Type 94 Te-Ke

Type 94 Te-Ke

Infobox Weapon|is_vehicle=yes
name=Type 94 Te-Ke

caption=Type 94 tankette captured at the Battle of Okinawa
origin= flag|Empire of Japan
length=3.0 meters
width=1.6 meters
height=1.6 meters
weight=3.4 tonnes
suspension=2-wheel bogie
speed=40 km/h
vehicle_range=200 kilometers
primary_armament=6.5 mm Type 91 machine gun
armour=12 mm
engine=Mitsubishi air-cooled 4-cylinder petrol
crew=2 (commander, driver)
engine_power=32 hp (24 kW)
pw_ratio=9 hp/tonne

USMC M4 Sherman tank at Kwajalein] The nihongo| Type 94 "Te-Ke" tankette|九四式軽装甲車| Kyūyon-shiki keisōkōsha was a tankette used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War and in World War II. Although designed as an ammunition tractor it was also used for reconnaissance and infantry support. The lightweight Type 94 proved effective in Manchuria and China as the Chinese National Revolutionary Army had very few tanks or anti-tank weapons to oppose them, although the tankette's thin armor could be penetrated by standard small arms fire. [ [http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/jp_tankette/index.html] Report on Type 92 from September 1945 issue of "Intelligence Bulletin" ]

History and development

After World War I, many European countries attempted to mechanize their armies. Knowing this tendency in Europe, the Imperial Japanese Army also experimented with a variety of armored cars with limited success. The wheeled armored cars were not suitable for most operations in Manchukuo, due to the poor road conditions and severe winter climate. [ [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/] Taki's Imperial Japanese Army ]

From the early 1920s, the Imperial Japanese Army tested a variety of European light tanks, including six Carden-Loyd Mark VIbs machine gun carriers and several Renault FT-17, and a decision was reached in 1929 to proceed with the domestic development of a new vehicle based largely on the Carden Loyd design to address the deficiencies of wheeled armored cars. [Foss. Tanks:The 500. pp.220 ]

The initial attempt resulted in the Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha for use by the cavalry. However, Japanese infantry commanders felt that a similar vehicle would be useful as the support vehicle for transport, scout and communications within the infantry divisions, and could be used as a sort of “flying company” to provide additional firepower and close support in infantry operations.

The development was given to Tokyo Gas and Electric Industry (later known as Hino Motors) in 1933, and an experimental model was completed in 1934. It was a small light tracked vehicle with a turret armed with one machine gun. For cargo transportation it pulled an ammunition trailer. It was given the name "Tokushu Keninsha" ("Special Tractor"), abridged to “TK”. After trials in both Manchukuo and Japan, the design was standardized as the Type 94 tankette. It entered service in 1935. The Type 94 was later superseded by the Type 97 tankette.

Oddly, many British and American sources have confused the Type 92 with the Type 94, although the Type 94 was the model almost always encountered in the various fronts of the Pacific War. [Foss. The Great Book of Tanks. Pp.106 ]


The design of the Type 94 was based on the British Carden-Loyd Mark VIb tankettes.

The hull of the Type 94 was of riveted and welded construction, with the engine at the front with the driver to the right. The engine was an air-cooled petrol motor that developed 35 hp (at 2,500 rpm). Like many armored vehicles intended to operate in hot conditions the engine was given asbestos insulation to protect the occupants. The commander stood in a small (unpowered) turret at the rear of the hull. A large door in the rear of the hull accessed the storage compartment.

Initially the armament was a 6.5 mm Type 91 machine gun, although in later models this was replaced by a Type 92 7.7 mm machine gun.

The suspension consisted of four bogies - two on each side. These were suspended by bell-cranks resisted by armored compression springs placed horizontally, one each side of the hull, externally. Each bogie had two small rubber road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear. There were two track-return rollers. In combat service the Type 94 was found to be prone to throwing its tracks in high speed turns. Further redesign work was carried out on the suspension and the small idler was replaced by a larger diameter idler wheel which was now in ground contact; it did not completely solve the problem. A better suspension on a longer chassis appeared in later models of the Type 94.

The design was also the basis for the Type 94 "Disinfecting Vehicle" and Type 94 "Gas Scattering Vehicle"] amongst the "Type 97 Pole Planter" and "Type 97 Cable Layer".

Operational Service

The Type 94 was mainly deployed in "Independent Tankette Companies". By 1936, each Japanese infantry division had its own Tankette Company with six Type 94s for use in the reconnaissance role.

The Type 94 Tankette was an inexpensive vehicle to build, at approximately half the price of the Type 89 Chi-Ro medium tank, resulting in more Type 94's entering service than any other Japanese tank (823 units). Production ran to 300 units in 1935, 246 units in 1936 and 200 units in 1937. [ [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/] Taki's Imperial Japanese Army ] Given the utility of the design in combat in China, the Imperial Japanese Army was therefore content to retain the Type 94, although the design, and indeed the concept of the tankette, came to be regarded as obsolescent in western armies.

With the start of World War II, a number of Type 94s were issued to each Japanese infantry division in the Pacific theatre, with a tracked trailer. They saw action during the in Burma, the Netherlands East Indies, the Philippines and on a number of islands in the South Pacific Mandate. Some were also assigned to Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces. They were still in use until as late as 1945. Major deployments included:

*Hebei, China - (1st Tank Battalion and 2nd Tank Battalion)
*Chahar Province, China - (1st Independent Mixed Brigade)
*Shanghai, China - (5th Tank Battalion)
*Taierchwang, China - (Special Tank Company of China Detachment Tank Unit)
*Hsuchou, China - (1st Tank Battalion and 5th Tank Battalion)
*Nomonhan, Manchukuo - (3rd Tank Regiment and 4th Tank Regiment)
*Hsinking, Manchukuo - (Armored unit of Imperial Manchukuo Army)
*Timor - (IJA 38th Division Tankette Company)
*Java - (Anai Tankette unit, 2nd, 3nd and 48th Recon Regiment, Sakaguchi Detachment, 56th Infantry Group Tankette Unit)
*Kwajalein Atoll - (2nd Battalion of Army 1st Sea-mobile Brigade)

External links

* [http://www.wwiivehicles.com/japan/tankettes/type-94.asp WWII vehicles]
* [http://www.onwar.com/tanks/japan/data/t94.htm OnWar.com]
* [http://www.military.cz/panzer/tanks/japan/type94/index_en.htm Photo gallery at military.cz]
* [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/ Taki's Imperial Japanese Army]


*cite book
last = Foss
first = Christopher
year = 2003
title = Great Book of Tanks: The World's Most Important Tanks from World War I to the Present Day
publisher = Zenith Press
location =
id = ISBN 0760314756

*cite book
last = Foss
first = Christopher
year = 2003
title = Tanks: The 500
publisher = Crestline
location =
id = ISBN 0760315000

*cite book
last = Zaloga
first = Steven J.
year = 2007
title = Japanese Tanks 1939-45
publisher = Osprey
location =
id = ISBN 1-84603-091-8


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