Type 45 destroyer


Type 45 destroyer

The United Kingdom's Type 45 destroyer (also known as the D or "Daring" class) is a state-of-the-art air defence destroyer programme of the Royal Navy. The first ship in the class, HMS "Daring", was launched on February 1 2006 and is expected to commission in 2009. The ships are now built by BVT Surface Fleet, the shipbuilding joint venture owned by BAE Systems and VT Group. The first three ships were assembled by BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions from partially prefabricated "blocks" built by BAE itself and VT Shipbuilding.

The UK originally sought to procure air defence ships as part of the 8 nation NFR-90 project and later the Horizon Common New Generation Frigate programme with France and Italy. The Type 45s take advantage of some Horizon development work and utilise the SAMPSON radar variant of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System - PAAMS(S).

After "Daring"'s launch on 1 February 2006, former First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Alan West stated that it would be the Royal Navy's most capable destroyer ever, as well as the world's best air defence ship. [cite news|first=Alexander |last=Nicoll|url=http://www.gnn.gov.uk/content/detail.asp?NewsAreaID=2&ReleaseID=186251|title= Countess of Wessex Launches Royal Navy's New Warship|work=Government News Network |date=2006-02-01 |accessdate=2007-08-17] The "Daring" class represents the largest escort type ever built for the Royal Navy. [In terms of displacement; the County class destroyers were some 6 metres longer.]

Background

The UK had sought to procure the ships in collaboration with 7 other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project which later collapsed. The UK then joined France and Italy in the Horizon CNGF programme; however, differing national requirements, workshare arguments and delays led to the UK withdrawing on 26 April 1999 and starting its own national project. [cite news|first=Alexander |last=Nicoll|title= National differences scupper frigate project|work= Financial Times |date=1999-04-27 |accessdate=2007-07-30]

On 23 November 1999 Marconi Electronic Systems was confirmed as prime contractor for the Type 45 project. [cite news| first = Keith| last = Sinclair| title = Jobs boost for shipyard; Yarrow confirmed as main contractor for MoD's Type 45 destroyer programme| work = The Herald| publisher = Scottish Media Newspapers| page = 13| date = 1999-11-24| accessdate = 2007-07-26] Seven days later MES and British Aerospace merged to form BAE Systems, making the latter the prime contractor.

Six ships have been ordered, and transfer of custody of the first is due to happen in December 2008.cite web|url=http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.13794|title=A Daring Success|date=2008-09-25|publisher=Royal Navy] The original planned purchase of twelve was reduced in the Ministry of Defence's "" review, published in July 2004. The Type 45 design uses the Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS), a joint British, French and Italian design. PAAMS consists of a SAMPSON fire control and tracking radar, MBDA Aster 15 and 30 missile systems and a 48-cell SYLVER vertical missile launcher, giving both short-range and long-range anti-air capability. The PAAMS system is able to control and coordinate several missiles in the air at once, allowing several tracks to be intercepted, and the SYLVER missile launcher can be upgraded to add more modern weapons if necessary.It has been suggested that the SAMPSON radar is capable of tracking an object the size of a cricket ball travelling at 3 times the speed of sound. [cite news | author=Harding, Thomas | title=New warship is 'quantum leap forward' for the Navy | url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/02/02/navy02.xml&sSheet=/news/2006/02/02/ixhome.html | publisher=Daily Telegraph | date=2006-02-03 | accessdate=2007-03-10]

The Type 45 destroyers will replace the Type 42 currently in service with the Royal Navy. The Type 45 may also be fitted with cruise missiles if the need arises in the future; the French Navy is in the process of adapting the Storm Shadow cruise missile (already operated by the RAF) for firing from Sylver A70 launchers — but not the A50 as fitted to the Type 45. [http://www.dcn.fr/us/offre/equipements/sylver.html DCNS - Businesses - Systems & Equipment - Sylver] retrieved 2007-09-08]

Design

The Type 45 destroyers will be 152.4 m in length, with a beam of 21.2 m and a draught of 7.4 m. This makes them significantly larger than the Type 42 they replace, displacing about 7350 tonnes compared to 5200 tonnes of the Type 42. The Type 45 destroyers are the first British warships built to meet the hull requirements of Lloyd's Register's Naval Rules. BAE Systems is the Design Authority for the Type 45, a role traditionally held by the UK Ministry of Defence. [ P J Gates, Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 2005, p35.]

The Type 23 frigates were the first British warships to incorporate signature reduction technology, with the large 70° angle of the bow, the elimination of right angles and reduced equipment on deck. The propulsion system was also chosen to minimise noise, with electric generators providing minimal acoustic signature for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missions and the infrared signature is reduced by cooling devices on the funnels. The design of the Type 45 builds upon the design of the Type 23.fact|date=July 2008 It brings new levels of radar signature reduction to the Royal Navy, with the reduced deck equipment producing a very "clean" superstructure similar to the "La Fayette" class of frigates. Life rafts and docking equipment are concealed behind superstructure panels and the mast is very sparingly equipped externally.

Construction

The ships are built by BVT Surface Fleet which was created by the merger of the surface shipbuilding arms of BAE Systems and VT Group. These two companies previously built the ships in collaboration. BVT's two Glasgow shipyards and single Portsmouth shipyard are responsible for different "blocks". The largest and most complex blocks containing the operations and machinery spaces are being constructed at BVT's shipyards on the Clyde.

BVT's Govan yard is responsible for Block A (stern to edge of helicopter hangar). The Scotstoun yard builds Blocks B/C (a 2600 tonne section which contains the WR-21 gas turbines, starts with the helicopter hangar to the bridge section) and Block D (bridge section). BVT's Portsmouth shipyard is responsible for Blocks E/F (bridge to the bow) and the funnels and masts.

For the first-of-class, Block A was assembled at Govan and moved to Scotstoun where it was mated to the Block B/C, which was already fitted with the WR-21 turbines and machinery. Block D, also assembled at Scotstoun, was fitted to these three blocks. The bow sections (E/F) were mated at VT's facility at Portsmouth and taken by barge to Scotstoun. This was the final block to be attached. At this point the hull was launched into the Clyde and towed to the Scotstoun Dry Dock where the masts and funnels were fitted (the masts are partially outfitted with equipment, for example the mast for the S1850M radar is sent from Portsmouth to Thales Nederland to be fitted with radar equipment). Once this is complete the remaining equipment was fitted; radar arrays, bow-mounted sonar, propellers, missile equipment and 4.5 inch naval gun.

This construction arrangement was agreed in February 2002. However, when the original contract for three ships was signed in July 2000, BAE was to build the first and third ships, and VT (then Vosper Thornycroft) was to build the second. HMS "Daring" was successfully launched on 1 February 2006, ready for fitting out. The event attracted considerable local attention and media coverage due to the relative rarity of a launch into the Clyde in the 21st century.

For Ships 2-6, blocks A-D are assembled in the Ships Block and Outfit Hall of the Govan shipyard and taken fully outfitted to the Scotstoun berth. The masts and funnels are also fitted before launch.

Systems

Electronics & armament

* Anti-airborne
** PAAMS(S) (Principal Anti Air Missile System (SAMPSON))
*** SAMPSON multi-function air tracking radar
*** S1850M 3D air surveillance radar
*** 48 x MBDA Aster missiles (mix of Aster 15 and Aster 30) in six 8-cell SYLVER A50 (Systeme de Lancement Vertical) vertical launchers.

* Guns
** 1 x BAE Systems 114 mm (4.5 inch) Mk 8 mod 1 gun. The "Darings" are designed to accommodate a 155mm gun upgrade currently being studied by the RN.cite web|url=http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.13557|title=Royal Navy Prepares to Roll out the Big Guns|publisher=Royal Navy|date=2008-08-28]
** 2 x Oerlikon 30 mm KCB guns on single DS-30B mounts
** Fitted 'for but not with' 2 x Phalanx 20 mm close-in weapons systems

* Anti-ship
**The Type 45 has the provision for a pair of quadruple RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile launchers, but there are currently no plans to fit this system. [ [http://navy-matters.beedall.com/daring1-1.htm Navy-Matters Type 45 Destroyer Daring Class] ]
**The embarked Lynx HMA 8 helicopter is capable of carrying Sea Skua anti-ship missiles.
**The 4.5 inch (114 mm) Mark 8 naval gun has an anti-ship role.

* Anti-submarine
** MFS 7000 sonar
** Fitted 'for but not with' STWS (Ship-launched Torpedo Weapon System) Mark 2 324 mm triple launchers for Sting Ray torpedoes.
**The embarked Lynx HMA 8 helicopter or Merlin HM1 helicopter is capable of carrying Sting Ray torpedo. The Merlin HM1 helicopter is fitted with its own dipping sonar and carries sonobuoys.

* Land attack
**The Type 45 as it stands has no land-attack missile capability and the SYLVER A50 launcher currently has no capability to fire such a missile. However, should the need arise, it would be possible to fit them with the American Mk. 41 VLS, firing the BGM-109 Tomahawk; the Defence Procurement Agency conducted a study into this in 2004, but there are no plans yet to fit this. [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmhansrd/vo040309/text/40309w08.htm House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 9 Mar 2004 (pt 8)] ] The French Navy are pursuing a variant of the Storm Shadow / SCALP air-launched cruise missile for their SYLVER A70 launchers, but not the A50 launchers as currently fitted to the "Darings".
**The 4.5 inch (114 mm) Mark 8 naval gun has a Naval Gunfire Support (NGS) role. The proposed upgrade to a 155mm gun would increase range and explosive effect as well as giving synergies with Army 155mm guns in logistics and the development of advanced ammunition.

* Countermeasures
** The Seagnat decoy system allows for the seduction and distraction of radar guided weapons, through active and passive means. An infra-red 'spoofing' device is planned for future retrofits.
** Surface Ship Torpedo Defence System (SSTD) active torpedo decoy system

* Communications
** Fully Integrated Communications System (FICS45) - a combined external and internal communications system supplied by Thales.

* METOC Meteorology and Oceanography
** The Metoc system by BAE Systems comprises the Upper Air Sounding System using launchable radiosondes by Skycom Telecom Ltd (Wales) and Graw Radiosondes (Germany) joint venture, as well as a comprehensive weather satellite receiving system and a bathymetrics system. These sensors will provide each vessel with a full environmental awareness for tasks such as radar propagation, ballistics and general self-supporting meteorological and oceanographic data production.

* Aircraft
** 1 Lynx HMA 8 helicopter - Sea Skua anti-ship missiles and Sting Ray torpedoes "or" 1 Merlin helicopter - Sting Ray torpedoes, dipping sonar and sonobuoys.
** The flight deck of the Type 45 is big enough to accommodate aircraft up to the size of the Chinook.

* Other
**Type 45 has sufficient space to embark 60 Royal Marines and their equipment.

Propulsion

2 shafts Integrated Electric Propulsion;
* 2 Rolls-Royce / Northrop Grumman / DCN WR-21 gas turbines with Inter-Cooler Recuperator (ICR); 21.5 MW (28,800 shp)
* 2 Converteam electric drive motors; 20 MW (26,800 shp)

During sea-trials in August 2007, HMS "Daring" reached her design speed of convert|29|kn|km/h|0 in 70 seconds and achieved a speed of convert|31.5|kn|km/h|0 in 120 seconds.

Ships in the class

Initially planning to order twelve ships, the Ministry of Defence subsequently reduced the required number to eight. It was reported in December 2006 that the last two could be cut. [cite news| first = Michael| last = Harrison| url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/newspapers/sunday_times/britain/article1265414.ece | title = Half of Royal Navy’s ships in mothballs as defence cuts bite| work = The Times| date = 2006-12-31| accessdate = 2007-04-19] In July 2007, Ministry of Defence officials stated that they "still planned to build eight Type 45 destroyers" and that "the extra two ships were still included in planning assumptions". [cite news| first = Michael| last = Evans| url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article2141406.ece | title = Go-ahead for £4bn aircraft carriers| work = The Times| date = 2007-07-26| accessdate = 2007-07-26] This plan was offically abandoned on 19 June 2008 when the Minister for the Armed Forces, Bob Ainsworth, announced in Parliament that options for the seventh and eighth destroyers would not be taken up. [cite news |url=http://www.portsmouth.co.uk/news/Government-admits-destroyers-will-never.4204440.jp |title=Government admits destroyers will never be built |publisher=Portsmouth News |last=Kula |first=Adam |date=2008-06-19 |accessdate=2008-06-19]

On 9 March 2007, "The Independent" reported that Saudi Arabia was considering buying "two or three" Type 45s. [cite news| first = Michael| last = Harrison| url=http://news.independent.co.uk/business/news/article2341426.ece | title = UK seeks £2bn Saudi destroyer contract| work = The Independent| date = 2007-03-09| accessdate = 2007-03-09] On 7 September 2007 it was reported that Saudi Arabian officials have been invited to observe HMS "Daring's" sea trials. [cite news |first=David|last=Robertson|title=BAE poised to clinch £20bn Saudi Eurofighter deal|url=http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/engineering/article2402913.ece |work=The Times |publisher=Times Newspapers|date=2007-09-07|accessdate=2007-09-08]

The six ships are to be called, "Daring", "Dauntless", "Diamond", "Dragon", "Defender" and "Duncan".

:"* - The Type 45 is constructed in modules, so the keel is not "laid down" as in the past. The ceremonial start of the ships' construction is "cutting the first sheet of steel".

Criticism

The Type 45 project has been criticised for rising costs and delays, with the ships costing £6.46 billion, compared with an original estimate of £5.47 billion. The first ship is scheduled to enter service in 2010, [cite web|url=http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/nav.2227|T45 News - Royal Navy website|accessdate=2008-10-07] rather than 2007 as initially planned. In 2007 the Defence Select Committee expressed its disappointment that the MoD and BAE had failed to control rising costs. [cite web| url= http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/engineering/article3267633.ece | title= Taxpayers face £500m bill for BAE projects
work=The Times| author = David Robertson| date= 2008-01-29 | accessdate=2008-01-31
] [cite web| url= http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/09/11/nmod111.xml| title= MPs accuse MoD of £2.6bn overspend| work=Daily Telegraph| author = Graeme Wilson| date= 2007-12-09| accessdate=2008-01-31]

Although the Type 45 represents a significant improvement to air defences, her anti-ship capability is limited to the medium calibre gun and helicopter-borne Sea Skua missiles. [cite news|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/11/27/hms_diamond_launches_ouch_ouch/|title=New BAE destroyer launches today on the Clyde|author=Lewis Page|publisher=The Register|date=27th November 2007|accessdate=2008-04-21]

The continual scaling back of the project, first from 12 to 8 and subsequently from 8 to 6 units, has also been criticised for allegedly leaving the Royal Navy with insufficient ships to meet its requirements. [http://www.shippingtimes.co.uk/item_10092.html, and see statement by then First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Alan West, Jane's Defence Weekly 25 June 2008, p.6 reproduced from an interview in February 2006.]

References

ee also

* Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carrier
* Royal Navy in the 21st century
* BAE UXV Combatant

External links

* [http://www.baesystems.com/ProductsServices/bae_product_type45.html BAE Systems Type 45 page]
* [http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/server/show/nav.2227 Official Royal Navy Type 45 page]
* [http://navy-matters.beedall.com/t45main.htm Royal Navy Matters Type 45 page]
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/02/02/navy02.xml&sSheet=/news/2006/02/02/ixhome.html The Telegraph coverage of the first launch]
* [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/11/05/mod_oks_win2k_warships/ Windows for Warships safe for Royal Navy, says MoD]


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