Temporal lobe


Temporal lobe
Brain: Temporal lobe
Lobes of the human brain
Gray730.png
Section of brain showing upper surface of temporal lobe.
Latin lobus temporalis
Gray's subject #189 823
Part of Brain
Artery Middle cerebral and
Posterior cerebral
NeuroNames hier-107
MeSH Temporal+Lobe
NeuroLex ID birnlex_1160

The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[1]

The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory.

Animation: human left temporal lobe (right side similar).

The superior temporal gyrus includes an area (within the Sylvian fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea (relayed via several subcortical nuclei) first reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior and lateral parts of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernicke's area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (in tandem with Broca's area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions.

The underside (ventral) part of the temporal cortices appear to be involved in high-level visual processing of complex stimuli such as faces (fusiform gyrus) and scenes (parahippocampal gyrus). Anterior parts of this ventral stream for visual processing are involved in object perception and recognition.

The medial temporal lobes (near the Sagittal plane that divides left and right cerebral hemispheres) are thought to be involved in episodic/declarative memory. Deep inside the medial temporal lobes lie the hippocampi, which are essential for memory function - particularly the transference from short to long term memory and control of spatial memory and behavior. Damage to this area typically results in anterograde amnesia.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Temporal Lobe". Langbrain. Rice University. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lngbrain/cglidden/temporal.html. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • temporal lobe — n a large lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that is situated in front of the occipital lobe and contains a sensory area associated with the organ of hearing * * * one of the main divisions of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the brain,… …   Medical dictionary

  • temporal lobe — temporal ,lobe noun count MEDICAL a part of the brain that is responsible for hearing …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • temporal lobe — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms temporal lobe : singular temporal lobe plural temporal lobes medical a part of the brain that is responsible for hearing, memory, and speech …   English dictionary

  • temporal lobe — noun that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying inside the temples of the head • Syn: ↑temporal ccortex • Hypernyms: ↑lobe • Part Holonyms: ↑cerebral cortex, ↑cerebral mantle, ↑pallium, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • temporal lobe — tem′poral lobe n. anat. zool. the lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the occipital lobe • Etymology: 1890–95 …   From formal English to slang

  • temporal lobe — noun Date: 1889 a large lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that is situated in front of the occipital lobe and contains a sensory area associated with the organ of hearing …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • temporal lobe — Anat., Zool. the lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the occipital lobe. [1890 95] * * * …   Universalium

  • temporal lobe — one of the main divisions of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the brain, lying at the side within the temple of the skull and separated from the frontal lobe by a cleft, the lateral sulcus. Areas of the cortex in this lobe are concerned… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • temporal lobe — /ˈtɛmprəl loʊb/ (say tempruhl lohb) noun the lower lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, the centre of sound perception …   Australian English dictionary

  • temporal lobe — noun one of the four major divisions of the cerebrum of the brain, located behind the temples …   Wiktionary


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