Checkmate


Checkmate
The black king has been checkmated; the game is over, assuming that there are no other pieces (not visible in the picture) that could capture the queen.

Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in chess (and in other boardgames of the chaturanga family) in which one player's king is threatened with capture (in check) and there is no way to meet that threat. Or, simply put, the king is under direct attack and cannot avoid being captured. Delivering checkmate is the ultimate goal in chess: a player who is checkmated loses the game. In normal chess the king is never actually captured – the game ends as soon as the king is checkmated because checkmate leaves the defensive player with no legal moves.[note 1] In practice, most players resign an inevitably lost game before being checkmated. It is considered bad etiquette to continue playing in a completely hopeless position (Burgess 2000:481).[note 2]

If a king is under attack but the threat can be met, then the king is said to be in check, but is not in checkmate. If a player is not in check but has no legal move (that is, every possible move would put the king in check), the result of the game is stalemate, and the game ends in a draw (but in other variants, it is a loss for the stalemated player). (See rules of chess.)

A checkmating move is denoted in algebraic chess notation with the hash symbol (#) – for example, 34.Qh8# or by "++". (The symbol "++" is sometimes used to indicate double check.)

Contents


Examples

Fool's mate
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black rook  black knight  black bishop  black king  black king  black bishop  black knight  black rook 8
7  black pawn  black pawn  black pawn  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black pawn  black pawn 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black queen 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king 3
2  white pawn  white pawn  white pawn  white pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  white pawn 2
1  white rook  white knight  white bishop  white queen  white king  white bishop  white knight  white rook 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White has been checkmated
D. Byrne vs. Fischer
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  white queen  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  white knight  black king  black king  black pawn 5
4  black king  black bishop  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn 4
3  black king  black bishop  black knight  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black rook  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king 2
1  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
After 41... Rc2, checkmate
Checkmate with a rook
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Black has been checkmated

A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer),[1] or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.

Two major pieces

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white queen  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  white king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White checkmates easily
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white queen  white king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate with queen and rook
Chess kll45.svg Chess qll45.svg Chess rll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

Two major pieces (queens or rooks) can easily force checkmate on the edge of the board, even without the help of their king. The process is to put the two pieces on adjacent ranks or files and gradually force the king to the side of the board, where one piece keeps the king on the edge of the board while the other delivers checkmate (Pandolfini 1988:18–20).

In the first diagram, White checkmates easily by forcing the black king to the edge a rank at a time or a file at a time:

1. Qg5+ Kd4
2. Rf4+ Ke3
3. Qg3+ Ke2
4. Rf2+ Ke1
5. Qg1# (second diagram) (Silman 2007:7–8).

The checkmate with two queens or with two rooks is similar (Pandolfini 1988:20).

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 white rook c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 white rook b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 white king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Mid-board checkmate with king and two rooks
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 white queen c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 white queen e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 white king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Mid-board checkmate with two queens
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 white queen c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 white queen c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 white king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Another mid-board checkmate with two queens

Checkmate can be forced even away from the edge of the board with two rooks and a king, or with a queen, rook, and king, while two queens are able to force checkmate in the center without the help of the king (Pandolfini 2009:32–33).

Basic checkmates

Here are the common fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum material needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. The king must help in accomplishing all of these checkmates. If the superior side has more material, checkmates are easier (Silman 2007:33).

The checkmate with the queen is the most important, but it is also very easy to achieve. It often occurs after a pawn has queened. The next most important one is the checkmate with the rook, and it is also very easy to achieve. The checkmates with the two bishops and with a bishop and knight are not nearly as important, since they only occur infrequently. The two bishop checkmate is fairly easy to accomplish, but the bishop and knight checkmate is difficult and requires precision.

King and queen

Chess kll45.svg Chess qll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg


Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 white queen e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 white king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate with the queen
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 white queen b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 white king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A second checkmate with the queen
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 white queen f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 white king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A third type of checkmate
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 white queen 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 white king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A fourth type of checkmate


The first two diagrams show representatives of the basic checkmate positions with a queen, which can occur on any edge of the board. Naturally, the exact position can vary from the diagram. In the first of the checkmate positions, the queen is directly in front of the opposing king and the white king is protecting its queen. In the second checkmate position, the kings are in opposition and the queen mates on the rank (or file) of the king. See Wikibooks - Chess/The Endgame for a demonstration of how the king and queen versus king mate is achieved.

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  white queen  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White checkmates easily

With the side with the queen to move, checkmate can be forced in at most ten moves from any starting position, with optimal play by both sides, but usually fewer moves are required (Fine & Benko 2003:1–2). (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:16). In positions in which a pawn has just promoted to a queen, at most nine moves are required (Levy & Newborn 1991:144). In this position, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

1. Qf6 Kd5
2. Qe7 Kd4
3. Kc2 Kd5
4. Kc3 Kc6
5. Kc4 Kb6
6. Qd7 Ka6
7. Qb5+ Ka7
8. Kc5 Ka8
9. Kc6 Ka7
10. Qb7# (Seirawan 2003:4–5).
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 white queen d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Stalemate if Black is to move. The white king can be anywhere (except a7, b7, or b8, which would be an illegal position).
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 white queen d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 white king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Stalemate if Black is to move

The superior side must be careful to not stalemate the opposing king, whereas the defender would like to get into such a position. There are two general types of stalemate positions that can occur, which the winning side must avoid (Fine & Benko 2003:2).

King and rook

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 white rook h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 white king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate with the rook
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 white king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 white rook b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A second checkmate with the rook
Chess kll45.svg Chess rll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

The first diagram shows the basic checkmate position with a rook, which can occur on any edge of the board. The black king can be on any square on the edge of the board, the white king is in opposition to it, and the rook can check from any square on the rank or file (assuming that it can not be captured). The second diagram shows a slightly different position where the kings are not in opposition but the defending king must be in a corner.

With the side with the rook to move, checkmate can be forced in at most sixteen moves from any starting position (Fine & Benko 2003:2). Again, see Wikibooks - Chess/The Endgame for a demonstration of how the king and rook versus king mate is achieved.

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White checkmates by boxing in the black king.

In this position, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

1. Kd3+ Kd5
2. Re4 Kd6
3. Kc4! Kc6
4. Re6+ Kc7
5. Kc5 Kd7
6. Kd5 Kc7
7. Rd6 Kb7
8. Rc6 Ka7
9. Kc5 Kb7
10. Kb5 Ka7
11. Rb6 Ka8
12. Kc6 Ka7
13. Kc7 Ka8
14. Ra6# (second checkmate position) (Seirawan 2003:1–4)

There are two stalemate positions to watch out for: (Fine & Benko 2003:2–3):

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 white rook c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 white king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Stalemate if Black is to move
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 white king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 white rook 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Stalemate if Black is to move

King and two bishops

Chess kll45.svg Chess bll45.svg Chess bld45.svg Chess kdl45.svg
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 white bishop d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 white king c6 white bishop d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate with two bishops

Here are the two basic checkmate positions with two bishops (on opposite-colored squares), which can occur in any corner. (Two or more bishops on the same color, which could occur because of pawn promotion, cannot checkmate.) The first is a checkmate in the corner. The second one is a checkmate in a side square next to the corner square. With the side with the bishops to move, checkmate can be forced in at most nineteen moves (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:17).

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 white bishop c7 white king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 white bishop d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A second checkmate with two bishops

It is not too difficult for two bishops to force checkmate, with the aid of their king. Two principles apply:

  • The bishops are best when they are near the center of the board and on adjacent diagonals. This cuts off the opposing king.
  • The king must be used aggressively, in conjunction with the bishops.
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 white bishop d1 white king e1 black king f1 white bishop g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Two bishops (and king) can force checkmate. From Seirawan.

In the position from Seirawan, White wins by first forcing the black king to the side of the board, then to a corner, and then checkmates. It can be any side of the board and any corner. The process is:

1. Ke2 Ke4 (Black tries to keep his king near the center)
2. Be3 Ke5 (forcing the king back, which is done often)
3. Kd3 Kd5
4. Bd4 Ke6
5. Ke4 Kd6 (Black tries a different approach to stay near the center)
6. Bc4 (White has a fine position. The bishops are centralized and the king is active.)
6... Kc6 (Black avoids going toward the side)
7. Ke5 Kd7 (Black is trying to avoid the a8 corner)
8. Bd5 (keeping the black king off c6)
8... Kc7
9. Bc5 Kd7
10. Bd6! (an important move that forces the king to the edge of the board)
10... Ke8 (Black is still avoiding the corner)
11. Ke6 (now the black king cannot get off the edge of the board)
11... Kd8
12. Bc6 (forcing the king toward the corner)
12... Kc8 (Black's king is confined to c8 and d8. The white king must cover a7 and b7)
13. Kd5 (13. Ke7? is stalemate)
13...Kd8
14. Kc5 Kc8
15. Kb6 Kd8 (Now White must allow the king to move into the corner)
16. Bc5 Kc8
17. Be7! (an important move that forces the king toward the corner)
17... Kb8
18. Bd7! (the same principle as the previous move)
18... Ka8
19. Bd8 (White must make a move that gives up a tempo. This move is such a move, along with Bc5, Bf8, Be6, or Ka6.)
19... Kb8
20. Bc7+ Ka8
21. Bc6#, as in the first diagram in this section (Seirawan 2003:5–7).

Note that this is not the shortest forced checkmate from this position. Müller and Lamprecht give a fifteen move solution, however it contains an inaccurate move by Black (according to endgame tablebases) (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:17). With optimal play by both sides, checkmate in this position requires seventeen moves. An optimal variation is

1. Ke2 Ke4
2. Be3 Ke5
3. Kd3 Kd5
4. Bd4 Ke6
5. Ke4 Kd6
6. Bb5! (the only move winning in 12 moves from this position)
6...Ke6
7. Be5 Ke7
8. Kf5 Kd8
9. Ke6 Kc8
10. Kd6 Kb8
11. Kc6+ Kc8
12. Bd6 Kd8
13. Kb6 Kc8
14. Be7 Kb8
15. Ba6 Ka8
16. Bb7+ Kb8
17. Bd6#, as in the second diagram.

King, bishop and knight

Chess kll45.svg Chess bll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 white knight b6 white king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 white bishop f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A checkmate with a bishop and knight
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 white bishop c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 white knight b6 white king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
A second checkmate with a bishop and knight

Of the basic checkmates, this is the most difficult one to force, because these two pieces cannot form a linear barrier to the enemy king from a distance. Also, the checkmate can be forced only in a corner that the bishop controls.

Here are the two basic checkmate positions with a bishop and a knight, or the bishop and knight checkmate. The first position is a checkmate by the bishop, with the king in the corner. The second position is a checkmate by the knight, with the king in a side square next to the corner. Alternatively, the knight can be on c6 or d7 in the second position.

With the side with the bishop and knight to move, checkmate can be forced in at most thirty-three moves from any starting position (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:19), except those in which the defending king is initially forking the bishop and knight and it is not possible to defend both. However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.

Opinions differ as to whether or not or not a player should learn this checkmate procedure. James Howell omits the checkmate with two bishops in his book because it rarely occurs but includes the bishop and knight checkmate. Howell says that he has had it three times (always on the defending side) and that it occurs more often than the checkmate with two bishops (Howell 1997:138). On the other hand, Jeremy Silman includes the checkmate with two bishops but not the bishop plus knight checkmate because he has had it only once and his friend John Watson has never had it (Silman 2007:33,188). Silman says

"...mastering it would take a significant chunk of time. Should the chess hopeful really spend many of his precious hours he's put aside for chess study learning an endgame he will achieve (at most) only once or twice in his lifetime?"

Two and three knights

Two knights

Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 white king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 white knight g6 white knight h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
if black makes a mistake, checkmate is possible...
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 white knight b6 white king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 white knight c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
...but it can never be forced. Here, Ka8 allows checkmate, but Kc8 avoids it.
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 white king c6 black king d6 white knight e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 white knight c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Two knights cannot force checkmate:


It is impossible to force checkmate with a king and two knights, although checkmate positions are possible (see the first diagram). In the second diagram, if Black plays 1... Ka8? White can checkmate with 2. Nbc7#, but Black can play 1... Kc8 and escape the threat. The defender's task is easy — he simply has to avoid moving into a position in which he can be checkmated on the next move, and he always has another move available in such situations (Speelman, Tisdall & Wade 1993:11).

In the third diagram, White can play 1. Nc6+ Ka8, but now if White plays 2. Nb5 threatening 3. Nc7#, Black is stalemated. It is sometimes possible to force checkmate with two knights against a pawn, because in some positions, having a pawn removes this stalemate defence.

Under some circumstances, two knights and a king can force checkmate against a king and pawn (or rarely more pawns). The winning plan, quite difficult to execute in practice, is to blockade the enemy pawn(s) with one of the knights, maneuver the enemy king into a stalemated position, then bring the other knight over to checkmate. (See two knights endgame.)

Three knights

Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

Three knights and a king can force checkmate against a lone king within twenty moves (assuming that the lone king cannot quickly win a knight) (Fine 1941:5–6). These situations are generally only seen in chess problems, since at least one of the knights must be a promoted piece, and there is very rarely a reason (e.g., avoidance of stalemate) to promote a pawn to anything other than a queen (see underpromotion).

Rare checkmate positions

In some rare positions it is possible to force checkmate with a king and bishop versus a king and pawn or a king and knight versus a king and pawn.

Stamma's mate

Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg Chess pdl45.svg
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black pawn  black king  black king  white knight  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White wins by Stamma's mate, with either side to move.

In the diagram showing Stamma's mate (named for Philipp Stamma), White to move wins (Emms 2004:122):

1. Nb4+ Ka1
2. Kc1 a2
3. Nc2#

White also wins if Black is to move first:

1. ... Ka1
2. Nc1 a2
3. Nb3#
Nogueiras vs. Gongora
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  white knight  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White to move wins

This checkmate has occurred in actual games, see the game between Jesus Nogueiras and Maikel Gongora[2] from the 2001 Cuban Championship, (see diagram) which proceeded

81. Kc2 Ka1
82. Nc5 Ka2 (if 82... a2 then 83. Nb3#)
83. Nd3 (reaching the position in the first diagram above, with Black to move)
83... Ka1
84. Nc1

Black resigned here, but play would continue:

84... a2
85. Nb3# (Snape 2003:55).

Unusual checkmate positions

There are also positions in which a king and a knight can checkmate a king and a bishop, knight, or rook; or a king and a bishop can checkmate a king with a bishop on the other color of squares or with a knight, but the checkmate cannot be forced if there is no other material on the board (see the diagrams for some examples). Nevertheless, it keeps these material combinations from being ruled a draw because of "insufficient mating material" or "impossibility of checkmate" under the FIDE rules of chess.[note 3]

(Pandolfini 2009:63)
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black bishop h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 white king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 white bishop f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 white king g7 white bishop h7 black knight 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 white king b3 white knight c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black bishop c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 white knight h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 white king g2 black king h2 black knight 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
 
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 white knight c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black rook b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 white king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
 
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 white king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 white knight g6 white knight h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Checkmate, but cannot be forced


History

In early Sanskrit chess (ca. 500-700) the king could be captured and this ended the game. The Persians (ca. 700-800) introduced the idea of warning that the king was under attack (announcing check in modern terminology). This was done to avoid the early and accidental end of a game. Later the Persians added the additional rule that a king could not be moved into check or left in check. As a result, the king could not be captured (Davidson 1949:22). Checkmate was thus the logical and only decisive way of ending a game (since if it was checkmate, any move would be illegal) (Davidson 1949:63–64).

Before about 1600 the game could also be won by capturing all of the opponent's pieces other than the king (annihilation or robado) (see bare king). In Medieval times players began to consider it nobler to win by checkmate, so annihilation became a half-win for a while, until it was abandoned (Davidson 1949:63–64).

Origin of the word

The term checkmate is an alteration or Hobson-Jobson of the Persian phrase "Shāh Māt" which means, literally, "the King is helpless" (or "ambushed", "defeated", or "stumped", but not "dead").[3][4] It is a common misconception that it means "the King is dead", as chess reached Europe via the Islamic world, and Arabic māta مَاتَ means "died" or "is dead" (Hooper & Whyld 1992), (Davidson 1949:70), (Sunnucks 1970), (McKean 2005), (Golombek 1976:27).[5]

Moghadam traced the etymology of the word mate. It comes from a Persian verb mandan, meaning "to remain", which is cognate with the Latin word manco. It means "remained" in the sense of "abandoned" and the formal translation is "surprised", in the military sense of "ambushed" (not in the sense of "astonished"). So the king is in mate when he is ambushed, at a loss, or abandoned to his fate (Davidson 1949:70–71).

The term "checkmate" also has origins in the term "check", which means temporarily stop, and which also is in the chessplaying context related to the term "chess", which derives from the French word "echecs", which is derived from the alternating black and white pattern of an eschequier, or counting table, a pattern which was duplicated in larger form in some countries on the floor of the exchequer, a central bank, and whence such related terms as "checkers" and "checkered" were brought about.

The term checkmate in modern parlance is a dead metaphor for an irrefutable and strategic victory.[6]

See also

Articles on checkmates

Notes

  1. ^ Under US Chess Federation rules for blitz chess, which is fast chess with no more than 9 minutes per player, there is an optional variation of the rules that allows the king to be captured (with loss of the game) if a player leaves it in check (Just & Burg 2003:291).
  2. ^ Hooper and Whyld write: "Weak players seldom resign because frequent blunders swing the advantage, and stalemate is a common resource. At a competent level it is considered discourteous to play on in a clearly lost position..." (Hooper & Whyld 1992:336). Burgess says "While it is bad etiquette to refuse to resign in a completely hopeless position, if you are in any doubt as to whether your position is hopeless, play on."(Burgess 2000:481).
  3. ^ The U.S. Chess Federation rules are different. In a typical position with a minor piece versus a minor piece, a player would be able to claim a draw if he has a limited amount of time left (Just & Burg 2003:49,291).

References

  • Burgess, Graham (2000), The Mammoth Book of Chess (2nd ed.), Carroll & Graf, ISBN 978-0-7867-0725-6 
  • Davidson, Henry (1949), A Short History of Chess, McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8  (1981 paperback)
  • Emms, John (2004), Starting Out: Minor Piece Endgames, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-359-4 
  • Fine, Reuben (1941), Basic Chess Endings, McKay, ISBN 0-679-14002-6 
  • Fine, Reuben; Benko, Pal (2003), Basic Chess Endings, McKay, ISBN 0-8129-3493-8 
  • Golombek, Harry (1976), Chess: A History, Putnam, ISBN 0-399-11575-7 
  • Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280049-3 
  • Howell, James (1997), Essential Chess Endings: The tournament player's guide, Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-8189-7 
  • Just, Tim; Burg, Daniel B. (2003), U.S. Chess Federation's Official Rules of Chess (5th ed.), McKay, ISBN 0-8129-3559-4 
  • Levy, David; Newborn, Monty (1991), How Computers Play Chess, Computer Science Press, ISBN 0-7167-8121-2 
  • McKean, Erin (2005), The New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-517077-1 
  • Müller, Karsten; Lamprecht, Frank (2001), Fundamental Chess Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-53-6 
  • Pandolfini, Bruce (1988), Pandolfini's Endgame Course, Fireside, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-65688-1 
  • Pandolfini, Bruce (2009), Endgame Workshop: Principles for the Practical Player, Russell Enterprises, ISBN 978-1-888690-53-8 
  • Seirawan, Yasser (2003), Winning Chess Endings, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-348-9 
  • Silman, Jeremy (2007), Silman's Complete Endgame Course: From Beginner to Master, Siles Press, ISBN 1-890085-10-3 
  • Snape, Ian (2003), Chess Endings Made Simple: How to Approach the Endgame with Confidence, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-97-8 
  • Speelman, Jon; Tisdall, Jon; Wade, Bob (1993), Batsford Chess Endings, B. T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4420-7 
  • Sunnucks, Anne (1970), The Encyclopaedia of Chess, St. Martins Press, ISBN 978-0709146971 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Checkmate! — Album par Namie Amuro Sortie 27 avril 2011 Durée 55:08 Genre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • checkmate — [chek′māt΄] n. [ME chek mat < OFr eschec mat, ult. < Pers šāh māt, lit., the king is dead < šāh, king + māt, he is dead] 1. Chess a) the move that wins the game by checking the opponent s king so that it cannot be protected b) the… …   English World dictionary

  • Checkmate — Check mate ( m[=a]t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Checkmated}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Checkmating}.] 1. (Chess) To check (an adversary s king) in such a manner that escape in impossible; to defeat (an adversary) by putting his king in check from which there… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Checkmate — Check mate (ch[e^]k m[=a]t), n. [F. [ e]chec et mat, fr. Per. sh[=a]h m[=a]t checkmate, lit., the king is dead, fr. Ar. m[=a]ta he died, is dead. The king, when made prisoner, or checkmated, is assumed to be dead, and the game is finished. See… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • checkmate — ► NOUN 1) Chess a position of check from which a king cannot escape. 2) a final defeat or deadlock. ► VERB 1) Chess put into checkmate. 2) defeat or frustrate totally. ORIGIN from Persian, the king is dead …   English terms dictionary

  • checkmate — index beat (defeat), check (bar), clog, deadlock, defeat, frustrate, prevent …   Law dictionary

  • checkmate — {{11}}checkmate (n.) mid 14c., from O.Fr. eschec mat, from Arabic shah mat the king died (see CHECK (Cf. check) (n.)), which according to Barnhart is a misinterpretation of Persian mat be astonished as mata to die, mat he is dead. Hence Persian… …   Etymology dictionary

  • checkmate — UK [ˈtʃekˌmeɪt] / US noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms checkmate : singular checkmate plural checkmates in chess, an attack that your opponent s king cannot escape from, so that you win the game …   English dictionary

  • checkmate — I. transitive verb Etymology: Middle English chekmaten, from chekmate, interjection used to announce checkmate, from Anglo French eschec mat, from Arabic shāh māt, from Persian, literally, the king is left unable to escape Date: 14th century 1.… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • checkmate — /chek mayt /, n., v., checkmated, checkmating, interj. n. 1. Also called mate. Chess. a. an act or instance of maneuvering the opponent s king into a check from which it cannot escape, thus bringing the game to a victorious conclusion. b. the… …   Universalium