- Flag of Ukraine
Name = Ukraine
Use = 111110
Proportion = 2:3
January 28, 1992(originally in 1918)
Design = A
Type = National
Use2 = 000001
January 28, 1992. Dates back to 1918
Proportion2 = 2:3
Design2 = White with a blue cotized cross that extends to the edges of the flag, and with the national bi-color in the canton.
Type = National
The Flag of Ukraine ( _uk. державний прапор України; translit.: "derzhavnyy prapor Ukrayiny"; literally ‘state flag of Ukraine’) is the national flag of
Ukraine. The national flag was officially adopted for the first time in 1918 by a short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic. At that time the commonly used yellow–blue flag had already turned into blue and yellow and sported a trident (" tryzub") in the upper left corner. The insignia remained unchanged by the successive government of Pavlo Skoropadsky, and then by the Directorate of Ukraine.
Under Soviet rule,
Bolshevikshad been using red and later red-blue flags as the official Flag of Ukrainian SSR. The blue and yellow flag was forbidden as a symbol of nationalism. It was officially restored in 1992 following Ukrainian independence.
Constitution of Ukrainestates “the State Flag of Ukraine is a banner of two equally sized horizontal bands of blue and yellow colour.”
The roots of Ukrainian national symbols come from before Christian times when yellow and blue prevailed in traditional ceremonies, reflecting fire and water. [http://geraldika.ru/symbols/3334 Geraldika.ru Флаг Украины] ]
Kievan Rus'times, yellow and blue continued to be popular. These colours were used on the banners of the Halych-Volhyniaprincipality in the 13th–14th centuries.
Yellow–blue, red-black, crimson-olive and especially raspberry color banners were widely used by
Cossacks between 16–18th centuries. These were not the only possible combinations, since normally Cossacks would fly their hetman's banners, which were similar to the coats of arms of the nobility. Also, yellow and blue were the colours common on coats of arms in Galicia. In fact, the coat of arms of Lvivto this day remains a golden lion on a blue field.
Some put the starting point of the current national flag of Ukraine in year 1848, when during the Spring of the Nations a yellow and blue banner flew over the Lviv magistrate for the first time. Although this move didn't have significant consequences, the newly formed Ukrainian divisions in the Austrian army used yellow and blue banners in their insignia.
It has to be noted that although most Ukrainians identify their flag in the verbal language as "yellow and light blue" ( _uk. жовто-блакитний, "zhovto-blakytnyy"), the current flag in reality is blue (the top string) and yellow (the bottom string). The issue is quite notable, because the historical rotation of the flag (from yellow–blue to blue–yellow) did not affect the spoken language. Back in 1848 the flag was indeed yellow and blue, and it was later rotated to blue and yellow to be appealing to a common person. The common explanation of "blue sky above yellow field of wheat" was invented around that time, and, although it has nothing to do with the choice of colours and the history of the original yellow and blue banner, it certainly formed the flag as we know it today.
In the late 19th century, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was much more tolerant toward the Ukrainian national movement than the Russian Empire. A lot of literary work was done there, thus spreading the idea to the rest of Ukraine.
hort independence: 1917–1920
Both, blue–yellow and yellow–blue flags were widely used during the Ukrainain struggle for independence in 1917-1920.
At present, there are no reliable sources that indicate that an official flag was declared by the
Ukrainian People's Republicin 1917-1918. Some sources mention that the yellow–blue was adopted by Tsentralna Radaon March 22, 1918[ [http://www.kmu.gov.ua/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=32027&cat_id=31295 State Symbols of Ukraine] , Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, website.] Other sources point out that no hard proof of such decision exists. [http://vexillography.narod.ru/ukraine/unr.htm] Instead, they refer to the decision on the Fleet Flag, which was set to be light blue–yellow [ [http://www.history.org.ua/journal/1999/4/10.pdf Ukrainian Historical Journal, 1999, #4, ISSN 0130-S247] as an indication that the official flag was light blue–yellow. [ [http://vijsko.milua.org/Khoruhvy_HA.htm Українське військо у ХХ-ХХІ сторіччі] ]
The official flag of
Pavlo Skoropadsky's Hetmanatewas blue–yellow and became light blue–yellow under Semen Petlura's Directorate. The flag of West Ukrainian National Republicwas blue and yellow.
Among Ukrainian immigrant organizations there were proponents of both blue–yellow and yellow–blue flags. Eventually, it was agreed to use the light blue–yellow flag until the issue is resolved in the independent Ukraine.
oviet Ukraine: 1922-1991
The Soviet Ukraine similarly to other Soviet republics, used a red flag with golden abbreviation "УСРР" or "УРСР" (Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, or Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1936) in the top left corner. In 1937
hammer and sicklesymbol in gold was added to the flag.
World War II
Various Ukrainian nationalist movements that functioned under German occupation used a blue–yellow (more often) or a yellow–blue flag. The OUN (
Andriy Melnyk's faction) added its symbol in the upper left part. Ukrainian municipal and police bodies used the same flag, but its use depended on the favor of local German (military) authorities. The police used armbands with yellow and blue stripes, which could look differently in different regions. [http://ffix1975.livejournal.com/1031966.html]
The Revolutionary Faction of the OUN (
Stepan Bandera's faction) used a different flag, red-black.
In 1947 Soviet republics, including Ukraine, adopted new flags instead of previous featureless ones. The new Ukrainian flag consisted of a red (top, 2/3) and a blue (bottom, 1/3) stripes, with golden star, hammer and sickle in the top left corner.
Return of the national flag
Under the influence of
Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroikaand Glasnostyears, the individual Soviet republics had strengthened their sense of national unity, which led to the Collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. This concerned the three Baltic statesand Western Ukraine, which were the last territories annexed into Soviet Union. These efforts were accompanied with attempts to restore the respective historical national symbols. In 1988, the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR re-established Lithuania's historic coat of arms as the state symbol. The Parliaments of Latviaand Estoniasoon followed.
The events in the Baltic countries soon led to similar processes in Ukraine. Particularly, West Ukraine and
Ukrainian SSR's capital Kiev("Kyiv") constantly held political demonstrations with the national yellow-and-blue flags waving above the heads of demonstrators.
March 20, 1990, the town council of Ternopilvoted upon the usage and re-establishment of the yellow-and-blue flag and the "tryzub" as well as the national anthem "Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy". On the same day, the yellow-and-blue national flag was flown for the first time in about 80 years on a governmental building in Kiev, replacing the then official red-and-blue flag of the Ukrainian SSR.
April 28, 1990, the oblast council ("oblasna rada") of Lviv also allowed the use of the national symbols of Ukraine within the Oblast.
April 29, 1990, the yellow-and-blue flag was flown from the Ternopil city theater's flagstaff without the official flag of the Soviet Union hanging above it.
July 24, 1990, the yellow-and-blue flag was flown for the first time over an official governmental building of the Kiev City Councilon the " Maidan Nezalezhnosti" square of the " Khreschatyk" street.
* After the declaration of independence of Ukraine on
August 24, 1991, the national yellow-and-blue flag flew for the first time over the Ukrainian Parliament ("Verkhovna Rada") building on September 4, 1991.
The Law of Ukraine states that the colors of Ukrainian flag are "blue and yellow", being silent on the specifics of the blue and yellow colors. Heraldic communities attempt to fill the gap and specify the "true" colors of the flag. In the table below the colors are given according to amateurs site vexilla-mundi.com:
Light blue vs. dark blue
In Ukrainian and other Slavic languages, light blue ("blakytnyy") and dark blue ("syniy") colors are main distinguished colors. The difference is coming from ancient times. In English (Latin) culture, there are commonly six colors of
rainbow(red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), while in Ukrainian (Slavic) a rainbow consists of seven colors with blue being split into two. The difference creates difficulties in translation of blue between Ukrainian and English. If blue is avoided for clarity, the colors of the official Ukrainian flag is dark blue and yellow, while in spoken language Ukrainians often name their flag as being yellow and light blue ("zhovto-blakytnyy prapor").
List of flags of Ukraine
Coat of arms of Ukraine
Flag of Crimea
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