- Lowland Clearances
The Lowland Clearances (
Scottish Gaelic: "Fuadaich nan Galltachd") in Scotlandwere one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. Hundreds of thousands of cottars and tenant farmers from the southern counties of Scotland were forcibly moved from the farms and small holdings they had occupied.
Many small settlements were torn down, their occupants forced to new, purposely-built villages. John Cockburn of Ormiston, for example, displaced cottars to the outskirts of his new ranch. Other displaced farmers moved to the new industrial centres of
Glasgow, Edinburghand northern England.
As a result, between 1760 and 1830, many tens of thousands of Lowland Scots emigrated, taking advantage of the many new opportunities offered in
Canadaand the United Statesafter 1776 to own and farm their own land. Others chose to remain, either by choice, out of an inability to secure transatlantic passage, or because of obligations in Scotland.
As farmland became more commercialised, land was often rented through auctions, leading to an inflation of rents that priced many tenants out of the market. Furthermore, changes in agricultural practice meant the replacement of part-time labourer / subtenants (known as cottars, cottagers, or bondsmen) with full time agricultural labourers who lived either on the main farm or in rented accommodation in growing or newly founded villages. This led many contemporary writers and modern historians to associate the Agricultural Revolution with the disappearance of cottars and their way of life from many parts of the southern Scotland.
Although the causes were different, the lowland Agricultural Revolution is being seen as the forerunner of the
Highland Clearances, which started around the same time but continued to the 1870s. New research (2003–04) about the destruction of Lowland culture has led historians such as Tom Devineto dub this period of time the Lowland Clearances.
* Aitchison, Pete and Cassell, Andrew. "The Lowland Clearances, Scotland's Silent Revolution: 1760–1830", 2003
* Devine, Prof. Tom. "The Scottish Nation: 1700–2000", 2001
* Gibson, Alex, 1990. ‘Proletarianization? The Transition to Full-Time Labour on a Scottish Estate, 1723–1787’. Continuity and Change, 5 (3): 357–89.
* Orr, Alistair, 1984. ‘Farm Servants and Farm Labour in the Forth Valley and South-East Lowlands’. In Farm Servants and Labour in Lowland Scotland, 1770–1914.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/3030889.stm BBC Radio Scotland series]
* [http://www.beamccowan.com/media.htm Scotland's Forgotten Clearances]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Highland Clearances — Ruined croft houses on Fuaigh Mòr in Loch Roag. The island was cleared of its inhabitants in 1841 and is now only used for grazing sheep. The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadach nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) were forced… … Wikipedia
Highland Clearances — Les Highland Clearances (en gaélique écossais Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, « l expulsion des Gaëls ») sont des déplacements forcés de la population des Highlands écossais au XVIIIe siècle, qui ont pris de l ampleur à partir de la… … Wikipédia en Français
Highland Clearances — El proceso conocido en inglés como Highland Clearances (en gaélico escocés Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, la expulsión de los Gaélicos ) consistió en el desplazamiento forzado de la población de las Highlands escocesas durante el siglo XVIII. Este… … Wikipedia Español
Scottish clan — Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Gaelic clann, progeny ), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs recognised by the court of… … Wikipedia
Scottish Gaelic — Not to be confused with Scots language or Scottish English. Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig Pronunciation [ˈkaːlikʲ] Spoken in … Wikipedia
Highlands Clearance — Highland Clearances Les Highland Clearances (en gaélique écossais Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, « l expulsion des Gaëls ») sont des déplacements forcés de la population des Highlands écossais au XVIIIe siècle, qui ont pris de l ampleur à… … Wikipédia en Français
Enclosure — For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). Enclosure or inclosure is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to… … Wikipedia
Scotland in the modern era — History of Scotland This article is part of a series Chronologicy … Wikipedia
Scotland — For other uses, see Scotland (disambiguation). Scotland (English/Scots) Alba (Scottish Gaelic) … Wikipedia
Porteous family — The Porteous family is an ancient Scottish Borders armigerous family.HistoryThe earliest records for members of the Porteous family in Peeblesshire date back to the early part of the fifteenth century. The earliest possible reference, according… … Wikipedia