- Limber Pine
name = Limber Pine
status = LR/lc | status_system = IUCN2.3
image_width = 240px
image_caption = Limber pine in the Craters of the Moon National Monument,
classis = Pinopsida
genus = "Pinus"
subgenus = "Strobus"
species = "P. flexilis"
binomial = "Pinus flexilis"
binomial_authority = E.James
The Limber Pine ("Pinus flexilis"; family
Pinaceae) is a species of pine treethat occurs in the mountains of the Western United Statesand Canada, specifically the subalpineareas of the Rocky Mountainsfrom southwest Albertasouth to the Mexican border; the Great Basinmountains of Nevadaand Utah; and the White Mountains, the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and the San Bernardino Mountainsin Californiawith a small disjunct population in the Black Hillsof South Dakota.It is typically a high-elevation pine, often marking the tree lineeither on its own, or with Whitebark Pine, either of the bristlecone pines, or Lodgepole Pine. In favourable conditions, it makes a tree to 20 m, rarely 25 m tall, but on exposed tree line sites only 5-10 m tall.
Limber Pine is a member of the white pine group, "
Pinus" subgenus " Strobus", and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five, with a deciduous sheath. This distinguishes it from the Lodgepole Pine, with two needles per fascicle, and the bristlecone pines, which share five needles per fascicle but have a semi-persistent sheath.
Distinguishing Limber Pine from the related
Whitebark Pine, also a white pine, is very much more difficult, and can only easily be done by the cones. In Limber Pine, the cones are 6-12 cm long where the species overlap, green when immature, and open to release the seeds; the scales are not fragile. In Whitebark Pine, the cones are 4-7 cm long, dark purple when immature, and do not open on drying, but are fragile and are pulled apart by birds (see below) to release the seeds. A useful clue resulting is that Whitebark Pines almost never have intact old cones lying under them, whereas Limber Pines usually do.
In the absence of cones, Limber Pine can also be hard to tell from
Western White Pinewhere they occur together in the northern Rockies and the Sierra Nevada east slope. The most useful clue here is that Limber Pine needles are entire (smooth when rubbed gently in both directions), whereas Western White Pine needles are finely serrated (feeling rough when rubbed gently from tip to base). Limber Pine needles are also usually shorter, 4-7 cm long, to Western White Pine's 5-10 cm (though note the overlap).
Arizonaand New Mexico, Limber Pine differs from the populations further north. These populations, often known as Southwestern White Pine, are sometimes treated as a variety, "Pinus flexilis" var. "reflexa", but more often as a distinct species, either (accurately) under the name "Pinus reflexa", or (through confusion with the Mexican Chihuahua White Pine), erroneously under the name "Pinus strobiformis" (which correctly applies to the Mexican species). The Southwestern White Pine differs from typical Limber Pine in being a larger tree, to 25-35 m tall, with longer needles, 6-11 cm long, which have strongly white stomatal bands on the inner faces of the needles (inconspicuous in the type), and are slightly serrated towards the tips of the needles. The cones are also larger, typically 10-20 cm long. It differs from true Mexican "Pinus strobiformis" in that the needles are not fully serrated, and the cones being smaller (15-25 cm in "P. strobiformis"), the cone scales shorter and the seeds smaller. It is possible that "Pinus reflexa" is a natural hybrid between "Pinus flexilis" and "Pinus strobiformis". Type localities of the three taxa are:
Pikes Peak, Colorado
Santa Catalina Mountains40 km east of Tucson, Arizona
:::::"Pinus strobiformis": Cusihuiráchic, 90 km southwest of the city of Chihuahua, in the south of the Mexican state of
Limber Pine is an important source of food for several species, including Red Squirrels and
Clark's Nutcrackers. American Black Bears may raid squirrel caches for Limber Pine nuts. Squirrels, Northern Flickers, and Mountain Bluebirds often nest in the trees.
Unfortunately, Limber Pine is afflicted with
White Pine Blister Rust("Cronartium ribicola"), a fungus that was introduced accidentally from Europe. Limber Pine mortality is high in many areas throughout its range, except Arizona, where it has not yet been found. However, there is no known way of controlling the blister rust in existing trees. Research is under way, locating and breeding from the occasional naturally resistant Limber Pines, and by studying the resistance mechanisms of the European and Asian white pines (e.g. Swiss Pine, Macedonian Pine), which are strongly resistant to the disease.
cultivar'Vanderwolf's Pyramid ', widely sold as an ornamental tree, derives from "Pinus reflexa", though it is usually listed in nursery catalogs under "Pinus flexilis".
* [http://www.pinetum.org/cones/PNStrobus.htm "Pinus flexilis" cone pics; compare also "Pinus reflexa" and "Pinus strobiformis" (scroll ¼ way down page)]
* [http://www.conifers.org/pi/pin/flexilis.htm Gymnosperm Database: "Pinus flexilis"]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500936 Flora of North America, profile and
* [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIFL2 USDA Plants Profile: "Pinus flexilis"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
limber pine — lanksčioji pušis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Pušinių šeimos dekoratyvinis augalas (Pinus flexilis), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Pinus flexilis angl. limber pine vok. Nevada Zirbel Kiefer rus. сосна гибкая lenk. sosna… … Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)
limber pine — noun western North American pine with long needles and very flexible limbs and dark grey furrowed bark • Syn: ↑Pinus flexilis • Hypernyms: ↑white pine … Useful english dictionary
limber pine — noun Date: 1897 a pine (Pinus flexilis) of the western United States and Canada that has flexible branches and needles in bundles of five … New Collegiate Dictionary
limber pine — a pine, Pinus flexilis, of western North America, having light, soft wood used locally for railroad ties, poles, fuel, etc. * * * … Universalium
limber pine — noun a small pine tree with tough pliant branches, native to the Rocky Mountains of North America. [Pinus flexilis.] … English new terms dictionary
Twister (limber pine) — Twister is the name given to an ancient Limber pine by Bryan P. Tikalsky, a graduate student from Brigham Young University and his graduate advisor, Matthew F. Bekker. Twister, located in Utah near Alta, first sprouted some time before 309 AD,… … Wikipedia
Limber — may refer to:*Limbers and caissons (military), a 2 way cart used to support artilery *Limber Pine, a species of pine tree found in the Western United States and Canada *Limber Perez, a Honduran football player *Limber Hill Transmitter, a relay… … Wikipedia
Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness — Infobox protected area | name = Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness iucn category = Ib caption = locator x = 53 locator y = 88 location = Utah, USA nearest city = Leeds, UT lat degrees = 37 lat minutes = 21 lat seconds = 59 lat direction = N long… … Wikipedia
pine — I (New American Roget s College Thesaurus) v. i. languish, long, crave; wither, droop. See dejection, disease, desire. II (Roget s IV) n. Varieties of pine include: white, stone, mugo, whitebark, foxtail, bristlecone, nut, singleleaf, piñon,… … English dictionary for students
Whitebark Pine — Taxobox name = Whitebark Pine status = VU status system = iucn2.3 image width = 240px image caption = A stand of Whitebark Pines regnum = Plantae divisio = Pinophyta classis = Pinopsida ordo = Pinales familia = Pinaceae genus = Pinus subgenus =… … Wikipedia