- History of Gdańsk
This article is about the
Historyof Gdańsk(Danzig), a city located on the Baltic Sea.
The area around the
Vistuladelta was inhabited by populations belonging to the various archaeological cultures of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. Settlements existed in the area for several centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ.
In the 1st century AD, a new culture appeared in the area, called "Willenberg-Kultur" or now
Wielbark culture. This culture is widely identified as the Gothiscandza(or "Coast of the Goths") that was mentioned by Jordanesin the 6th century. It was characterised by Scandinavian burial traditions, such as the stone circles. In the 3rd century, this culture moved to the Ukraine, which they called Oium, and formed the Chernyakhov culture. It is known that until around 500 East Germanic and Baltic tribes controlled the area and traded with the Roman Empire.
It is known that the
Pomeraniansmigrated to the area, but it is sure they settled in neighboring areas in Pomerania with the general Slavic people's movement to the north and west from the Pripjet marshesafter 600. There are traces of a crafts and fishing settlement from the 8th–9th centuries.
In 980, Duke
Mieszko Iof Poland dedicated a fortress built in the region. The official year of foundation of Gdańsk ("Gyddanyzc") was 997, which was the year St. Adalbert of Praguepassed through the area as part of the Christianizing crusade against the Baltic Prussians on behalf of Duke Boleslav the Brave of Poland. In 1997 Gdańsk celebrated the millennium of its foundation by Mieszko I, who resolved to compete with the Pomeranian ports of Stettin (now Szczecin) and Jumne ( Vineta, now Wolin) on the Oder River.
Mieszko I received the ducal title from the
Ottonianemperors in regards to lands he already controlled. In 1000 Gdańsk belonged to the territory later called Pomerania, and was assigned to the bishopric in Kołobrzeg( _de. Kolberg), which after only five years was destroyed in a pagan Pomeranian uprising. From ca. 1015 it belonged to the Pomeranian bishopric in Kruszwica, and in 1124 the town was assigned to the diocese of Włocławek ( Kuyaviaand Pomerelia). Several crusades were ordered by the popesto Christianizethe pagan Prussians and Pomeranians(see Northern Crusades). In 1168, the Cisterciansbuildt a monastery in nearby Oliva(today within the city limits).
Spellings of the name from medieval and early modern documents are "Gyddanzyc", "Kdansk", "Gdanzc", "Dantzk", "Dantzk", "Dantzig", "Dantzigk", "Dantiscum" and "Gedanum".Historical population
of Gdańsk/DanzigCompare: population of
Capital of a Pomerelian Duchy (1215–1271)
In the 12th century, Poland managed to take control over
Pomerelia, yet soon after Poland was divided into several autonomous provinces formally under the overlordship of the High-Duke of Kraków. Therefore, the Pomerelian duchies regained independence. Gdańsk was a main burgh(stronghold) of the ruling dynasty of the Samborides, the most famous being Mestwin I (1207–1220) Swantopolk II (1215–1266) and Mestwin II (1271–1294).
Ca. 1235 the settlement had some 2,000 inhabitants and was granted
Lübeck city rightsby Swantopolk II. Merchants from the Hanseatic cities of Lübeckand Bremen began to settle in greater numbers. Officially chartered as a city in 1224 as Dantzike, it rose to become one of the more important trading and fishing ports along the Baltic Seacoast.
In 1282/1294 Mestwin II, the last duke of Pomerelia, ceded all his lands including Gdańsk to Duke
Przemysł II, thereby neglecting claims of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. After Przemysł's assassination in 1296, the city was temporary ruled by the kings of Bohemiaand Poland, Wenceslaus II and his son Wenceslaus III. The city and surrounding areas had already been heavily GermanizedFact|date=February 2007 due to the invitation made to German settlers by the Slavic rulersFact|date=February 2007, and due to the increase in trade with German and Dutch ports.
Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (1308–1454)
At the beginning of the 14th century, the region was plunged into war involving Poland and the
Margraviate of Brandenburg. Brandenburg's claim to Pomereliawas based on the 1269 Treaty of Arnswaldewith the Pomerelian duke Mestwin II and a treaty of August 8, 1305between Brandenburg's margraves and Wenceslaus III, promising the Meissenterritory to the Bohemian crown in exchange for Pomerelia, although it never was finalised.
Because King Władysław I of Poland's troops were unable to relieve Gdańsk from a siege by Brandenburg, the city's Pomeranian judge, Bogusza, appealed to the
Teutonic Knightsin Prussia for assistance.Gieysztor, Alexander, Stefan Kieniewicz, Emanuel Rostworowski, Janusz Tazbir, and Henryk Wereszycki. "History of Poland". PWN. Warsaw, 1979. ISBN 8301003928] The Knights expelled the Brandenburgers in 1308, but did not relinquish the city to Poland after Władysław refused to pay them 10,000 marks in compensation. The townspeople rebelled in an uprising bloodily repressed by the Knights. The royal garrison was attacked and expelledHalecki, Oscar. "A History of Poland". Roy Publishers. New York, 1976. ISBN 0679510877 ] and the suburban populace was slaughtered, with the suburbs subsequently destroyed. Gdańsk's colony of German merchants and artisans was specifically attacked because they competed with the Knights' town of Elbing ( Elbląg), a nearby Prussian Hanseatic city.Urban, William. "The Teutonic Knights: A Military History". Greenhill Books. London, 2003. ISBN 1853675350 ] Polish reports spread by Władysław claimed that 10,000 inhabitants were slain in the cityUrban, Thomas. " [http://www.thomas-urban.pl/gdansk.php Rezydencja książąt Pomorskich] ". pl icon ] , although that number has also been considered greater than the city's population at the time.
The Knights then captured the rest of Pomerelia from Brandenburg's troops. In September 1309, Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-
Stendalsold his claim to the territory to the Teutonic Order for 10,000 marks, thereby connecting the Order's territory with that of the Holy Roman Empire. Danzig was incorporated into the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Previously allies against the Prussians, Poland and the Teutonic Order engaged in a series of Polish-Teutonic Wars after the capture of Pomerelia.
Development of the city initially stagnated after its capture by the Teutonic Knights. Initially the new rulers tried to reduce the economic significance of Danzig by abolishing the local government and the privileges of the Lübeck traders. This apparently relates to the fact that the Danzig city council, including
Arnold Hechtand Conrad Letzkau, was removed and beheaded in 1411. Later they had to accept the fact that Danzig defended its independence and was the largest and most important seaport of the region after overtaking Elbing. Subsequently Danzig flourished, benefiting from major investment and economic prosperity in Prussia and Poland, which stimulated trade along the Vistula. The city had become a full member of the Hanseatic Leagueby 1361, but its merchants remained resentful at the barriers to the trade up the Vistula river to Poland, along with the lack of political rights in a state ruled in the interest of the Order's religiously-motivated knight-monks.
The takeover of Danzig by the Teutonic Order was questioned consistently by the Polish kings Wladislaus I and Casimir the Great, which led to a series of bloody wars and legal suits in the papal court in 1320 and 1333. Peace was established in the Treaty of Kalisz in 1343; although the Polish kings were able to retain the title "Duke of Pomerania" and were recognized as titular overlords of the crusaders, the Knights retained control of Danzig.
As part of the Kingdom of Poland (1454/66–1793)
In 1440, Danzig joined the nearby Hanseatic cities of Elbing (Elbląg) and Thorn (Toruń) to form the
Prussian Confederation, which in February 1454 seceded from the Teutonic Order's rule. They also sought protection from King Casimir IV of Poland. To govern themselves, the city of Danzig drafted a set of laws, called " Danziger Willkür" (German, meaning "created by the will of Danzig").
An "Act of Incorporation of Royal Prussia" was signed in Cracow (
6 March 1454), recognizing Pomereliaas partFact|date=November 2007 of the Polish Kingdom. The resulting Thirteen Years' Warended in 1466 with the Order's defeat. With the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Pomereliaand the rest of the area became a province of Poland called Royal Prussia.The 15th and 16th centuries brought changes to the city's cultural heritage. They could be seen in the arts and language, as well as Danzig's contributions to the world of science. In 1471, a refurbished sailing ship under the native Danzig captain Paul Beneke brought the famous altar painting titled "Jüngstes Gericht" ( Last Judgement) by artist Hans Memlingto Danzig. Around 1480–1490, tablets were installed at St. Mary's Church, depicting the Ten Commandmentsin Middle Low German. [ [http://artyzm.com/n/nieznani/dolnoniemiecki/e_tablica.htm Table of the Ten Commandments ] ] Georg Joachim Rheticusvisited the mayor of Danzig in 1539, while he was working with Nicolaus Copernicusin nearby Frauenburg (Frombork). The mayor of Danzig gave Rheticus financial assistance for the publication of the " Narratio Prima", published by the Danzig printer Franz Rhodein 1540 and to this day considered the best introduction to the Copernican theory. While in Danzig, Rheticus, who was also a cartographer and navigational instrument maker, interviewed Danzig sailors as to their navigational needs. He presented the "Tabula chorographica auff Preusse" to Duke Albert of Prussiain 1541.
In 1566, the official language of the city's governing institutions was changed from
Middle Low German, which had been used throughout the Hanseatic cities, to standard German, used in most German courts.
Danzig rebellionand the ensuing Siege of Danzig (1577), the city resisted against King Stephen Batory for six months before the conflict was settled.
The Danzig printer
Andreas Hünefeld(t) ("Hunsfeldus") (1606–1652) printed a Danzig edition of the RosicrucianManifestos. Later on, he published the poems of Martin Opitz. Opitz had died in 1639 and his friend, Pastor Bartholomaeus Nigrinusof Danzig, together with two associates edited the Opitz poems for the Hünefeld printing house.
In 1606 a distillery named "Der Lachs" (German for "the Salmon") was founded, which produced one of Danzig's most famous products, a liqueur named "Danziger
Goldwasser" ("Danzig gold water"), made from herbs and with small 22 carat (92%) goldflakes floating in the bottle (similar to Goldschläger). As Danzig was separated from Germany after World War I, the "Der Lachs" company opened an additional factory in Berlin which continues to produce genuine Danziger Goldwasser. Various Polish brands offer similar drinks.
From the 14th century until the mid-17th century Danzig experienced rapid growth, becoming by the 16th century the largest city on the Baltic seaboard, owing to its large trade with the
Netherlandsand its handling of most of Poland's seaborne trade, transported northward via the VistulaRiver. The city's prosperity was severely restricted, however, by the Thirty Years' War(1618–1648) and the Northern Wars(1655–1660), and it suffered an epidemic of bubonic plaguein 1709. In 1654, Charles_X_Gustav_of_Swedeninvaded Poland; in 1655he appeared outside the Danzig city walls, but refrained from laying siege. A Dutch fleet arrived on July 1656, reopening the vital trade with the Netherlands.
Danzig took part in all Hanseatic League conferences until the final one in 1669. By that time the United Provinces and other long-distance overseas commercial powers had surpassed the Baltic trade centres such as Danzig. In 1734, the city was briefly occupied by the Russians under Field Marshal
Munnichafter the prolonged Siege of Danzig.
In 1743 the "Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Danzig" (
Danzig Research Society) was formed by Daniel Gralathand Gottfried Lengnich.
In the Kingdom of Prussia (1793–1806, 1815–1919)
During the First First Partition of Poland in 1772, the German-speaking inhabitants of Danzig fought fiercely for it to remain a part of Poland , although the majority of Royal Prussia fell to the
Kingdom of Prussia. Danzig was surrounded by the Prussian territories until 1793, when it was incorporated into the Prussian kingdom as part of the province of West Prussia. After the defeat of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte created the semi-independent Free City of Danzig(1807-1814). Danzig reverted to Prussia after Napoleon's defeat in 1814. The city became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzig within West Prussia in 1815.
Industrial Revolutionand the steam engine trains, industrial machinery and Ferdinand Schichau's F. Schichaucompany gained the upper hand for Elbing over Danzig. Schichau later constructed a large shipyard in Danzig as well, however.
From 1824 until 1878, East and
West Prussiawere combined as a single province within the Prussian kingdom. But although Danzig was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia, it was never a member of the 1815–1866 German Confederation. After the Confederation's dissolution, the city was included in the newly created German Empirein 1871.
Free City (1920–1939)
Following Germany's defeat in
World War I, the Allied powers in the Treaty of Versailles(1919) decided to create the Free City of Danzig(under a commissioner appointed by the League of Nations) covering the city itself, the seaport, and a substantial surrounding territory. The League of Nations rejected the citizens' petition to have their city officially named as the Free Hanseatic city of Danzig ("Freie Hansestadt Danzig"). However, the League recognized them as citizens of Danzig with a separate Freistadt Danzig citizenship, and thus no longer possessors of citizenship of the German Reich.
The strategic aim of Poland was to (re)gain free access to the open sea, and the territories assigned to Poland in the Treaty of Versailles provided a good opportunity to do so. However, during the
Polish-Soviet War, Danzig workers went on strike to block delivery of ammunition to the Polish army when the Soviet Red Armytried to capture Warsaw. This move set both sides in the conflict that marks the history of the Free City of Danzig.
customs unionwith Poland was created by the victorious allies of WWI, which gave the Danzig Westerplatteport to the Polish republic; it became the Polish military transit depot. The separation of the Danzig port, post office and customs office under the treaty was said to be justified by Poland's need for direct access to the Baltic Sea. Poland then stationed a small squad of troops at Westerplatte. Due to the massive resentment by the Danzigers and with large foreign investments, Poland began building a large military port in Gdynia, just 25 km away from Danzig. Unlike Danzig, Gdynia was in the direct possession of Poland and soon became the so-called "Polish outside window".
After World War I a massive influx of Poles into the area, as part of a governmental strategic settlement program, took place. Beforehand, Gdynia was a small fishing village and spa with 1,000 inhabitants. With Poland's take-over it had over 100,000 Polish inhabitants 20 years later. Due to a Polish–German trade war between 1925-1934, Poland became focused on international trade; for example, a new railway line was build to connect
Silesiawith the coast and the new tariffs made it cheaper to send goods through Polish ports rather than German ones. Gdynia became the biggest port on the Baltic sea. Nevertheless, Poland resorted to economic sanctions during the Danzig-Polish conflicts and Danzig suffered greatly.
The Free City of Danzig issued its own stamps and currency (the "Gulden"). Many examples of stamps and coins, bearing the legend "Freie Stadt Danzig", survive in collections. There was a strong desire to rescind the Allied Powers' decision on the status of the city's 400,000 citizens which were predominantly German. This culminated in the election of a National Socialist government in Danzig's elections in May
The German incorporation of Danzig was a territorial claim that every government of the
Weimar Republicput on its agenda. When the Nazi government came to power in Germany in 1933, it had the government in Danzig stage a military incident in the city in 1934. Both countries were on the edge of war, but Germany relented after Poland resolved to resist the Nazi action.
A Polish–German non-aggression agreement was signed and the Free City's government was ordered by the Nazis to stop making problems between Poland and Danzig. Poland and Danzig entered a brief period of good economic cooperation and prosperity. Nevertheless, a totalitarian society was being constructed in Germany, and especially members of the Polish or
Jewish minority required stamina in the face of everyday acts of violence and persecution from the Nazis.
In 1939, the Jewish community decided that all members should leave — not only Danzig — but the whole region, as they realised it would soon be in the hands of Nazis. This evacuation was successfully achieved.
World War II (1939–1945)
Following the annexation of
Austriaand the Sudetenland, Germany in October 1938 urged the Danzig territory's cession to Germany. Not surprisingly, Danzig repeatedly refused to negotiate its status and, on September 1, 1939, Nazi Germanyinvaded Poland, initiating World War II. On September 2 1939Germany officially annexed the Free City. The Nazi regime murdered the Polish postmen defending the Polish Post Office: this was one of the first war crimesduring the war. Other Polish soldiers defending the Westerplattestronghold surrendered after seven days of fighting. The German commander returned the sword to the Polish commander for putting up a brave fight. On Sep 7th NSDAP organised night parade on Adolf-Hitlerstrasse to celebrate success. It was bombed by single Polish hydroplane operating from Hela peninsula piloted by Jozef Rudzki and Zdzisław Juszczakiewicz. 6 bombs weight 12.5 kg were dropped from very low height ( [http://wiadomosci.o2.pl/?s=512&t=10676 source] ).In October 1939, Danzig, together with the rest of Polish Pomeraniato the south and west, became the German " Reichsgau" (administrative district) of Danzig-West Prussia("Danzig–Westpreussen").
Polish and German dissidents were sent to
concentration camps, especially neighbouring Stutthof where 85,000 victims perished. Kashubian and Polish intelligentsiawere killed in the Piaśnicamass murder site, which is estimated to have had 60,000 victims.
At the beginning of 1945, Germany started evacuating civilians from Danzig. Most Germans fled the city, many by seaborne evacuation to
Schleswig-Holstein. This happened in winter under the threat of bombs and in constant danger of submarines.
March 30, 1945the Soviet Red Armyseized Danzig. In the following days, Soviet (and allegedly Polish) soldiers were given completely free hand in the city. Danzig was the scene of brutal violence, rapes, murders, and robbery, and eventually the city was set on fire.
From 1945-1950 most Germans were expelled from the city.
Post-World War II
Already before the end of World War II, the
Yalta Conferencehad agreed to place Danzig, under its original Polish name Gdańsk, under " de facto" administration of Poland, and this decision was confirmed at the Potsdam Conference. World War II did not end in a peace treaty with Germany, therefore West Germany— unlike the countries of the Allied Powers— did not recognize the border formally (" de jure"). The question of Polish sovereignty over Gdańsk was eventually resolved after the treaties with East Germanyin 1950, West Germany in 1970and reunified Germany in 1990.
communist-led Polish administration was declared in Gdańsk. Nevertheless, the city was seriously devastated.
After the war ended, nearly all citizens of Germany that returned and remained in the city were recognized as enemy aliens- citizens of an enemy country. Poles widely believed that the Danzigers' blame for triggering World War II could not be rejected.
Most of the Germans had to face special verification committees that judged their personal behaviour during the German time. Many failed, even if their families' roots in the city went back many centuries, or they were of Kashubian descent, but had shown their support for Germany during WWII. The committees are often criticised since they were established by a communist government and their members were not always competent.Fact|date=February 2007
Later, questions of citizenship were the subject of the judicial process. Nevertheless, if somebody was granted Polish citizenship, he was not able to emigrate to Germany on his volition. After 1948,
Joseph Stalinmade the Polish government close the border for those who wanted to join their families in Germany. People of German origin were repressed and had to obtain special permissions for emigration. In the whole process, most of the pre-war German citizens of Danzig left to Germany. Those who stayed were forced to Polonize their family names.
New Polish residents were settled in Gdańsk from mainly other parts of Poland and some from Polish-speaking areas east of the
Curzon Linethat were annexed by the Soviet Union after WWII. Many local Kashubians also moved into the city. The city was thus transformed from a city where most people (as many as 95%) communicated in German — portrayed in Danzig native Günter Grass's novels " The Tin Drum" and "Dog Years" — into a city where most people spoke in Polish.Fact|date=February 2007
artisans restored much of the old city's architecture, 90% destroyed in the war, but removed nearly all German inscriptions. All German names of streets, buildings, shipyards and districts, even names on tombstones, were changed to Polish names, such as "Długi Targ" for "Langemarkt" (Long Market), the city's main pedestrian center.
Gdańsk was the scene of anti-government demonstrations which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader
Władysław Gomułkain December 1970, and ten years later was the birthplace of the Solidaritytrade union movement, whose opposition to the government led to the end of communist party rule (1989) and the election as president of Poland of its leader Lech Wałęsa. It remains today a major port and industrial city.
A list of the 173 mayors of the City of Gdańsk from 1347 to March 1945 was compiled by the current Gdańsk city government and can be found on their recent website with the invitation for the "First World Gdańsk Reunion", which took place in May 2002. This list demonstrates the violently shifting ethnicity of the city's inhabitants before and after the World Wars. [http://roots.Gdańsk.gda.pl/en/postacie/burmistrzowie.asp]
Throughout its long history Gdańsk faced various periods of rule from different states before 1945,
*997-1308: as part of Poland
*1308-1454: as part of territory of Teutonic Order
*1454-1466: Thirteen Years' War
*1466-1793: as part of Poland
*1793-1805: as part of Prussia
*1807-1814: as free city
*1815-1871: as part of Prussia
*1871-1918: Imperial Germany
*1918-1939: as a free city
*1939-1945: Nazi Germany
Altogether combining the number of years, the city was under rule of Poland for 641 years, under the rule of Teutonic Order for 158 years, 125 years as part of Prussia and later Germany, 29 years of its history are marked by the status of a free city, and 6 years under the occupation of Nazi Germany until it was given back to Poland in 1945.
Famous people born in the city
List of people from Gdańsk
List of people from Danzig
List of mayors of Gdańsk
List of mayors of Danzig
Johannes Dantiscus, 1485, poet, church canon and bishop
Bernhard von Reesen, 1490
Albrecht Giese, 1524
Johannes Hevelius, 1611, astronomer
Georg Daniel Schultz, 1615
Andreas Schlüter, 1660
Jacob Theodor Klein, 1685
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, 1686–1736, physicist and engineer
Daniel Gralath, 1708, physicist and "Bürgermeister" (mayor)
Louise Adelgunde Gottsched, 1713, writer
Daniel Chodowiecki, 1726, painter
Johann Wilhelm Archenholz, 1741
Avraham Danzig, 1748, rabbi
Georg Forster, 1754
Gottlieb Hufeland. 1760
Johanna Schopenhauer, 1766
Johannes Daniel Falk, 1768
Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788
Günter Grass, b. 1927, writer and philosopher
Paweł Huelle, b 1957, writer and journalist
Donald Tusk, b. 1957, politician, journalist and historian
Dariusz Michalczewski, b. 1968, boxer
Famous people living or working in the city
Edward O'Rourke, the first Catholic bishop of Danzig
Lech Wałęsa, b. 1943, trade unions activist, politician, president of Poland (1990–1995)
* Prutz, "Danzig, das nordische Venedig" (Leipzig, 1868)
* Wistulanus, "Geschichte der Stadt Danzig" (Danzig, 1891)
* Puttner, "Danzig" (Danzig, 1899)
* (ed.) E. Cieślak, "Historia Gdańska", vol. I–II, Gdańsk 1978
* E. Cieślak, C. Biernat, "Dzieje Gdańska", Gdańsk 1969
* P. Simson, "Geschichte der Stadt Danzig", vol. 1–4, Danzig 1913-18
* H. Samsonowicz, "Badania nad kapitałem mieszczańskim Gdańska w II połowie VX wieku.", Warszawa 1960
* Cz. Biernat, "Statystyka obrotu towarowego Gdańska w latach 1651–1815.", Warszawa 1962
* M. Bogucka, "Gdańsk jako ośrodek produkcyjny w XIV–XVII wieku.", Warszawa 1962
* M. Bogucka, "Handel zagraniczny Gdańska w pierwszej połowie XVII wieku", Wrocław 1970
* H. Górnowicz, Z. Brocki, "Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego", Wrocław 1978
* "Gminy województwa gdańskiego", Gdańsk 1995
* Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza", vol. I–IV, Poznań 1969-2003
* L. Bądkowski, "Pomorska myśl polityczna", Gdańsk 1990
* W. Odyniec, "Dzieje Prus Królewskich (1454–1772). Zarys monograficzny", Warszawa 1972
* (ed.) W. Odyniec, "Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku", Gdańsk 1978
* L. Bądkowski, W. Samp, "Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego", Gdańsk 1974
* B. Śliwiński, "Poczet książąt gdańskich", Gdańsk 1997
* Józef Spors, "Podziały administracyjne Pomorza Gdańskiego i Sławieńsko-Słupskiego od XII do początków XIV w", Słupsk 1983
* M. Latoszek, "Pomorze. Zagadnienia etniczno-regionalne", Gdańsk 1996
* "Działacze polscy i przedstawiciele R.P. w Wolnym Mieście Gdańsku", Pomorze Gdańskie nr 9, Gdańsk 1974
* B. Bojarska, "Eksterminacja inteligencji polskiej na Pomorzu Gdańskim (wrzesień-grudzień 1939)", Poznań 1972
* K. Ciechanowski, "Ruch oporu na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1939–1945.", Warszawa 1972
* "Dziedzictwo kulturowe Pomorza nad Wisłą", Pomorze Gdańskie nr 20, Gdańsk 1997
* [http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/desbillons/atlas/seite70.html 1598 map of Pomerania and Western Prussia with "Dan(t)zig"]
* [http://wwwtest.library.ucla.edu/libraries/mgi/maps/blaeu/prvssia.jpg"c".1630 map of Prussia with "Dantzk"]
* [http://www.frombork.art.pl/Frombork-foto/m_reyilly.jpgMap c 1701 of Prussia — (Preussen mit Freie Stadt Danzig)]
* [http://home.golden.net/~medals/PortGdansk.html Free City of Danzig stamps]
* [http://www.danzig-online.de/ Information on Danzig (in German)]
* [http://www.danzig.de/ History and people of the Hanseatic city (in German)]
* [http://www.jednota.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=450&Itemid=65/ A multicultural history of the Gdansk Calvinists]
* pl icon} [http://wiadomosci.o2.pl/?s=512&t=10676 Bombing on Sep 7 1939]
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