until it forked with the Thompson River, after which the powerful rapids and sheer cliffs convinced Simpson the passage would be "certain Death, in nine attempts out of Ten." At least some part of the journey from the north would have to be made overland to bypass the Fraser Canyon and Hell's Gate.

As part of its plan to rid itself of American competition, the HBC sought corner the market in Alaska by securing a monopoly on trade with the Russian American Company in 1839. The location of the fort was moved four kilometres upstream and changed its focus to farming, rather than the fur trade.

Birthplace of British Columbia

Due to its strategic location on the northern boundary of the Oregon Territory of the U.S. and in the path of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Fort Langley grew dramatically. It played a key role in the establishment of the 49th parallel as the international boundary with the U.S. and was the staging point for prospectors heading up the Fraser Canyon in search of their fortune.

The social and political consequences of this influx of adventurers led the British Parliament to establish a crown colony on the Pacific Mainland. Fort Langley was the location of the proclamation of the Crown Colony of British Columbia in 1858 by James Douglas, the colony's first governor.

Decline

The decline of the fort over the next 30 years was attributed to three factors. First, the advent of paddle wheelers on the Fraser meant that river traffic was extended to Fort Hope and Fort Yale. Second, the capital of the colony was established at New Westminster and later moved to Victoria. Finally, competition for goods and services undercut the monopoly the Hudson's Bay Company had formerly enjoyed. In 1886, Fort Langley ceased to be a company post.

Historical revival

In 1923, the Canadian government named Fort Langley as a site of national historic importance and erected a commemorative plaque near the storehouse. At this time, the site consisted only of the one building and one acre of land. From 1931 to 1956, the Native Sons and Daughters of British Columbia operated a museum out of the storehouse. The site was established as a Parks Canada National historic site in 1955, and a joint Federal-Provincial program reconstructed three buildings in time for the centennial of the founding of British Columbia in 1958. In 1978, the site became a national historic park, and has consisted of 8.5 hectares (21 acres) since 1985.

Buildings

The site has a number of historic buildings, both original and reconstructed, for guests to visit.

ervants' quarters

The servants were reconstructed in 1958 for the Centennial of the Colony of British Columbia, and portrays the living conditions of three different HBC employees.

Big House

The Big House was also reconstructed for the 1958 Centennial, and is quite consistent with the original in terms of appearance and location within the Fort. It houses the living quarters of James Murray Yale and his wife; and William Henry Newton and his wife, Emmaline (Tod) Newton

Depot

The Depot was reconstructed in 1997 and is mainly used as an exhibition area and administration building. The original building would have been used as a supply depot for shipments in and out of the Fort.

Exhibits building

The exhibits building, built in 2001, houses a display on the international trade done by the Hudson's Bay Company. The original building would have been a storehouse.

torehouse

The storehouse is the oldest building at Fort Langley, and possibly the oldest in British Columbia. It was rebuilt in the 1840s after a fire which destroyed a similar building in 1839, and was the only building which survived the demise of the Fort as an active trading post. The Mavis family, who later purchased the land, used it as a barn for a number of years, until Fort Langley was recognized as a site of historic significance in 1923.

Blacksmith

The blacksmith shop was first built in 1973, and then rebuilt in 1975. It features a working forge and live demonstrations of blacksmithing.

Cooperage

The cooperage was built in 1992, slightly south of the original, and features all the required tools for barrel making and other woodworking.

Bastions

The north east bastion was rebuilt in 1958, while the nort west bastion has only been added more recently. There was originally a third bastion along the west palisade wall.

ee also

*List of national historic sites of Canada
*Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

References

External links

* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/bc/langley/index_e.asp Fort Langley National Historic Site]
* [http://www.langleymuseum.org Langley Centennial Museum]
* [http://www.fortlangley.ca/ "The Children of Fort Langley"]
* [http://users.uniserve.com/%7Egborden/fl-hist.htm A Brief History of Fort Langley]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fort Langley National Historic Site — Lagerhaus der Fort Langley National Historic Site Rekonstruierte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fort Vancouver National Historic Site — IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) Illustration of Fort Vancouver and …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Langley — ist ein Dorf mit rund 2700 Einwohnern im Distrikt Langley, British Columbia, Kanada. Der Ort liegt am Fraser River, etwa 40 km östlich von Vancouver und ist aus dem 1839 angelegten historischen Handelsposten Fort Langley National Historic… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fort Langley, British Columbia — For|the historic fort|Fort Langley National Historic SiteFort Langley is a village with a population of 2,700 and forms part of the Township of Langley. It is the home of Fort Langley National Historic Site, a former fur trade post of the Hudson… …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der National Historic Sites of Canada (British Columbia) — Diese Liste führt alle Bauwerke, Objekte und Stätten der kanadischen Provinz British Columbia auf, die zur National Historic Site erklärt wurden. Nur ein Teil wird von Parks Canada verwaltet, in ganz Kanada 158 Stätten, in British Columbia 13.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Santa Fe National Historic Trail — Karte des Santa Fe Trails um 1845 Lage: Missouri, Kansas, Colorado …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland — This is a List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland. There are currently 71 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in Maryland. Also included are short lists of former NHLs and of other historic sites of national importance administered by the… …   Wikipedia

  • Langley — heißen die Orte im Vereinigten Königreich: Langley (Cheshire) Langley (Essex) Langley (Hampshire) Abbots Langley (Hertfordshire) Kings Langley (Hertfordshire) Langley (Kent) Langley (Northumberland) Langley (Slough) in Berkshire (auch Langley… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Langley (British Columbia) — Langley Lage in British Columbia …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Langley, British Columbia (district municipality) — Infobox Settlement official name = Langley Township other name = native name = nickname = settlement type = District motto = imagesize = image caption = flag size = image seal size = image shield = Langleytownship coatofarms.gif shield size =… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.