- Postage stamps of Ireland
The postage stamps of Ireland are issued by the postal operator of the independent Irish state.
Irelandwas part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandwhen the world's first postage stamps were issued in 1840. These stamps, and all subsequent British issues, were used in Ireland until the new Irish Government assumed power in 1922. Beginning on 17 February 1922, existing British stamps were overprinted with Irish text to provide some definitives until separate Irish issues became available.cite web |title=Stamps and Letters |url=http://www.anpost.ie/AnPost/MainContent/About+An+Post/History+and+Heritage/about-historical.htm |publisher=An Post |accessdate=2007-06-20] Following the overprints, a regular series of definitive stamps was produced by the new Department of Posts and Telegraphs, using domestic designs. These definitives were issued on 6 December 1922; the first was a 2d stamp, depicting a map of Ireland (including Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom). Since then new images, and additional values as needed, have produced a total of nine series of definitives.
These were the major stamp productions for everyday use.
Commemorative stamps first appeared in 1929, and these now appear several times a year, celebrating many aspects of Irish life, such as notable events and anniversaries, Irish life and culture, and many famous Irish people. Some definitive and commemorative stamps have been produced in miniature sheet, booklet and coil configurations in addition to the common sheet layout. Postage dues and airmails complete the stamp issues of the two, sequential, Irish stamp-issuing authorities. Two styles of watermarkwere used though the overprinted issues came with the watermarks of the British stamps provided for overprinting by the British Post Office.
"Oifig an Phoist", the Irish Post Office, was the section of The Department of Posts and Telegraphs which issued all Irish stamps up to 1984. After the division of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs into two semi-state organisations in 1984, [cite web |last=Mitchell |first=James |title=Postal and Telecommunications Services Act, 1983 (An Post) (Vesting Day) Order, 1983 |publisher=Office of the Attorney General of Ireland |date=
1983-12-21|url=http://www.irishstatutebook.ie:80/1983/en/si/0407.html |accessdate=2007-07-04] An Posttook over the responsibility for all Irish postal services including the issuing of postage stamps.
GB used in Ireland
To identify postage stamps used in Ireland between 1840 and 1922, it is necessary to identify the
postmarkcancelling the stamp as being from an Irish town. Stamps used during this period are referred to as "Great Britain used in Ireland". [wikiref |id=MacDonnell-1990 |text=MacDonnell & Whyte (eds.) 1990, p. 7]
From 1840 to 1844, the
Penny Black, and other stamps issued, were obliterated with the Maltese Crosscancellation. There was no text or numeral to help identify any of these cancels as Irish, but some Maltese Crosses are uniquely identifiable with certain Irish towns, including Belfast, Eyrecourt, Cork, Hollymount, Limerickand Mullingar. [cite web |last=Krulla |first=J. H. |title=Cancels show your stamps in a new light |publisher = Linn's Stamp News|url=http://www.linns.com/howto/refresher/cancels_20021230/refreshercourse.asp?uID= |accessdate=2007-07-30] From 1844 on, the cancels used included text or numerals that identified the post town. Cancels of both types are easier to identify if the stamp is still affixed to a cover, since this makes the complete postmark visible, but a stamp no longer affixed to a cover may still permit identification of the town of use if enough of the postmark can be seen on the stamp itself.
tamp issuing authorities
Between 1922 and 1983 "Oifig an Phoist", the Irish Post Office, a section of the Department of Posts & Telegraphs (P&T), issued all postage stamps in the 26 counties of Ireland. During this time they employed some of the following companies to
overprintor print the stamps: Dollard, Thom, Irish Government Printers, Waterlow and Sons (London), De La Rue and Co., Bradbury Wilkinson and Co., Ltd., (London), Harrison and Sons Ltd., (London) and Irish Security Stamp Printing Ltd.cite web |url=http://www.stampprinters.info/SPI_Country_I.htm |publisher=StampPrinters.com |title= Stamp Printers by Country: Ireland |accessdate=2007-03-22]
Since 1984, "
An Post" has issued all Irish postage stamps. Most have been printed by Irish Security Stamp Printing Ltd., though a small number were printed by Harrison and Sons Ltd., (London), Questa, Walsall Security Printing, Prinset Pty Ltd., (Australia) and SNP Cambec (Sprintpak) (Australia).
In stamp collecting circles, the word "forerunner" usually describes a postage stamp used during the time period before a region or territory issues stamps of its own. However, in Irish reference books, such as "Handbook of Irish Philately", the term "forerunners" usually refers to
politicaland propagandalabels. These often resemble stamps, but few of them were used on Irish mail and they had no legal standing for mail in Ireland.
Four values, 1c, 3c, 24c (deep-green), and 24c (mauve-purple) were produced in New York by the Irish veterans of the U.S. Civil War and are known as the 1865–67 Fenian issue. The 1893 colonial design are unofficial essays and are classed as bogus.wikiref |id=Feldman-1968 |text=Feldman 1968, pp. 13–20]
Between 1907 and 1916,
Sinn Féin, one of the nationalist organisations of the time, issued propaganda labels symbolising Irish nationhood. Their use as stamps was forbidden by Post Office regulations. The first design was a Celtic Cross, similar to one later adopted for two definitive stamps of 1923, and the second depicts a female figure and harpin an oval frame. In 1912, labels inscribed "Imperial Union" appeared, with a design of a larger harp and female figure. These labels, expressing unionist sentiments, are believed to have been printed in Manchesteras a counter to the Sinn Féin labels. After the Home Rule Bill for Ireland was passed in parliament, an Irish Republican body issued labels in 1916 with the portraits of three nationalist heroes known as "The Manchester Martyrs" against an Irish tricolourbackground. Forgeries of these labels are common. Following the Easter Risingof 1916, American sympathisers printed eight "ERIE PUIST" labels showing portraits of seven prominent leaders and a "harp and shamrock" label. The misspelling ERIE for ÉIREcould have been because of hasty preparation.
The Irish Republican Army, that controlled much of the southern part of the country during the Irish Civil War, issued a 1d, 2d and 6d label, mainly because of a stamp shortage. These were printed in Cork and were to be put on sale in August 1922, but in the meantime the
Irish Free Statearmy landed near Cork and the IRA set fire to their own barracksbefore they retreated from Cork, destroying most of the labels.
postmaster generalof the Irish Free State issued an invitation to firms in Dublin and London on February 1, 1922 for the submission of designs for a permanent definitive stamp issue, [wikiref |id=Miller-1983 |text=Miller 1983, p. 10] and by March several designs had been submitted. The following companies and printers provided essays: Dollard Printing House Ltd., Hely Ltd., Perkins Bacon & Co., and O'Loughlin, Murphy & Boland.
In 1922, as an interim measure before the first specially designed definitives were ready, a series of contemporary stamps of King George V were
overprinted. The unoverprinted stamps were issued and in use in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland between 1912 and 1922 and continued in use in Great Britain and Northern Ireland until 1936. Three printing firms held overprinting contracts: Dollard Printing House Ltd., Alex. Thom & Co Ltd., and Harrison & Sons. In June 1925 the Government Printers, Dublin Castle, obtained the contract and completed all overprinting until 1937, [wikiref |id=Feldman-1968 |text=Feldman 1968, p. 22] when the final, high-value stamps were issued.
Collecting and identifying the overprints can be an arduous task as there are numerous variations in the overprint settings. Feldman states "the complex details of plating, shading, overprint colours, accurate measurements, to mention a few, often discourage even the most enthusiastic collector". [wikiref |id=Feldman-1968 |text=Feldman 1968, p. 21] Three specialised books, or catalogue chapters, (Freeman & Stubbs, Munk and Meredith), issued within five years of issue have concentrated on this topic and Meredith is regarded as unequaled.cite journal |last=Foley |first=Joe |title=The Postage Stamps of Ireland 1922–1927 by W.G. Meredith—revised |journal=The Revealer |volume=XXVII No. 4 |issue=130 |pages=p. 61 |month=April |year=1978 |issn=0484-6125]
Two distinct overprints were made, reflecting the change in the name of the Irish state in December 1922. The
Provisional Government of Ireland("Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann") overprints were initially issued on February 17, 1922, with eight low-value and three high-value stamps overprinted by Dollard and four by Thom. [wikiref |id=Freeman-1922 |text=Freeman & Stubbs 1922, pp. 6–8] This overprint is composed of the four words "Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann" and the numeral date "1922" arranged in five lines of seriffed text. [cite web |url=http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/set1T/set1T.html |publisher=University of Notre Dame |title=The Wolf Collection of Irish Postage Stamps: Rialtas Overprints |accessdate=2007-03-22] The unoverprinted stamps remained valid for postage in Ireland until March 31, 1922. [wikiref |id=Freeman-1922 |text=Freeman & Stubbs 1922, pp. 19]
Irish Free State("Saorstát Éireann") overprints debuted on December 11, 1922. This is a three-line overprint using a sans-seriftypeface and was done by Thom, Harrison and the Government Printers. The last overprinted stamps were the Waterlow & Sons re-engraved [cite web |last=Taylor |first=Ross |title=Seahorses 1913 and 1934 |url=http://imagesoftheworld.org/stamps/seahorses.htm |publisher=ImagesoftheWorld.org |accessdate=2007-07-11] King George V 2/6, 5/- and 10/- values that appeared in 1934 and were overprinted in 1937 for use in Ireland. [cite web |url=http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/set9T/set9T.html |publisher=University of Notre Dame |title=The Wolf Collection of Irish Postage Stamps: Saorstát Overprints |accessdate=2007-03-22]
Since 1922, nine Irish definitive stamp series have been released. Two changes involved only a difference of
watermark, but six involved a complete redesign, some of which were necessary due to currency replacements: sterling to decimal, and decimal to Euro.
The first twelve stamps, the low values up to 1
shilling, were issued during 1922–1923, while the three high values, 2/6, 5/- and 10/-, did not appear until September 8, 1937. Designs included: "Sword of Light", "Map of Ireland", " Celtic Cross", "Arms of the Four Provinces" and "St. Patrick".cite web |url=http://www.cartref.demon.co.uk/eng/stamps/eire03.htm |title=The First Definitive Series of the Irish Free State and Irish Republic, 1922–1968 |publisher=Arwel Parry |accessdate=2007-03-22] Watermark and extra values were made until new designs, known as the "Gerl definitives", using early Irish art motifs, were produced in 1968. These were the first new designs in 31 years for the high values and 46 years for the low values. The three Gerl series were denominated in sterling and decimal currencies (both watermarked issues) and lastly an unwatermarked series. [wikiref |id=Warren-1978 |text=Warren & Fitzgerald 1978, p. 5]
Between 1982 and 1988 a series based on Irish
architecturethrough the ages was released, with line drawings by Michael Craig and graphics by Peter Wildbur. It contained twenty-eight stamps, with values ranging from 1p to £5. Stamps based on Irish cultural heritagefollowed between 1990 and 1995. Irish birdsfeature in the 1997 series that span the conversion of currency from the Irish pound, through dual currency to the introduction of the Euro. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =New Currency - New Stamps | work = | publisher = An Post| date = 2002-01-02| url =http://www.anpost.ie/AnPost/MainContent/About+An+Post/Media+Centre/Press+Releases/2002/020102NewCurrency.htm | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-10-07 ] These were the first definitives where all values were printed in full colour. On September 9, 2004 new stamps, featuring flowers native to the woodlands and hedgerows of Ireland, become available.
Irish postage stamps have been released to commemorate a wide variety of Irish topics, such as Irish notable events and anniversaries, aspects of Irish life and culture, famous Irish people (statesmen, religious, literary and cultural figures, athletes, etc.),
faunaand flora, works of art, and Christmas. Europa postage stamps have been issued to celebrate membership of the European community, and international events have also been commemorated.
The first commemorative, a set of three
Daniel O'Connellstamps, appeared on June 22, 1929. Until the mid-1990s, with only three exceptions in 1943, 1977 and 1979 for Douglas Hyde, Louis le Brocquyand Pope John Paul IIrespectively, it was policy to not depict living persons. This policy has been put aside and since 1995 there have been several such issues, mainly depicting athletes; for instance 30 stamps were issued showing living Irish sportsmen for the Millenniumand several golfers are shown on three 2006 Ryder Cupstamps.
Some stamps were issued in the form of a miniature sheet comprising from one to sixteen stamps of a single, or multiple, design from one issue printed on the same sheet and sold in that format. The miniature sheets are most often produced in addition to the same designs issued as single stamps.
The first miniature sheet of four
stamp on stamppostage stamps was issued in 1972 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first Irish postage stamp. [wikiref |id=Hamilton-Bowen-2001 |text=Hamilton-Bowen 2001, p. 32] This was followed by a four-stamp sheet to commemorate the bicentenary of the American Declaration of Independence; the stamps in this sheet were also available as single stamps. A set of four stamps showing Irish wildlifewas issued in sheet form and also as single stamps in 1980.
Since 1983 miniature sheets have been produced with increasing regularity, from at least one per year initially to several sheets more recently.wikiref |id=Hamilton-Bowen-2001 |text=Hamilton-Bowen 2001, pp. 45–99]
Seven Irish airmail stamps were issued between 1948 and 1965 in the 1d, 3d, 6d, 8d, 1/-, 1/3 and 1/5 values. No specific airmail rate existed for the 1d and 3d stamps though their use was permitted on non-airmail correspondence; all others paid a contemporaneous rate when first produced. These were the only airmail stamps ever issued but many definitives and commemoratives have been produced in values that paid the postage rate for airmail service.
The stamps were designed by R.J. King and recess printed by Waterlow and Sons, London, until 1961, and thereafter by De La Rue & Co, Dublin. The designs feature the "Flight of the Angel Victor – Messenger of St. Patrick – carrying the Voice of the Irish 'Vox Hiberniæ' over the world" flying over four well-known Irish historical
landmarks, one from each of the four provinces of Ireland: Lough Derg (3d and 8d values), Rock of Cashel(1d, 1/3 and 1/5 values), Glendalough(1/- value) and Croagh Patrick(6d value). These were printed in sheets of 60 stamps with an 'e' watermark. [wikiref |id=Buchalter-1972 |text=Buchalter 1972, p. 96]
Surcharges imposed by the Irish post office on mail bearing insufficient pre-paid postage had the
postage duecollected by the use of these labels. Since 1925 there have been six series printed, with the design remaining the same until 1980, though the colour and watermarks have changed. The Irish word "pingin", for penny, is used in both £.s.d and decimal currency, but because it has the same meaning in each, the value on the label does not indicate whether the label was issued before or after decimalization. Hence identifying the issue of a label requires further information: if a collectors knows the date of use, the existence of a watermark and if so which type, and the specific colour, identification will be easier. For example, the 3d value was blue between 1940 and 1969, and stone colour from 1971 until 1980; it changed from a watermarked to a non-watermark paper in 1978. Additionally the 1, 5 and 8 pence values are seen in two different colours depending on the issue, while the 1/2d, 1d, 2d and 6d are seen with both watermark varieties. Except for the sixth issue, which has the word Éirein the design, there is no explicit country identity on any of the others. The first four series use only Irish words. [wikiref |id=Hamilton-Bowen-2001 |text=Hamilton-Bowen 2001, pp. 102–103]
The first issue consisted of four values released on February 20, 1925; 1/2d, 1d, 2d and 6d. Typographed by the Government Printers in Dublin Castle on 'se' watermarked paper. The sheets were printed in larger sheets of 180 divided into three panes of 60 labels. The second issue had ten values: 1/2d, 1d, 1 1/2d, 2d, 3d, 5d, 6d, 8d, 10d and 1/-, and were printed on 'e' watermarked paper between 1940 and 1969. Other details are the same. [wikiref |id=Buchalter-1972 |text=Buchalter 1972, p. 93–94]
A third issue was made up of seven labels and issued in decimal currency in the following values: 1p, 1 1/2p, 3p, 4p, 5p, 7p and 8p. In the fourth issue the 3p, 4p and 5p values were reissued in non-watermarked paper on March 20, 1978. A new design, printed by
photogravure, and appeared on June 20, 1980 in ten values: 1p, 2p, 4p, 6p, 8p, 18p, 20p, 24p, 30p and 50p made up the fifth issue. The sheet format was two panes of 100 divided by a gutter margin. The sixth issue consisted of ten newly designed labels by "Q Design" and lithographically printed by ISSP on non-watermarked paper on October 6, 1988. The values were: 1p, 2p, 3p, 4p, 5p, 17p, 20p, 24p, 30p, 50p and £1. No Euro currency postage dues have been produced.
Stamp booklets were first put on sale on August 21, 1931. Booklet construction was a lightweight
cardboardcover stitched on the left-hand side with panes of stamps (usually four panes), advertisingpanes and interleaving bound in. Until 1956 most booklets had half of the front cover devoted to advertising, and until 1963 booklets also had serial numbers on the front cover: two numbers indicated the year of issue and serial number (in that order on the early issues but with the order reversed for later issues), until 1963 when the serial numbers ceased.wikiref |id=Buchalter-1972 |text=Buchalter 1972, pp. 105–108] Since 1983, most booklets are no longer stitched; the stamp pane, or panes, are glued into a folded card cover.wikiref |id=Gibbons-2004 |text=Gibbons 2004, pp. 30–31]
Until 1988, when the Dublin
Millenniumbooklet containing commemorative stamps was issued, all booklets contained only definitive stamps. Since then, An Post has issued both commemorative and definitive booklets, with three times as many commemorative booklets issued. In 1990 An Post issued the first booklet mixing definitive and commemorative stamps in one booklet and also on a single pane.
Many booklet stamps can be identified by one non-perforated edge, though a few are perforated on all edges. On booklets up to 1977, the printing plate construction enabled both upright and inverted watermarks in equal quantities owning to a gutter dividing rows 6 and 7 in the sheets of 12 x 10 stamps. The gutter was used for stitching during assembly, requiring rows 4–6 and 10–12 to be turned through 180 degrees so those panes could be stitched on the left of the booklet.
The Irish overprinted stamps came, as supplied from the printers in
London, with a watermark of the Royal Cypher of George V. The first Irish watermark was a stylised design of the two overlapping letters 's' and 'e' making an 'se' watermark representing the name of the country " Saorstat Éireann" (Irish Free State). This watermark was discontinued around 1940 when the country's name changed to " Éire" (Ireland); it was replaced with 'e' watermark paper to represent Éire. Stamps of the period may have the watermark in any of several different states of inversion and rotation attributable to the way the paper was fed into the printing machines. [wikiref |id=Hamilton-Bowen |text=Hamilton-Bowen 2001, pp. 116–117]
Around 1971, the use of watermarks was discontinued by the Irish stamp-issuing authority, [wikiref |id=Miller-1983 |text=Miller 1983, p. 6] and current stamps issued by "An Post" do not use a watermarked paper.
Postal stationeryhave been produced in the form of registered envelopes, postcards, envelopes, letter cards, newspaper wrappers, airletters and telegramforms with different designs of impressed stamp applied to show that postage had been pre-paid. With the exception of limited early usage of previously issued British postal stationery, which were not overprinted like the postage stamps, all post-paid impressed stamps before 1984 were based on variations of a design showing the country's name in Irish, "Éire", with appropriate values in text and numeral tablets centred around an Irish harpmotif.wikiref |id=Jung-2002 |text=Jung & Clancy 2002, pp. vi – xvi] This was initially superseded by a shamrockdesign that later became loosely based on the logo of wavy lines and the word "POST" used by An Post from 1984. An Post has also used some designs based on postage stamps as post-paid impressed stamps on Irish postal stationery.
A few early issued items were embossed but generally the post-paid impressed stamps were typographed. The Revenue Stamping Branch,
Dublin Castle, applied the impressed indicia until 1984, when An Post employed the typographic printing method.
At independence, a King George V 5 pence registered envelope and 1 shilling telegram form were printed in green for use in Ireland until domestic products became available. Irish telegram forms were only produced in 1/- and 1/6 values. Registered envelopes have appeared in many values and sizes. The printed (but non-stamped) registered envelopes were produced by private firms and stored by the Irish post office until needed, so envelopes from former periods, showing out-dated fees in the text, often received an impressed stamp for the current postal rate, creating many subtypes for collectors. Other products have carried post-paid imprint, such as commemorative and special issue postcards, including a series of
St. Patrick's Daycards issued annually since 1984. [wikiref |id=Jung-2002 |text=Jung & Clancy 2002, pp. 50–103]
Up to 1987, airletters (also known as aérogrammes) were produced without any fee applied and were available free from post offices upon payment of the appropriate rate in force for the postage stamp purchased to mail the airletter. Most airletters with a pre-paid indicia have been sold at a small premium over the then-current aérogramme postal rate. [wikiref |id=Jung-2002 |text=Jung & Clancy 2002, pp. 130, 145–149]
Known as the "stamping privilege",
companies, associations and individualswere permitted to submit their own designed and pre-printed envelopes, cards, letter sheets, etc., to the Irish Post Office for impressing with an official post-paid indicia. Window envelopes were popular for printed matterrate mail. The most prolific user was the Electricity Supply Boardwhich used meter reading and appointment cards for over forty years. [wikiref |id=Jung-2003 |text=Jung 2003, pp. 36–98] Stamped-to-order postal stationery users included Blackrock College, Córas Iompair Éireann, Esso, Great Northern Railway, and John Player & Sons, Dublin. No stamped-to-order registered envelopes are known. Apparently An Post have withdrawn the "stamping privilege" without any public notice, because stamped-to-order postal stationery has seldom been seen since An Post took control of the Irish Post Office in 1984, with only five users recorded by Jung. Between 1963 and 2000 a small number of philatelically influenced items are known produced by six users. [wikiref |id=Jung-2003 |text=Jung 2003, pp. 162–170]
Collecting Irish stamps
Newly issued Irish postage stamps are available from the Philatelic Bureau [cite web |title=Irish Stamps |publisher=
An Post|url=http://www.irishstamps.ie/IrishStamps/ |accessdate=2007-07-11] of An Postin the Dublin, General Post Office. Commemorative and special issue stamps are usually available for one year from the date of issue. Until the mid-1960s the Irish stamp-issuing policy was very conservative, with only a few new ones each year; up to four or five commemoratives, usually of two values, plus the occasional updated, or new, definitives. [wikiref |id=Gibbons-2004 |text=Gibbons 2004, pp. 2–5] During the 1970s and beyond, the quantity produced rose considerably.
Some collectors try to acquire a basic collection of the more common stamps from 1922 onwards, though that can be difficult now due to the quantity issued.wikiref |id=MacDonnell-1990 |text=MacDonnell & Whyte (eds.) 1990 and wikiref |id=Buchalter-1972 |text=Buchalter 1972 are the only specialised publications to quote quantities printed where available from the issuing authority. Five issues had low printing numbers from 850,320–940,140 and the 1961 St. Patrick 8d value only lists 500,160 copies.] Many collectors concentrate on one type of stamp, such as definitives or commemoratives, or even one issue, such as Gerl definitives. [wikiref |id=Warren-1978 |text=Warren & Fitzgerald 1978, wikiref |id=Warren-2000 |text=Warren & Jung 2000 and wikiref |id=Jung-1992 |text=Jung 1992 confirm three definitive issue specialties.] The First Day covers, especially commemoratives with full sets affixed, are popular though the older issues are harder to find because less than a million of the high value stamps were printed in the early years (1929–1940s) for several issues, a far lower number than the 20-plus millions printed for most of the low values during the same period.
overprints, which proved very popular during their early years, are a complex topic giving an advanced collector a great philatelic challenge. [cite web |url=http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/overprints/intro.html |publisher=University of Notre Dame |title=The Wolf Collection of Irish Postage Stamps: Part Two: The Overprints—General Introduction |accessdate=2007-07-30]
The Irish Post Office has never publicised an official stamp numbering system for the postage stamps they issued, so collectors use a
stamp numbering systemfrom one of the most popular stamp catalogues,wikiref |id=Feldman-1968 |text=Feldman 1968, pp. 156–163] such as Stanley Gibbons, Scott, MacDonnell Whyte, MDW (last edition 1991), Hibernian or Michel.wikiref |id=MacDonnell-1990 |text=MacDonnell & Whyte (eds.) 1990, p. 4] There are differences between these numbering systems that result in a varying sequence of stamps in each listing, with some stamps included on some lists but not on others—usually varieties that the publishers think do not belong in a general catalogue. For instance, Ireland's first postage stamp, the 2d "Map of Ireland", issued in 1922 is numbered 68 by Scott, 43 by Michel, D4 by Hibernian and MacDonnell Whyte and 74 by Stanley Gibbons.wikiref |id=MacDonnell-1990 |text=MacDonnell & Whyte (eds.) 1990, p. 24]
Collectors tend to use the catalogues produced in their own region and language, so in the United States, Scott is used most often as evidenced by the use of Scott numbers in American stamp auction catalogues. In contrast, SG numbers are used in England and Ireland because Stanley Gibbons (a British publisher) produces the catalogue of choice in those countries. Advanced and more specialist collectors have used the David Feldman, later called MacDonnell/Feldman, and later again called MacDonnellWhyte, catalogues between 1978 and 1991, and Hibernian catalogues (1972, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1986 and 2002 editions).
* DSS, Dublin Stamp Society.
* IPS, Irish Philatelic Society, is more than a century old, having started as the "Irish Philatelic Club" following a meeting in
Dublinon February 12, 1901, of nineteen people who responded to a notice in the Irish Times. [cite book |title=The Story of the Irish Philatelic Society 1901–2001 |publisher=Irish Philatelic Society |month=July |year=2002 |location=Blackrock, Co Dublin |pages=p. 5]
Éire Philatelic Association, is a US based Irish philatelic society.
Irish Philatelic Circle, is a British based Irish philatelic society.
Forschungs- und Arbeitsgemeinschaft Irland e.V., is a German based Irish philatelic society.
Europa postage stamp
List of people on stamps of Ireland
Timeline of postal history
References and sources
* [http://www.anpost.ie/ An Post] Irish Post Office
* [http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/index.html Dr Charles Wolf's collection of Irish postage stamps] [http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/forerunners/contents.html Forerunners] [http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/stamps/irish/overprints/contents.html Overprints]
* [http://www.cartref.demon.co.uk/eng/stamps/eire01.htm Effects of the Partition of Ireland on the postal service (1920–1922)]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20050207132328/http://stampa.ie/links/ipta.php IPTA, Irish Philatelic Traders Association] Irish stamp dealer's
trade group(archive version)
* [http://www.europeanstamps.net/imagedb2/land.asp?id=36&name=Ireland Irish Stamp Images] A Search Site for European Stamps
* [http://www.eirephilatelicassoc.org/ ÉPA, Éire Philatelic Association] US based Irish philatelic society
* [http://www.fai-germany.de/engl/index.html FAI, Forschungs- und Arbeitsgemeinschaft Irland e.V.] German based Irish philatelic society
* [http://ias.metroairpost.com/ Irish Airmail Society] specialises in Irish
* [http://www.philatelic.cwc.net/ Irish Philatelic Circle] British based Irish philatelic society
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List of entities that have issued postage stamps (M - Z) — ;See also : List of entities that have issued postage stamps (A E): List of entities that have issued postage stamps (F L)IntroductionThis is a list of entities that have issued postage stamps at some point since stamps were introduced in 1840.… … Wikipedia
England (British postage stamps) — England was a set of special commemorative postage stamps issued by the Royal Mail in 2006. The stamps were the final part of the British Journey series, which had previously featured Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. [Cite web… … Wikipedia
List of notable postage stamps — This is a list of postage stamps that are especially notable in some way.The best known stamps: * Treskilling Yellow (Sweden) * Penny Black (Britain) * Mauritius Post Office * Inverted Jenny (U.S.) * Basel Dove (Switzerland) * British Guiana 1c… … Wikipedia
2006 Definitives (British postage stamps) — Four new Machin definitive stamps were released on March 28 2006. The values are 37p and 44p (which have previously been issued in different colours); and 49p and 72p, which are new values.Although first and second class first weight postage… … Wikipedia
Postage stamp — A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre paying a fee for postal services. Usually a small paper rectangle or square that is attached to an envelope, the postage stamp signifies that the person sending the letter or package may have… … Wikipedia