- War of the Sicilian Vespers
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict= War of the Sicilian Vespers
caption= "Sicilian Vespers" (1846), by
date= 1282 – 1302
Mediterranean; primarily Sicily, the Mezzogiorno, Aragon, and Catalonia
result= Division of the kingdom of Sicily into Aragonese Trinacria and Angevin Naples
Crown of AragonKingdom of Trinacria
Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of France Kingdom of Majorca
notes=The War of the (Sicilian) Vespers started with the insurrection of the
Sicilian Vespersagainst Charles of Anjou in 1282 and finally ended with the peace of Caltabellottain 1302. It was fought in Sicily, Catalonia(the Aragonese Crusade) and elsewhere in the western Mediterraneanbetween, on the one side, the Angevin claimants Charles of Anjou and his son, Charles II and the kings of France, their relatives, backed by the Papacyand, on the other side, the kings of Aragon.
:main|Sicilian Vespers On
Easter Monday(30 March), 1282 at the Church of the Holy Spirit just outside Palermo, at evening prayer ( vespers), a Frenchman harassed a Sicilian woman. Accounts differ as to what the harassment entailed, who the woman was, and who the Frenchman was.
This single event led to the massacre of four thousand Frenchmen over the course of the next six weeks. The king of Sicily at the time, Charles I, was an
Angevin, and his French followers had a legacy of mistreating the native people of Sicily, especially while Charles was away on one of his many absences. Only a few officials notable for their good conduct were spared; and the city of Messinaheld out for Charles. But through the diplomatic errors of the vicar, Herbert of Orléans, Messina revolted on April 28. Herbert retreated to the castle of Mategriffonand the Crusader fleet stationed in the harbour was burned.
The Italian physician
John of Procidaacted on behalf of Peter of Aragon, [Chaytor, H. J. "A History of Aragon and Catalonia ". 1933. [http://libro.uca.edu/chaytor/hac7.htm Chapter 7] , pp 102-3.] the heir of Manfred in right of his wife. John had been a loyal servant of Manfred's and had fled to Aragon after Charles success at Tagliacozzo. John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinopleto procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval and so John voyaged to Romeand there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John of Procida then returned to Barcelonaand the pope promptly died, to be replaced by Simon de Brie, a Frenchman and an ally of Charles.
Aragonese invasion of Italy
Soon after the Vespers itself, the Sicilians turned to Peter of Aragon to deliver them from French dominion. An Aragonese fleet under Peter himself had landed at
Collo, now in eastern Algeria, and to those troops the Sicilians sent envoys. Peter was offered the throne of Sicily and accepted. Pope Martin had meanwhile refused to help the Sicilian communes and the rebels were excommunicated, as was the Byzantine emperorand the Ghibellinesof northern Italy.
Charles gathered his forces, abandoning Crusading hopes, in
Calabriaand made a landing near Messina and began a siege. Five months after the Vespers, on 30 August, Peter landed at Trapani. He quickly marched into Palermo and, on 4 September, received the homage of the Sicilians and confirmed their ancient privileges. Only the vacancy of the Palermitan archdiocese prevented a coronation. Charles was still besieging Messina when Peter's forces first met him. Charles was forced to vacate the isle by the end of October and was thenceforth restricted to the mainland. The pope then excommunicated the Aragonese king and deprived him of his kingdom (18 November).
Peter pressed his advantage and by February 1283 he had taken most of the Calabrian coastline. Charles, perhaps feeling desperate, sent letters to Peter demanding they resolve the conflict by personal combat. The invader accepted and Charles returned to France to arrange the duel. Both kings chose six knights to settle matters of places and dates. A duel was scheduled for 1 June at
Bordeaux. A hundred knights would accompany each side and Edward I of Englandwould adjudge the contest; the English king, heeding the pope, refused to take part. [Chaytor, p 104.] Peter left John of Procida in charge of Sicily and returned via his own kingdom to Bordeaux, which he entered in disguise to evade a suspected French ambush. Needless to say, no combat ever took place and Peter returned to a very troubled Spain.
While Peter and Charles had been pursuing justice by duel in France, the Catalan admiral
Roger of Lauriahad been continuing the war in Italy. He had been ravaging the Calabrian coast and keeping up a strong naval presence. Charles had left Bordeaux for Provence and there sent out a fleet for Naples(his capital in Italy at the time and for the future of his dynasty). Roger took Maltaand defeated the Angevin-Provençal fleet near the islands in the Battle of Malta. Roger then drew Charles the Lame, the son and heir apparent of the Neapolitan king and the Prince of Salerno, out of Naples' port. Roger utterly routed him on the high seas, destroying the whole Angevin navy in the Battle of the Gulf of Naples. Roger took the prince and forty two ships captive to Messina. Charles the elder arrived in Italy at that time, but died soon after in 1285 and the war in Italy was put on hold by the lack of leadership on both sides: Charles' successor was in chains and Peter was dealing with a new menace, the Aragonese Crusade. [Chaytor, p 105.]
:main|Aragonese CrusadeIn 1284, Pope Martin granted the kingdom of Aragon to
Charles, Count of Valois, the brother of the French king and great nephew of Charles of Sicily. Papal sanction was given to a war—crusade—which historian H. J. Chaytor describes as "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy." [Chaytor, p 105.] While Roger of Lauria was still solidifying Peter's gains in Sicily and Calabria, Peter himself had entered France clandestinely to duel Charles, but that failing, returned to his Spanish domains, while Charles re-entered Italy, where he had died.
Peter was dealing with domestic unrest at the time when the French were preparing invasion. He took
Albarracínfrom the rebellious noble Juan Núñez de Laraand he renewed the alliance with Sancho IV of Castileand attacked Tudelain an attempt to prevent the king of Navarre, Philip I, the son of the French king, Philip III the Bold, from invading on that front.
In 1283, Peter's brother, King
James II of Majorca, joined the French and recognised their suzerainty over Montpellierand gave them free passage through the Balearic Islandsand Roussillon. James had also inherited the county of Roussillon and thus stood between the dominions of the French and Aragonese monarchs. Peter had opposed James' inheritance as a younger son and reaped the consequence of such rivalry in the crusade. In 1284, the first French armies under King Philip and Count Charles entered Roussillon. They included 16,000 cavalry, 17,000 crossbowmen, and 100,000 infantry, along with 100 ships in south French ports. [Chaytor, p 106.] Though the French had James' support, the local populace rose against them. The city of Elnewas valiantly defended by the so-called "bâtard de Roussillon" ("bastard of Roussillon"), the illegitimate son of Nuño Sánchez, late count of Roussillon (1212–1242). Eventually he was overcome and the cathedral was burnt; the royal forces progressed.
In 1285, Philip entrenched himself before
Geronain an attempt to besiege it. The resistance was strong, but the city was taken. Charles was crowned there, but without an actual crown. The French soon experienced a reversal, however, at the hands of Roger de Lauria, back from the Italian theatre of the drawn-out conflict. The French fleet was defeated and destroyed at the Battle of Les Formigues. As well, the French camp was hit hard by an epidemic of dysentery. Philip himself was afflicted. The heir to the French throne, the king of Navarre, opened negotiations with Peter for free passage for the royal family through the Pyrenees. But the troops were not offered such passage and were devastated at the Battle of the Col de Panissars. The king of France himself died at Perpignan, the capital of James of Majorca, who had fled in fear after being confronted by Peter, and was buried in Narbonne.
Peter died on 2 November 1285, in the same year as his two royal foes, Charles and Philip. His deathbed absolution occurred after he declared that his conquests had been in the name of his familial claims and never against the claims of the church. After a few more years of general warfare, marked by the
Battle of the Countson 23 June 1287, where the Angevins were defeated near Naples, the Treaty of Tarasconof 1291 officially restored Aragon to his heir, Alfonso, and lifted the ban of the church.
icily against Naples and Aragon
With the Treaty of Tarascon, the war with Aragon ended, but it had little effect with the death of Alfonso within months. Alfonso's brother,
James I of Sicily, inherited Aragon and united the two realms. In 1295, James signed the Treaty of Anagniwhereby he gave up Sicily to the papacy, with Pope Boniface VIIIgranting it to Charles. However, Peter III's third son, Frederick, the regent of Sicily, refused to acquiesce in the treaty, as did the Sicilian populace and they proclaimed him king. With this, war was renewed between Aragonese Sicily and Angevin Naples, between Frederick and Charles.
The treaty, however, obligated James to enter the war in assistance of Charles and he sent his fleet from Catalonia to harass his brother's coasts. Frederick went on the offensive quickly and invaded Calabria in 1296. He seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the
Ghibellines of Tuscanyand Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonnaagainst the pope.
James was very serious about fulfilling his part of the treaty of 1295 and enforcing a peace. In this he had the support of John of Procida and Roger of Lauria, his father's ablest men. On 4 July 1299, James himself led his fleet with Roger of Lauria and defeated his brother at the
Battle of Cape Orlando. Meanwhile, Charles' sons, Robert (who had married James' daughter) and Philip, had landed in Sicily and captured Catania. Philip moved to besiege Trapani, but was defeated and captured by Frederick at the Battle of Falconaria. Frederick multiplied his successes in Calabria. On 14 June 1300, Roger of Lauria defeated the Sicilians again at the Battle of Ponza. Frederick himself was captured in battle.
In 1302, Charles of Valois came down into Italy at the behest of Pope Boniface. He landed in Sicily, but his army was ravaged by the plague and forced to sue for peace. On 19 August, the
Peace of Caltabellottawas signed and Frederick was recognised as king over Sicily, with the title of "King of Trinacria". Charles was recognised as king over the peninsula, with the title of "King of Sicily", usually rendered by historians as "King of Naples," for such was his capital. In May 1303, the pope ratified the treaty and Frederick paid him tribute. Marriage was arranged between Frederick and Charles' daughter Eleanor.
Rebellamentu di Sichilia", a Sicilian tract of 1290, is available online in two editions:
* [http://books.google.ca/books?id=KFEIAAAAQAAJ "Lu rebellamentu di Sichilia. Codice della Biblioteca regionale di Palermo".] Edited by Filippo Evola (1882).
* [http://books.google.ca/books?id=uy8OAAAAQAAJ "Le vespro siciliano. Cronaca siciliana anonima intitolata Lu rebellamentu di Sichilia, codice esistente nell' Archivio municipale di Catania".] Edited by Pasquale Castorina (1882).The "Vinuta di lu re Iapicu in Catania", another Sicilian history, by
Atanasiu di Iaci, is available online:
* [http://www.google.com/books?id=wDJnf2PaBlUC&printsec=frontcover&hl=it#PPA156,M1 "Romanzo siculo del 1287.] Edited by Bernardino Biondelli (1856).
*Runciman, Steven. "The Sicilian Vespers". 1958. ISBN 0-521-43774-1
*Bruni, Leonardo. "History of the Florentine People". 1416. ISBN 0-674-00506-6 (
*Abulafia, David. "The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms, 1200-1500". 1997. ISBN 0-582-07820-2
*Chaytor, H. J. " [http://libro.uca.edu/chaytor/achistory.htm A History of Aragon and Catalonia] ". 1933.
Ramon Muntaner, [http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/muntaner_goodenough.pdf Chronicle,] tr. Lady Goodenough (available in PDF format).
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