The gavotte (also gavot or gavote) originated as a French
folk dance, taking its name from the Gavot people of the Pays de Gapregion of Dauphiné, where the dance originated. It is notated in 4/4 or 2/2 time and is of moderate tempo. The distinctive rhythmic feature of the original gavotte is that phrases begin in the middle of the bar; that is, in either 4/4 or 2/2 time, the phrases begin on the third quarter noteof the bar, creating a half-measure upbeat, as illustrated below:
J.-M. Guilcher’s study of the gavotte in
Brittany(1963) revealed great variety in modern practice, especially in the type of steps used, floor patterns and formations and musical accompaniment. Gavottes in some areas are accompanied by singing, with a soloist alternating either with a group or with another soloist; in other areas gavottes are accompanied by instruments..... such as the violin, drum, bagpipe or a kind of shawm.Fact|date=September 2008
branle, in which sideways motion was achieved by the dancer’s continually bringing the feet together, the gavotte required crossing of the feet twice in each step pattern, and each step was followed by a hop. Various pantomimic motions, such as the choice of a leader for the next dance, usually formed part of a gavotte performance.
The gavotte in Baroque music
The gavotte became popular in the court of Louis XIV where
Jean-Baptiste Lullywas the leading court composer. Consequently several other composers of the Baroque period incorporated the dance as one of many optional additions to the standard instrumental suiteof the era. The examples in suites and partitas by Johann Sebastian Bachare best known. When present in the Baroque suite, the gavotte is often played after the sarabandeand before the gigue, along with other optional dances such as minuet, bourrée, rigaudon, and passepied.
The gavotte could be played at a variety of tempi; in his "Musicalisches Lexicon" (Leipzig, 1732), Johann Gottfried Walther wrote that the gavotte is "often quick, but occasionally slow"; and Johann Joachim Quantz wrote in "Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen" (Berlin, 1752) that "A gavotte is almost like the
rigaudon, but somewhat more moderate in tempo." [Bach. "The French Suites: Embellished version". Barenreiter Urtext]
The gavotte in the Baroque period is typically in
binary form. A notable exception is the rondoform of the Gavotte from Bach's PartitaNo. 3 in E Major for solo violin, BWV 1006.
Later composers, particularly in the nineteenth century, began to write gavottes to begin on the
downbeatrather than on the half-measure upbeat. The famous Gavotte in D by Gossec is such an example, as is the Gavotte in Massenet's "Manon". A gavotte also occurs in the second act of " The Gondoliers" by Gilbert and Sullivanand the Finale of the First Act of " Ruddigore" also by Gilbert and Sullivan.In the musical " My Fair Lady" ( 1956), the number entitled "Ascot Gavotte" does away completely with the traditionalrhythmic pattern by having a quarter-note upbeat in the phrases while retaining the mildly march-like stateliness of the dance to characterize the stilted, high-society world of the attendants at the horserace. In contrast, "The Venice Gavotte" from the American operetta"Candide" (from the same year) presents the original half-bar-upbeat rhythm of this particular dance type. The gavotte from Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Cinderella" is somewhat of a blend, having some phrases beginning on the upbeat and some beginning on the downbeat.
References in popular culture
Carly Simon's song " You're So Vain" includes the lyric "You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself gavotte", in this context it can be taken to mean a pretentious or egotistical style of dancing.
* The Stephen Sondheim musical "Sunday in the Park With George" uses the word "gavotte" as a satirical device in the otherwise irregular, non-steadily rhythmical, song "It's Hot Up Here" to start the second Act, "We're stuck up here in this gavotte."
W.D. Hamiltonin his paper entitled "Gamblers since life began: barnacles, aphids, elms." in the " Quarterly Review of Biology" (1975) made an earnest attempt at wit by referring to the drilled formality of the mechanisms of individual reproduction as "the gavotte of chromosomes".
Agustin Barrioswrote a solo guitar piece called "Madrigal Gavotte", which is a combination of the two styles.
* In the anime "Kiniro no Corda (La Corda D'Oro)", they play the "Gavotte in D by Gossec" many times, but they call it only "Gavotte".
* In the novel "
Good Omens", it is noted that one cannot determine how many angels can dance on the head of a pin, because angels do not dance--the exception being the Principality Aziraphale, who once learned to do the Gavotte.
*The "Cutting Gavotte" is an attack in the Japanese version of the forthcoming RPG "Infinite Undiscovery".
*In the Broadway musical "1776" during the song "Cool, Considerate Men", reference is made to "Mr. Adams' new gavotte"--a reference regarding John Adams' ideas for a declaration of independence from Great Britain.
*In the 1967 movie, "How To Succeed In Business Without Really Trying", the song "A Secretary Is Not A Toy" refers to a gavotte. The song discourages personal indiscretions with secretaries at the firm. The reference to a gavotte insinuates that a gavotte equates to an intimate encounter.
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Look at other dictionaries:
GAVOTTE — Basse danse (glissée, non sautée) française d’origine populaire (en provençal, gavoto évoque les Gavots, habitants de la région de Gap), de rythme binaire (deux pas et un pas assemblé) et de tempo ordinairement modéré. La gavotte commence… … Encyclopédie Universelle
gavotte — GAVOTTE. sub. f. Espece de danse gaye. Danser la gavotte. Il se prend aussi, Pour l air sur lequel on danse la gavotte. Ce Musicien a fait une belle gavotte. joüer une gavotte … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
gavotte — lively dance, 1690s, from Fr. gavotte (17c.), from O.Prov. gavoto вЂњmountaineer s dance,вЂќ from gavot, a local name for an Alpine resident, lit. вЂњboor, glutton,вЂќ from gaver вЂњto stuff, force feed poultry,вЂќ from O.Prov. gava вЂњcrop.вЂќ… … Etymology dictionary
Gavotte — (spr. Gawott), französischer Tanz von heiterem u. graziösem Charakter, in gerader Tactart, meist 2/4 Tact, mit zwei Reprisen; von Einem Paare auf einmal getanzt. Sonst brauchte man die G. auch in Sonaten, Partien etc.; kommt jetzt nur noch selten … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Gavotte — (spr gawótt ), alter, schon von I. Tabouret in seiner »Orchéographie« (1589) beschriebener, in dem Dauphiné heimischer Tanz, der besonders durch Lullys Ballettopern allgemeine Verbreitung fand. Die G. steht im Allabrevetakt (2/2) mit 1/2 Auftakt… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Gavotte — Gavotte, franz. Tanzmusikstück von munterm Charakter, im 18. Jahrh. im Opernballett und von deutschen Meistern (bes. Bach, dann auch von Raff, Reinecke u.a.) als Satz der Suite verwendet; auch für Klavier komponiert … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Gavotte — Gavotte, Tonstück von munterem Charakter, gewöhnl. zum theatralischen Tanze angewandt, früher in anderen Tonstücken, Sonaten und Suiten gebräuchlich … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
gavotte — ► NOUN ▪ a medium paced French dance, popular in the 18th century. ORIGIN Provençal gavoto dance of the mountain people , from Gavot a native of the Alps … English terms dictionary
gavotte — [gə vät′] n. [Fr < Prov gavoto, dance of the Gavots, name used for a people of Hautes Alpes, France, lit., boors, gluttons < gaver, to stuff, force feed (poultry) < OProv gava, crop] 1. a 17th cent. dance like the minuet, but faster and… … English World dictionary
Gavotte — Die Gavotte ist ein historischer Gesellschaftstanz. Sie ist häufig Bestandteil der barocken Suite. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Gavotte in der Barockmusik 2 Notenbeispiel 3 Gavotte in der bretonischen Musik … Deutsch Wikipedia