- Lithuanian people
Infobox Ethnic group
poptime= 4 - 5 million (est.)
popplace= LTU Elsewhere in
Europe: Fact|date=January 2008
50 000 [http://www.cso.ie/statistics/placebirthagegroup.htm]
1,300Rest of the World:
722,879 [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-state=dt&-context=dt&-reg=DEC_2000_SF4_U_PCT001:001|547;&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B04003&-CONTEXT=dt&-tree_id=4001&-all_geo_types=N&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=01000US&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en 2006 American Community Survey ] ]
Latvians, Prussian Lithuanians
Lithuanians are the Baltic
ethnic groupnative to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lh.html CIA World Factbook] ] Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdomand Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic languagefamily. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania proper identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Most Lithuanians belong to the Roman Catholic Church, while Lietuvininkaiwho lived in the northern part of East Prussiabefore World War II, were mostly Lutherans.
The territory of the Balts, including modern Lithuania, was once inhabited by several Baltic tribal entities (
Sudovians, Curonians, Selonians, Samogitians, Nadruviansand others), as attested by ancient sources and dating from prehistoric times. Over the centuries, and especially under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, some of these tribes consolidated into the Lithuanian nation, mainly as a defense against the marauding Teutonic Orderand Eastern Slavs. One of the last Pagan peoples in Europe, they were eventually converted to Christianity in 1387.
The territory inhabited by ethnic Lithuanians has shrunk over centuries; once Lithuanians made up a majority of population not only in what is now
Lithuania, but also in northwestern Belarus, in large areas of the territory of modern Kaliningrad Oblastof Russia, and in some parts of modern Latviaand Poland.
However, there is a current argument that the Lithuanian language was considered non-prestigious by some elements in Lithuanian society, and a preference for the Polish language in certain territories of the
Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, as well as a preference for the German languagein territories of the former East Prussia(now Kaliningrad Oblastof Russia) caused the number of Lithuanian speakers to decrease. The subsequent imperial Russian occupation accelerated this process; it pursued a policy of "Russification", which included a ban on public speaking and writing in Lithuanian (see, e.g., " Knygnešiai", the actions against the Catholic church). It was believed by some at the time that the nation as such, along with its language, would become extinct within a few generation.
At the end of the 19th century a Lithuanian cultural and linguistic revival occurred. Some of the Polish- and Belarusian-speaking Lithuanians still affiliated themselves with the Lithuanian nationFact|date=June 2008. Lithuania declared independence after the
World War I, which helped its national consolidation. A standard Lithuanian language was approved. However, the eastern parts of Lithuania, including the Vilnius region, were annexed by Poland, while the Klaipėda Regionwas taken over by Nazi Germanyin 1939. In 1940, Lithuania was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union, and forced to join it as the Lithuanian SSR. The Germans and their allies attacked the U.S.S.R. in June 1941, and from 1941–1944, Lithuania was occupied by Germany. The Germans retreated in 1944, and Lithuania fell under the Soviet rule once again. The long-standing communities of Lithuanians in the Kaliningrad Oblast(" Lithuania Minor") were almost destroyed as a result.
The Lithuanian nation as such remained primarily in Lithuania, in a few villages in northeastern
Poland, southern Latviaand also in the diaspora of emigrants. Some indigenous Lithuanians still remain in Belarus and the Kaliningrad Oblast, but their number is small compared to what they used to be. Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, and was recognized by most countries in 1991. It became a member of the European Unionon May 1, 2004. A low birth rate and increased emigration after joining EU is threatening the nation's future.
Ethnic composition of Lithuania
Baltic states, Lithuania has the most homogeneous population. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups.
Poles are concentrated in the
Vilnius region, the area controlled by Poland in the interwar period. Especially large Polish communities are located in the Vilnius district municipality(61.3% of the population) and the Šalčininkai district municipality(79.5%). This concentration allows Election Action of Lithuania's Poles, an ethnic minority-based political party, to exert political influence. This party has held 1 or 2 seats in the parliament of Lithuania for the past decade. The party is more active in local politics and controls several municipality councils.
Russians, even though they are almost as numerous as Poles, are much more evenly scattered and do not have a strong political party. The most prominent community lives in the
Visaginas city municipality(52%). Most of them are workers who moved from Russia to work at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Lithuania is noted for its success in limiting Russian worker migration during the Soviet occupation (1945-1990). A number of ethnic Russians left Lithuania after the declaration of independence in 1990.
In the past, the ethnic composition of Lithuania has varied dramatically. The most prominent change was the extermination of the Jewish population during
the Holocaust. Before World War II, about 7.5% of the population was Jewish; they were concentrated in cities and towns and had a significant influence on crafts and business. They were called Litvaks and had a strong culture. The population of Vilnius, which was sometimes nicknamed "the Northern Jerusalem", was about 30% Jewish. Almost all its Jews were killed during the Nazi Germanyoccupation or later emigrated to the United Statesand Israel. Now there are only about 4,000 Jews living in Lithuania.
Apart from the various religious and ethnic groups currently residing in Lithuania, Lithuanians themselves are usually divided into 5 groups:
Samogitians, Sudovians, Aukštaitians, Dzūkiansand Lietuvininks, [cite news | first=Angelė | last=Vyšniauskaitė | coauthors= | title=LIETUVIŲ ETNINĖ KULTŪRA – AKCENTAS DAUGIALYPĖJE EUROPOS KULTŪROJE | date=2005 | publisher= | url =http://samogitia.mch.mii.lt/KULTURA/Seminaras_etnine_kultura.htm | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-26 | language = Lithuanian ] the last of which is virtually extinct. City dwellers are usually considered just Lithuanians, especially ones from large cities such as Vilniusor Kaunas. The four groups are delineated according to certain region-specific traditions, dialects, and historical divisions. There are some stereotypes used in jokes about these subgroups, for example, Sudovians are supposedly frugal while Samogitians are stubborn.
Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements [Česnys G. Anthropological roots of the Lithuanians.Science, Arts and Lithuania 1991; 1: p. 4–10.] , although without being actually isolated from them. [Daiva Ambrasienė, Vaidutis Kučinskas [http://images.katalogas.lt/maleidykla/eko31/E-89.pdf Genetic variability of the Lithuanian human population according to Y chromosome microsatellite markers] ] Lithuanian population appears to be relatively homogeneous, without apparent genetic differences among ethnic subgroups. [ [http://images.katalogas.lt/maleidykla/act41/A-01.pdf Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Analysis in the Lithuanian Population] ]
A 2004 analysis of
MtDNAin a Lithuanian population revealed that Lithuanians are close to both Slavic (Indo-European) and Finno-Ugric-speaking populations of Northern and Eastern Europe. Y-chromosomeSNP haplogroupanalysis showed Lithuanians to be closest to Latviansand Estonians. [ [http://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/pdf/Kasperavicuite.2004.pdf MtDNA analysis of sample population of Lithuanians] ]
A high frequency of the CCR5-D32 allele in Lithuanian populations, at levels of about 16% has been discovered. [ [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030339 PLoS Biology - The Geographic Spread of the CCR5 Δ32 HIV-Resistance Allele ] ] This allele confers resistance to
HIVinfection. Several theories have been advanced with regard to this genetic development; it may have arisen as a response to epidemics of smallpoxor plague in the area, both of which occurred in Lithuania before the mid-19th century.
AshkenaziJews have also interested geneticists, since they display a number of unique genetic characteristics; the utility of these variations has been the subject of debate. [ [http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts-diseases.html Genetic diseases among the Ashkenazi] ] One variation, which is implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia, has been dated to the 14th century, corresponding to the establishment of Ashkenazi settlements in response to the invitation extended by Vytautas the Great in 1388. [ [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?id=doi:10.1086/320123&erFrom=-1965092063046037095Guest Familiar hypercholesterolemia among Lithuanian Ashkenazi] ]
At the end of the 19th century, the average height of males was 163.5 cm and the average height of females was 153.3 cm. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15830586&dopt=Abstract J. Tutkuviene. "Sex and gender differences in secular trend of body size and frame indices of Lithuanians". Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur. 2005 Mar;63(1):29-44.] ] About half of the Lithuanians are blond, and most have blue eyes (see maps here). citation needed??
Apart from the traditional communities in Lithuania and its neighboring countries, Lithuanians have emigrated to other continents during the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.
*Communities in the United States make up the largest part of this
diaspora; as many as one million Americans can claim Lithuanian descent. Emigration to America began in the 19th century, with an interruption during the Soviet occupation, when travel and emigration were severely restricted. The largest concentrations of Lithuanian Americansare in the Great Lakes area and the Northeast. Nearly 20,000 Lithuanians have immigrated to the United States since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. [http://www.dhs.gov/immigrationstatistics]
*Lithuanian communities in
Mexicoand South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay) developed before World War II, beginning in the late 19th and early 20th century. Currently, there is no longer a flow of emigrants to these destinations, since economic conditions in those countries are not better than those in Lithuania (see Lithuanians in Brazil).
*Lithuanian communities in other regions of the former Soviet Union were formed during the Soviet occupation; the numbers of Lithuanians in
Siberiaand Central Asiaincreased dramatically when a large portion of Lithuanians were involuntarily deported into these areas. After de-Stalinization, however, most of them returned. Later, some Lithuanians were relocated to work in other areas of the Soviet Union; some of them did not return to Lithuania, after it became independent.
*The Lithuanian communities in Western Europe (UK, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, and Norway) are very new and began to appear after the restoration of independence to Lithuania in 1990; this emigration intensified after Lithuania became part of the
European Union. It should be noted that Londonand Glasgow(especially the Bellshilland Coatbridgeareas of Greater Glasgow) have long had large Catholic and Jewish Lithuanian populations. The Republic of Irelandprobably has the highest concentration of Lithuanians relative to its total population size in Western Europe; its estimated 45,000 Lithuanians (about half of whom are registered) form over 1% of Ireland's total population.
*Lithuanian communities in Australia exist as well; due to its great distance from Europe, however, emigration there was minuscule. There are Lithuanian communities in
Melbourne, Geelong, Brisbane, Hobartand Sydney.
Culture and Traditions
The Lithuanian national sport is usually considered to be
basketball("krepšinis"), which is popular among Lithuanians in Lithuania as well as in the diasporic communities. Basketball came to Lithuania through the Lithuanian-American community in the thirties. Lithuanian basketball teams were bronze medal winners in the 1992, 1996, and 2000 Summer Olympics. But there are a huge number of football fans in Lithuania and their number is increasing constantly. Joninės(also known as Rasos) is a traditional national holiday, celebrated on the summer solstice. It has pagan origins. Užgavėnės( Shrove Tuesday) takes place on the day before Ash Wednesday, and is meant to urge the retreat of winter. There are also national traditions for Christian holidays such as Easterand Christmas.
Lithuanian cuisine features the products suited to its cool and moist northern climate: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties. Since it shares its
climateand agricultural practices with Eastern Europe, Lithuanian cuisine has much in common with other Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish cuisines. Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country's long and difficult history.
Because of their long common history, Lithuanians and Poles share many dishes and beverages. Thus there are similar Lithuanian and Polish versions of dumplings (
pierogior "koldūnai"), doughnuts ( pączkior "spurgos"), and crepes ( blinior "blynai"). German traditions also influenced Lithuanian cuisine, introducing pork and potato dishes, such as potato pudding ( kugelis) and potato sausages ( vėdarai), as well as the baroquetree cake known as šakotis. The most exotic of all the influences is Eastern ( Karaite) cuisine, and the dishes kibinaiand čeburekaiare popular in Lithuania. The popular "Torte Napoleon" was introduced during Napoleon's passage through Lithuania in the 19th century. [http://www.balticsww.com/napoleon_graves.htm.]
For Lithuanian Americans both dishes of Huluski (cabbage and noodles) and Halupki (rolled cabbage) are growing increasingly more popular.
Cepelinai, a stuffed potato creation, is the most famous national dish. It is popular among Lithuanians all over the world. Other national foods include dark rye bread, cold beet soup (šaltibarščiai), and kugelis(a baked potato pudding). Some of these foods are also common in neighboring countries. Lithuanian cuisineis generally unknown outside Lithuanian communities. Most Lithuanian restaurants outside Lithuania are located in areas with a heavy Lithuanian presence.
Lithuanians in the early 20th century were among the thinnest people in the developed countries of the world. [Lissau, I., et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14706954 Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States] (Abstract), "Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine", 2004 January; 158(1):27-33.] In Lithuanian cuisine there is some emphasis on attractive presentation of freshly prepared foods.
beer("alus"), vodka("degtinė"), and kvass("gira") are popular drinks in Lithuania. Starkais a part of the Lithuanian heritage, still produced in Lithuania.
When the ban against printing the Lithuanian language was lifted in 1904, various European literary movements such as
symbolism, impressionism, and expressionismeach in turn influenced the work of Lithuanian writers. The first period of Lithuanian independence (1918-40) gave them the opportunity to examine themselves and their characters more deeply, as their primary concerns were no longer political. An outstanding figure of the early 20th century was Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, a novelist and dramatist. His many works include "Dainavos šalies senų žmonių padavimai" (Old Folks Tales of Dainava, 1912) and the historical dramas "Šarūnas" (1911), " Skirgaila" (1925), and "Mindaugo mirtis" (The Death of Mindaugas, 1935). Petras Vaičiūnaswas another popular playwright, producing one play each year during the 1920s and '30s. Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinaswrote lyric poetry, plays, and novels, including the novel "Altorių šešėly" (In the Shadows of the Altars, 3 vol., 1933), a remarkably powerful autobiographical novel.
Keturi vėjai" movement started with publication of "The Prophet of the Four Winds" by talented poet Kazys Binkis(1893–1942). It was rebellion against traditional poetry. The theoretical basis of "Keturi vėjai" initially was futurism which arrived through Russia from the West and later cubism, dadaism, surrealism, unanimism, and German expressionism. The most influensive futurist for Lithuanian writers was Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. [ [http://www.tekstai.lt/tekstai/4vejai/apie/nyliunas.htm Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas. "Keturi vėjai ir keturvėjinikai", "Aidai", 1949, No. 24] ]
Oskaras Milašius (Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz Milosz) (1877-1939) is a paradoxical and interesting phenomenon in Lithuanian culture. He never lived in Lithuania but was born and spent his childhood in Cereja (near
Mogilev, Belarus) and graduated from Lycée Janson de Saillyin Paris. His longing for his fatherland was more metaphysical. Having to choose between two conflicting countries — Lithuaniaand Poland— he preferred Lithuania which for him was an idea even more than a fatherland. In 1920 when France recognized the independence of Lithuania, he was appointed officially as Charge d’Affairs for Lithuania. He published: 1928, a collection of 26 Lithuanian songs; 1930, "Lithuanian Tales and Stories"; 1933, "Lithuanian Tales"; 1937, "The origin of the Lithuanian Nation", in which he tried to persuade the reader that Lithuanians have the same origin as Jewsfrom the PyreneespeninsulaFact|date=February 2007.
folk musicis based around songs ("dainos"), which include romantic and wedding songs, as well as work songs and archaic war songs. These songs used to be performed either in groups or alone, and in parallel chords or unison. Duophonicsongs are common in the renowned sutartinės tradition of Aukštaitija. Another style of Lithuanian folk music is called rateliai, a kind of round dance. Instrumentation includes kanklės, a kind of zitherthat accompanies sutartinės, rateliai, waltzes, quadrilles and polkas, and fiddles, (including a bass fiddle called the "basetle") and a kind of whistlecalled the "lumzdelis"; recent importations, beginning in the late 19th century, including the concertina, accordionand bandoneon. Sutartinė can be accompanied by "skudučiai", a form of panpipesplayed by a group of people, as well as wooden trumpets ("ragai" and "dandytės"). Kanklės is an extremely important folk instrument, which differs in the number of strings and performance techniques across the country. Other traditional instruments include "švilpas" whistle, drums and "tabalas" (a percussion instrument like a gong), "sekminių ragelis" ( bagpipe) and the "pūslinė", a musical bowmade from a pig's bladder filled with dried peas.Cronshaw, Andrew (2000). “Singing Revolutions”, Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.) World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, 16-24, London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.]
List of Lithuanians
Lithuanians in Brazil
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