- Fort Langley National Historic Site
Fort Langley, is a
Parks Canada National historic site, a former trading postof the Hudson's Bay Company, now located in the village of Fort Langley, British Columbia. It is commonly referred to as "the birthplace of British Columbia."
A new fort
John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Companysold its assets in the Oregon Countryto the North West Companyfollowing the War of 1812, Astor's Fort Astoriawas renamed Fort George and became the main depot for Pacific interior trade. Pelts collected in the northern New Caledonia district travelled south along the Fraser Riverto Fort Alexandria, then overland via a route known as tge Brigade Trailto Fort Okanaganthen along the Columbia Riverto Fort George on the coast.
The Oregon Country/
Columbia Districtwas shared between the British and Americans in the Treaty of 1818, but the treaty was to expire in 1828 and since Fort George stood on the south side of the Columbia River, it would likely be awarded to the United States in any boundary agreement. After the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Companyin 1821, the HBC administrator George Simpson suggested the creation of Fort Vancouveron the northern bank of the Columbia, but that it serve as secondary post to a larger trade hub further north near the mouth of the Fraser River.Cullen, Mary K. The History of Fort Langley, 1927-96. Canadian Historical Site: Occasional Papers in Archeology & History, 1972.] Simpson felt such a location help secure the coast from ocean-based American competition, and believed the Fraser to be more navigable than the Columbia River. He sent Chief Trader James McMillan to explore the region, and McMillan proposed an area near the Salmon River suitable to agriculture, and where fish were plentiful.
Erecting the fort
James McMillan returned to the Fraser with 24 men in 1827 to begin the construction of Fort Langley (named for Thomas Langley, a prominent HBC director [http://www.fortlangley.ca/langley/1bfort.html First Fort Langley National in The Langley Story Illustrated] ] ) 50 kilometres (30 miles) from the mouth of the
Fraser River, across from a small island named for McMillan. But when they arrived at the end of July, five of the men were incapacitated with gonorrhea, another with " venereal disease", and all the horses were either dead, crippled, or exhausted. Despite these setbacks and the heavy brambles at the site, the remaining 19 men began to clear the land in preparation for the fort. The first bastionwas built by mid-August, a second at the end of the month, and the palisadewalls were completed in early September. Some of the Hudson's Bay men were nervous about the indigenous people of the Fraser, and the bastions were completed first "to command respect in the eyes of the Indians, who begin, shrewedly, to conjecture for what purpose the Ports and loopholes are intended."Harris, Cole. The Resettlement of British Columbia. 1997] A number of buildings were built through autumn, and Fort Langley was officially completed on November 26.
During the first few years, trade in furs with the indigenous people along the Stóːlō (Fraser River) was surprisingly poor from the HBC point of view. Firstly, traders from Boston controlled most of the pacific fur trade, travelling along the coast by boat. Such strong competition kept the price of pelts very high, much higher than Hudson's Bay was paying elsewhere. McMillan was advised by his superiors to intentionally undersell Americans in order to force them out of the region and assure a monopoly for the HBC. Second, indigenous people living along the river were not particularly interested in hunting, since they lived primarily from seafood. As they had little contact with Europeans, they were quite self-sufficient and not in serious need of European goods. In the first year, guns were in high demand by the Stóːlō to fend off attacks from the
Laich-kwil-tach, but when this threat died down, firearms became mainly symbolic yet infrequent items of trade.
Also a disappointment to the HBC, was Simpson's discovery that the Fraser was not as navigable as he had imagined. Along with
Archibald McDonald(who would later replace McMillan at Fort Langley), Simpson travelled from York Factory to Fort St. James, the centre of trade for New Caledonia before assembling a group of men (including James Murray Yale, who would later replace McMillan) to descend the Fraser towards Fort Langley. Their party found that travel down the Fraser was relatively easy until it forked with the Thompson River, after which the powerful rapids and sheer cliffs convinced Simpson the passage would be "certain Death, in nine attempts out of Ten." At least some part of the journey from the north would have to be made overland to bypass the Fraser Canyonand Hell's Gate.
As part of its plan to rid itself of American competition, the HBC sought corner the market in
Alaskaby securing a monopoly on trade with the Russian American Companyin 1839. The location of the fort was moved four kilometres upstream and changed its focus to farming, rather than the fur trade.
Birthplace of British Columbia
Due to its strategic location on the northern boundary of the
Oregon Territoryof the U.S.and in the path of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Fort Langley grew dramatically. It played a key role in the establishment of the 49th parallelas the international boundary with the U.S. and was the staging point for prospectors heading up the Fraser Canyonin search of their fortune.
The social and political consequences of this influx of adventurers led the British Parliament to establish a crown colony on the Pacific Mainland. Fort Langley was the location of the proclamation of the Crown
Colony of British Columbiain 1858 by James Douglas, the colony's first governor.
The decline of the fort over the next 30 years was attributed to three factors. First, the advent of paddle wheelers on the Fraser meant that river traffic was extended to Fort Hope and Fort Yale. Second, the capital of the colony was established at New Westminster and later moved to Victoria. Finally, competition for goods and services undercut the monopoly the Hudson's Bay Company had formerly enjoyed. In 1886, Fort Langley ceased to be a company post.
In 1923, the Canadian government named Fort Langley as a site of national historic importance and erected a commemorative plaque near the storehouse. At this time, the site consisted only of the one building and one acre of land. From 1931 to 1956, the Native Sons and Daughters of British Columbia operated a museum out of the storehouse. The site was established as a Parks Canada National historic site in 1955, and a joint Federal-Provincial program reconstructed three buildings in time for the centennial of the founding of British Columbia in 1958. In 1978, the site became a national historic park, and has consisted of 8.5 hectares (21 acres) since 1985.
The site has a number of historic buildings, both original and reconstructed, for guests to visit.
The servants were reconstructed in 1958 for the Centennial of the
Colony of British Columbia, and portrays the living conditions of three different HBC employees.
The Big House was also reconstructed for the 1958 Centennial, and is quite consistent with the original in terms of appearance and location within the Fort. It houses the living quarters of
James Murray Yaleand his wife; and William Henry Newtonand his wife, Emmaline (Tod) Newton
The Depot was reconstructed in 1997 and is mainly used as an exhibition area and administration building. The original building would have been used as a supply depot for shipments in and out of the Fort.
The exhibits building, built in 2001, houses a display on the international trade done by the
Hudson's Bay Company. The original building would have been a storehouse.
The storehouse is the oldest building at Fort Langley, and possibly the oldest in British Columbia. It was rebuilt in the 1840s after a fire which destroyed a similar building in 1839, and was the only building which survived the demise of the Fort as an active trading post. The Mavis family, who later purchased the land, used it as a barn for a number of years, until Fort Langley was recognized as a site of historic significance in 1923.
blacksmithshop was first built in 1973, and then rebuilt in 1975. It features a working forge and live demonstrations of blacksmithing.
cooperagewas built in 1992, slightly south of the original, and features all the required tools for barrel making and other woodworking.
The north east
bastionwas rebuilt in 1958, while the nort west bastion has only been added more recently. There was originally a third bastion along the west palisadewall.
List of national historic sites of Canada
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/bc/langley/index_e.asp Fort Langley National Historic Site]
* [http://www.langleymuseum.org Langley Centennial Museum]
* [http://www.fortlangley.ca/ "The Children of Fort Langley"]
* [http://users.uniserve.com/%7Egborden/fl-hist.htm A Brief History of Fort Langley]
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