Water conservation


Water conservation

"Water conservation" refers to reducing the use of water.

The goals of water conservation efforts include:
* Sustainability - To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate.
* Energy conservation - Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world (for example, California [California Energy Commission, " [http://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-700-2005-011/CEC-700-2005-011-SF.PDF California's Water-Energy saiju simonover 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management ] ).
* Habitat conservation - Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructure.

Home

Water-saving technology for the home includes:
*Low-flow shower heads (sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy, due to less water being heated).Fact|date=February 2007
*Low-flush toilets, composting toilets and waterless urinals, which can have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water.
*Faucet aerators, which break water flow into fine droplets to maintain "wetting effectiveness" while using less water. As a bonus, they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes.
*Wastewater reuse or recycling systems, allowing:
**Reuse of graywater for flushing toilets or for the garden, and
**Recycling of wastewater through purification at a water treatment plant. "See also Wastewater - Reuse
*Waterless car wash
*Rainwater harvesting

Agriculture

For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation or runoff. An Evaporation pan can be used to determine how much water is required to irrigate the land. Flood irrigation, the oldest and most common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern, but in extremely dry conditions, much of the water may evaporate before it reaches the ground. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the best results in delivering water to plant roots with minimal losses.

As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules. [US EPA, " [http://www.epa.gov/ow/you/chap3.html Clean Water Through Conservation] ", Practices for Agricultural Users]

*Recharge pits, which capture rainwater and runoff and use it to recharge ground water supplies. This helps in the formation of ground water wells etc. and eventually reduces soil erosion caused due to running water.

#any beneficial reduction in water loss, waste, or use;
#a reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or,
#improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. [ [Vickers, Amy. “Water Use and Conservation.” Amherst, MA Waterplow Press. June 2002. 434] ] . A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology, or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste, or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. That results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand. The value and cost-effectiveness of a water efficiency measure must be evaluated in relation to its effects on the use and cost of other natural resources (e.g. energy or chemicals). [ [Vickers, Amy. “Water Use and Conservation.” Amherst, MA Waterplow Press. June 2002. 434] ]

Water Efficiency

Water efficiency can be defined as the accomplishment of a function, task, process, or result with the minimal amount of water feasible, or an indicator of the relationships between the amount of water needed for a specific purpose and the amount of water used, occupied or delivered. [ [Vickers, Amy. “Water Use and Conservation.” Amherst, MA Waterplow Press. June 2002. 434] ]

Minimum Water Network Target and Design

The Cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for water conservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewater target for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy i.e. it considers all conceivable methods to save water. The technique ensure that the designer desired payback period is satisfied using Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) technique.

Another established technique for maximum water recovery is the water pinch analysis technique. However, this technique only focuses on maximizing freshwater and wastewater reduction via reuse and regeneration.

ee also

*Cost effective minimum water network
*Pan evaporation
*Utility submeter
*Water meter
*Water metering
*Water Pinch
*Water management hierarchy

Notes and references

* [http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/2 Helmle, Samuel F., "Water Conservation Planning: Developing a Strategic Plan for Socially Acceptable Demand Control Programs" (2005). Applied Research Projects] . Texas State University. Paper 2.

Footnotes

External links

* [http://www.waterefficiency.net Water Efficiency Magazine] , The Journal for Water Conservation Professionals]
* [http://eartheasy.com/live_water_saving.htm Simple Ways to Conserve Water at Home]
* [http://www.thisland.uiuc.edu/57ways/57ways_57.html Conserve Water In And Around The Home]
* [http://www.redcross.org.uk/standard.asp?id=73304 Drought and water-saving tips] from the British Red Cross
* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/cons.shtml Water Conservation (WQIC topic area)]
* [http://www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org The Alliance for Water Efficiency]
* [http://www.h2oconserve.org H2O Conserve] Water Footprint Calculator


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • water conservation — vandens apsauga statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Teisinių aktų ir techninių priemonių visuma, sauganti vandenis nuo taršos ir kenksmingo poveikio. atitikmenys: angl. protection of waters; water conservation; water pollution… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • water conservation — noun the conservation of water resources • Hypernyms: ↑conservation …   Useful english dictionary

  • water conservation —    All measures to reduce the quantitative of qualitative spoilage of water [16] …   Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology

  • Water Conservation Order — A Water Conservation Order is a legal ruling to protect aspects of water bodies. It may be to protect the quantity of the water itself or for any issues relating to the water body as a whole.New ZealandIn New Zealand a Water Conservation Order is …   Wikipedia

  • Water Conservation Order — Eine Water Conservation Order ist in Neuseeland eine Gesetzesvorschrift, die Eigenschaften eines Gewässers außerhalb von allgemeinen Schutzgebieten wie Nationalparks unter Schutz stellt. Der Schutz kann einerseits das Gewässer insgesamt unter… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Land and Water Conservation Fund — The United States Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) is a Federal program that was established by Act of Congress in 1964 to provide monies and matching grants to federal, state and local governments for the acquisition of land and water,… …   Wikipedia

  • Colorado River Water Conservation District v. United States — Supreme Court of the United States Argued Janua …   Wikipedia

  • Soil and Water Conservation Society — The Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) is a professional and scientific membership society. The mission of the organization is to foster the science and art of natural resource management for sustainability. The society was formed in 1943 …   Wikipedia

  • Nassau County Soil and Water Conservation District — The Nassau County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), located in Nassau County, Florida is a government entity dedicated to encouraging productive use of land, water and air resources in the county. According to a summary taken from… …   Wikipedia

  • Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District — The Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), located in Duval County, Florida is a government entity dedicated to encouraging productive use of land, water and air resources in the county. According to a summary taken from… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.