- Education in Ukraine
This article is about
Ukraine's educational system has produced nearly 100%
literacy.cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/up.html|title=Ukraine|date= March 20, 2008|work= CIA World Factbook]
Secondary education is compulsory. As a rule, schooling begins at the age of 6.
Kiev University(National Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev)
Kharkiv University(Karazin Kharkiv National University)
Lviv University(Ivan Franko National University of Lviv)
Donetsk National University
Chernivtsi University(Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University)
Odessa University(I.I. Mechnikov Odessa National University)
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
National Technical University of Ukraine(National Technical University of Ukraine "Kiev Polytechnic Institute")
National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute"
Ukrainian educational system
The Ukrainian educational system is arranged into three major groups: secondary education, higher education, and postgraduate education.
Primary and secondary education is divided into into "younger", "middle" and "senior" schools. Younger school comprises grades 1 to 4. Grades 5-9 are usually referred to as "middle school", while 10-11 are "senior school". Despite the names, students usually study in the same school building throughout their primary and secondary education.
Those who began their schooling in 2001 or later study in the school during 12 years rather than 11: primary education takes 4 years to complete, middle education takes 5 years to complete and its curriculum somewhat depends on the school. There are then 3 profile years.
During grade 11, which is usually around the age of 17, students take various exams. The current examination system is undergoing change. At grades 9 and 11 students take IGTs (Independent Government Tests), which allow eleventh (in the future twelfth) graders to enter universities without taking separate entrance exams. In 2008 and later only the IGTs will determine entrance eligibility. [ [http://zakon1.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=z0073-08 Про затвердження Порядку проведення зовнішнього незалежного оцінювання...| вiд 24.01.2008 ] ]
Higher education can be obtained either at the expense of the state or for a fee. It is common practice that university candidates are not required to pass an entrance examination if they are willing to pay for their education. [Sometimes there are some exams for the paying candidate but, as a rule, they are a formality only.]
Students that study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test is at least 4 (see the 5-point grade system below); this rule may be somewhat changed in some universities. In the case of all 5 grades, the scholarship is increased by 25%. For most students the amount of government scholarship is not sufficient to cover their minimal living expenses. Most universities provide subsidized housing for out-of-city students. Also, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students.
There are two degrees conferred by Ukrainian universities: the Bachelor's Degree (4 years) and the Master's Degree (5-6 years). These degrees are introduced in accordance with
Bologna process, in which Ukraine is taking part. Historically, Specialist's Degree (usually 5 years) is still also granted; it was the only degree awarded by universities in the Soviet times.
After obtaining the Master's Degree or the Specialist's one, a student may enter a university or a scientific institute to pursue postgraduate education. The first level of postgraduate education is "aspirantura" that usually results in the "Kandidat Nauk" degree (Candidate of Sciences). Candidates must pass three qualifying exams (in the field of specialty, in a foreign language of their choice and in philosophy), publish at least three scientific articles, write a
dissertationand defend it. This degree is roughly equivalent to the Ph.D.in the United States.cite book|title= Great Soviet Encyclopedia.|publisher=Sovetskaya Enciklopediya|edition=3rd ed.|pages=vol. 11|location=Moscow|language=Russian] .
After graduation a student may continue postgraduate education. This takes from two to four years of study in "doctorantura". Significant scientific results must be obtained and published, and a new thesis written. This produces a "Doctor Nauk" degree (Doctor of Sciences), but the more typical way is working in a university or scientific institute with parallel preparation of a thesis. The average time between obtaining "Kandidat" and "Doctor" degrees is roughly 10 years, and most of new "Doctors" are 40 and more years old. Only one of four "Kandidats" reaches this grade.
"Kandidat Nauk" may keep position of Associate Professor in universities and of Researcher or Senior Researcher in scientific institutes. "Doctor Nauk" can hold position of full Professor, Head of Laboratory or equal or higher positions.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine consider changing the Soviet-like "Kandidat Nauk" and "Doctor Nauk" degrees by Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor Habilitation, as it was made by several post-Soviet countries.
Ukrainian universities use a traditional 5-point scale:
*"5" = "excellent"
*"4" = "good"
*"3" = "acceptable"
*"2" = "unacceptable".
"5", "4", "3" can be described as "Satisfactory", "2" - as "Fail".
Students who get a failing grade of "2", have two more chances to pass an examination.
Since 2006 (and even earlier in some universities), university students are graded on a rating scale of 0 to 100. These grades can be transformed to the 5-point scale as follows:
*from 90 to 100 means "5"
*from 75 to 89 means "4"
*from 60 to 74 means "3"
*from 0 to 59 means "2"
Both the rating scale and the 5-point scale are used in university registers.
As for secondary schools, they also used the above-mentioned 5-point scale till
2000. Since 2000secondary schools use a 12-point scale, which could be transformed into the traditional 5-point scale as follows:
*"12" = "5+"
*"11" = "5"
*"10" = "5-"
*"9" = "4+"
*"8" = "4"
*"7" = "4-"
*"6" = "3+"
*"5" = "3"
*"4" = "3-"
*"3" = "2+"
*"2" = "2"
*"1" = "2-"
Here signs "+" and "-" denote respectively better and worse version of a mark, for example, "4-" means "somewhat worse than good".
Language of education
academic year, 70% of students attended Ukrainian-language schools (that is where Ukrainian is the primary language of instruction), while 29% were studying in Russian-language schools. There are schools with instruction in Romanian, Crimean Tatar, Hungarian, and Polish in regions populated by those groups.
Historically, the language of instruction has often been changed in Ukraine. When Ukraine was part of the
Russian Empire, the Ukrainian language was proscribed, and Russian language predominated among the elite, who had access to schools.
The initial policies of the
Bolshevikswere supportive of local languages, and many Ukrainian-language schools were opened, with the long-term goal of getting rid of illiteracy. From the mid- 1930sto the mid- 1980s, the Soviet government policies favored Russification. In the 1970sand 1980s, the number of Russian-language schools were constantly being increased at the expense of Ukrainian-language schools. After Ukraine obtaining independence the trend was reversed. However, reintroduction of formal Ukrainian-language study has taken longer than expected. In some schools that had tried to switch to Ukrainian from Russian, part or most of the instruction is still given in Russian.
In universities there were similar trends. In 1991/92
academic year, according to the Razumkov centre, 49% of high school students were receiving their education in Ukrainian, and 50% in Russian.
List of universities in Ukraine
*uk icon [http://www.mon.gov.ua Ministry of Education and Science of the Ukraine] (official website)
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