Name = Peritoneum
GraySubject = 246
GrayPage = 1149
Caption = The peritoneum, coloured in blue
Caption2 = The
epiploic foramen, greater sacor general cavity (red) and lesser sac, or omental bursa (blue). (Areas outlined in blue and red correspond to above diagram.)
MeshName = Peritoneum
MeshNumber = A01.047.025.600
DorlandsPre = p_14
DorlandsSuf = 12629236
vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membranethat forms the lining of the abdominal cavity — it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. It is composed of a layer of mesotheliumsupported by a thin layer of connective tissue.The peritoneum both supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduitfor their bloodand lymphvessels and nerves.
The abdominal cavity (the space bounded by the vertebrae, abdominal muscles, diaphragm and pelvic floor) should not be confused with the intraperitoneal space (located within the abdominal cavity, but wrapped in peritoneum). For example, a kidney is inside the abdominal cavity, but is retroperitoneal.
Although they ultimately form one continuous sheet, two types or layers of peritoneum and a potential space between them are referenced:
* The outer layer, called the parietal peritoneum, is attached to the
* The inner layer, the visceral peritoneum, is wrapped around the internal organs that are located inside the intraperitoneal cavity.
* The potential space between these two layers is the
peritoneal cavity; it is filled with a small amount (about 50 ml) of slippery serous fluidthat allows the two layers to slide freely over each other.
* The term
mesenteryis often used to refer to a double layer of visceral peritoneum. There are often blood vessels, nerves, and other structures between these layers. It should be noted that the space between these two layers is technically outside of the peritoneal sac, and thus not in the peritoneal cavity.
There are two main regions of the peritoneum, connected by the
greater sac(or "general cavity of the abdomen"), represented in red in the diagrams above.
lesser sac(or "omental bursa"), represented in blue. The lesser sac is divided into two "omenta":
lesser omentum(or "gastrohepatic") is attached to the lesser curvature of the stomachand the liver.
greater omentum(or "gastrocolic") hangs from the greater curve of the stomachand loops down in front of the intestinesbefore curving back upwards to attach to the transverse colon. In effect it is draped in front of the intestines like an apron and may serve as an insulating or protective layer.
mesenteryis the part of the peritoneum through which most abdominal organs are attached to the abdominal walland supplied with bloodand lymphvessels and nerves.
Structures that are "intraperitoneal" are generally mobile, while those that are "retroperitoneal" are relatively fixed in their location.
Some structures, such as the kidneys, are "primarily retroperitoneal", while others such as the majority of the duodenum, are "secondarily retroperitoneal", meaning that structure developed intraperitoneally but lost its
mesenteryand thus became retroperitoneal.
"Peritoneum" is derived from Greek. "Peri-" means "around", while "-ton-" refers to stretching. Thus, peritoneuum means "stretched around" or "stretched over".
*Tortora, Gerard J., Anagnostakos, Reginald Merryweather, Nicholas P. (1984) "Principles of Anatomy and Physiology", Harper & Row Publishers, New York ISBN 0-06-046656-1
* [http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/misc_topics/peritoneum.html Overview and diagrams at colostate.edu]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Peritoneum — Per i*to*ne um, n. [L. peritoneum, peritonaeum, Gr. ?, ?, fr. ? to stretch all around or over; ? around + ? to stretch.] (Anat.) The smooth serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen, or the whole body cavity when there is no diaphragm … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Peritoneum — ⇒ Bauchfell … Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie
peritoneum — 1540s, from L.L. peritonaeum (c.420), from Gk. peritonaion abdominal membrane, lit. part stretched over, from neut. of peritonaios stretched over, from peri around (see PERI (Cf. peri )) + teinein to stretch (see TENET (Cf … Etymology dictionary
peritoneum — peritonèum m DEFINICIJA anat. tanka ovojnica koja s unutrašnje strane pokriva trbušnu šupljinu i prelazi na neke trbušne organe; potrbušnica ETIMOLOGIJA lat. peritonaeum ← grč. peritónaion ≃ peri + teínein: napinjati … Hrvatski jezični portal
peritoneum — ► NOUN (pl. peritoneums or peritonea) ▪ the membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs. DERIVATIVES peritoneal adjective. ORIGIN Latin, from peritonos stretched round … English terms dictionary
peritoneum — [per΄ə tə nē′əm] n. pl. peritonea [per΄ə tə nē′ə] or peritoneums [LL < Gr peritonaion < peri , around + teinein, to stretch: see THIN] the transparent serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and reflected inward at various places to… … English World dictionary
Peritoneum — Das Peritoneum (von griech. peritonaion „das Ausgespannte“) oder Bauchfell kleidet als seröse Haut den Bauchraum aus. Es umgibt die meisten inneren Organe unterhalb des Zwerchfells bis zum Eingang des kleinen Beckens. Es ist durch ein… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Peritoneum — The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs. (From the Greek peri meaning around + tonos meaning a stretching = a stretching around). * * * The serous sac, consisting of mesothelium and a thin layer of… … Medical dictionary
peritoneum — n. the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity (see illustration). The parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdomen, and the visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal organs. See also mesentery, omentum. Derivatives: peritoneal adj … The new mediacal dictionary
peritoneum — (plural peritonea)) a membrane covering the body cavity (coelomic cavity) including the viscera. Often its color, light, speckled or black is of taxonomic significance. There are visceral and parietal peritonea, q.v. A black peritoneum may… … Dictionary of ichthyology