- Director of National Intelligence
Office of the Director of National Intelligence Agency overview Formed April 22, 2005 Jurisdiction Federal Government of the United States Headquarters McLean, Virginia Employees Approximately 1,500 Annual budget $49.8 Billion (US Intelligence Community Budget Figure) Agency executives James R. Clapper, Director
Stephanie O'Sullivan, Principal Deputy Director
Child agencies National Counterterrorism Center
National Counterproliferation Center
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI), is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President, who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for:
- Serving as the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council for intelligence matters related to national security;
- Serving as the head of the sixteen-member Intelligence Community; and
- Overseeing and directing the National Intelligence Program.
Under 50 U.S.C. § 403-3a, it is desired that either the Director or the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence be an active duty commissioned officer in the armed forces or have training or experience in military intelligence activities and requirements. Only one of the two positions can be held by an officer at any given time. The statute does not specifically state what rank the commissioned officer will hold during his tenure in either position, but trends lean towards an officer holding the rank of a four-star general or admiral. The most recent DNI was retired Navy four-star admiral, Dennis C. Blair, whose resignation became effective May 28, 2010. On July 20, 2010, the President nominated retired Lt. Gen. James R. Clapper for the position. Clapper was confirmed by the Senate on August 5, 2010, replacing acting Director David C. Gompert.
Prior to establishment of the DNI, the head of the Intelligence Community was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). The DCI concurrently served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Establishment of the DNI position was one of the recommendations in the report by the 9/11 Commission investigating the September 11 attacks. The report, which was released on July 22, 2004, identified major intelligence failures that called into question how well the Intelligence Community protected US national and homeland security interests against attacks by foreign terrorists.
Soon thereafter Senators Dianne Feinstein, Jay Rockefeller and Bob Graham introduced legislation to create a Director of National Intelligence, S. 2645, introduced on June 19, 2002. Other, similar, legislation soon followed. After considerable debate on the scope of the DNI's powers and authorities, the United States Congress passed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 by votes of 336-75 in the House of Representatives, and 89-2 in the Senate. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on December 17, 2004. Among other things, the law established the DNI position as the designated leader of the United States Intelligence Community and prohibited the DNI from serving as the CIA Director or the head of any other Intelligence Community element at the same time. In addition, the law required the CIA Director to "report" his agency's activities to the DNI.
Critics say compromises during the bill's crafting led to the establishment of a DNI whose powers are too weak to adequately lead, manage and improve the performance of the US Intelligence Community. In particular, the law left the United States Department of Defense in charge of the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. (The limited DNI role in leading the US Intelligence Community is discussed in the Intelligence Community article.)
On February 17, 2005, President George W. Bush named U.S. Ambassador to Iraq John Negroponte to the post, pending confirmation by the Senate. It was reported that President Bush's first choice for Director of National Intelligence was former Director of Central Intelligence Robert M. Gates, who was serving as president of Texas A&M University; however, Gates declined the offer. Negroponte was confirmed by a Senate vote of 98 to 2 in favor of his appointment on April 21, 2005, and was sworn in by President Bush on that day.
Donald M. Kerr was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to be Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence on Thursday, October 4, 2007. He was sworn in on Tuesday, October 9, 2007.
Kerr, of Virginia, was most recently the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office, and he was previously the Deputy Director for Science and Technology at the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Earlier in his career, he was the Assistant Director of the Justice Department's Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University.
Declan McCullagh at News.com wrote on August 24, 2007 that the DNI site apparently was configured to repel all search engines to index any page at DNI.gov. This effectively made the DNI web site invisible to all search engines and in turn, any search queries.
Ross Feinstein, the Spokesman for the DNI said that the cloaking was removed as of Monday, September 3, "We're not even sure how (the robots.txt file) got there" – but it was again somehow hidden on September 4. Another blog entry by McCullagh on September 7, states that the DNI site should, again, now be open to search engines.
In September, 2007, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence has released Intelligence Community 100 Day & 500 Day Plans for Integration & Collaboration. These plans include a series of initiatives designed to build the foundation for increased cooperation and reform of the U.S. Intelligence Community.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) as an independent agency to assist the DNI. The budget for the ODNI – and the Intelligence Community equal 43.5 billion. The ODNI has about 1,500 employees. The National Counterterrorism Center is a major organization within the ODNI.
On March 23, 2007, DNI Mike McConnell announced organizational changes, which include:
- elevating acquisition to a new Deputy DNI position
- creating a new Deputy DNI for Policy, Plans, and Requirements (replacing the Deputy DNI for Requirements position)
- establishing an Executive Committee
- designating the Chief of Staff position as the new Director of the Intelligence Staff. The chart below shows the ODNI's organization, as of November 2009.
The Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive is also responsible to the DNI.
Director of the Intelligence Staff
The Office of the Director of the Intelligence Staff (DIS) is responsible for synchronizing and integrating efforts across the DNI staff and components. Offices that fall under the DIS include:
- Executive Secretary, Office of the Executive Secretariat
- Director, Office of Administration
DDNI for Collection
The Office of the Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Collection was established to coordinate collection throughout the Intelligence Community under the authorities of the DNI and ensure that the National Intelligence Strategy (NIS) priorities are appropriately reflected in future planning and systems acquisition decisions.
The Office of the DDNI for Collection looks across the entire collection business enterprise to develop corporate understanding of needs, requirements, and capabilities to ensure that a holistic view is taken on current and future collection systems. The Deputy Director for Collection brings together key IC stakeholders to get senior level insight into issues.
The DDNI for Collection is supported by four Assistant Deputies:
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Cyberspace Management
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Human Intelligence
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Open Source
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Technical Collection
DDNI for Analysis
Primary authority for analytic activities rests with the Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analysis, who is also the Chairman of the National Intelligence Council. As of March 2007, there are six Assistant Deputy Directors for Analysis (ADDNI/A):
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for the National Intelligence Council (also Vice Chairman, NIC)
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for the President's Daily Brief
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analytic Mission Management
- Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analytic Integrity and Standards (also the Analytic Ombudsman)
- ADDNI/A for Analytic Transformation and Technology (also the Chief Technology Officer)
- ADDNI/A for Community Support.
Directors of National Intelligence
No. Name Term of Office President(s) served under 1. John Negroponte April 21, 2005 – February 13, 2007 George W. Bush 2. VADM John Michael McConnell, USN (Ret.) February 13, 2007 – January 27, 2009 George W. Bush 3. ADM Dennis C. Blair, USN (Ret.) January 29, 2009 – May 28, 2010 Barack Obama 4. David C. Gompert (Acting) May 28, 2010 - August 5, 2010 Barack Obama 5. Lt. Gen. James R. Clapper, USAF (Ret.) August 5, 2010–Present Barack Obama
Principal Deputy Directors of National Intelligence
Name Term of Office President(s) served under Gen Michael Hayden, USAF April 21, 2005–May 26, 2006 George W. Bush LTG Ronald L. Burgess, Jr., USA (Acting) June 2006–January 2007 George W. Bush Donald Kerr October 2007-January 2009 George W. Bush David C. Gompert November 10, 2009–August 2010 Barack Obama Stephanie O'Sullivan February 18, 2011 - Present Barack Obama
Directors of the Intelligence Staff
Name Term of Office President(s) served under LTG Ronald L. Burgess, Jr., USA May 2007–February 2009 George W. Bush, Barack Obama LTG John F. Kimmons, USA February 2009–Present Barack Obama
Deputy Directors of National Intelligence
Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under Robert Cardillo Intelligence Integration (oversees collection and analysis) September 2010–present Barack Obama Peter Lavoy Analysis December 2008–? George W. Bush Vacant Collection April 2010–Present Barack Obama David Shedd Policy, Plans and Requirements May 2007–Present George W. Bush Dawn Meyerriecks Acquisition and Technology September 2009–Present Barack Obama
Associate Directors of National Intelligence
Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under Ron Sanders Chief Human Capital Officer May 2005–Present George W. Bush Priscilla Guthrie IC Chief Information Officer 26 May 2009–Present Barack Obama Marilyn A. Vacca Acting Chief Financial Officer November 2008–Present George W. Bush Dr. L. Roger Mason, Jr. ADNI for Systems and Resource Analyses May 2009–Present Barack Obama
Assistant Deputy Directors of National Intelligence
Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under Dan Butler Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Open Source April 2008–Present George W. Bush, Barack Obama
- Information Sharing Environment
- National Intelligence Coordination Center
- The National Security Act of 1947
- Open source intelligence
- United States Joint Intelligence Community Council
- US intelligence community A-Space
- ^  Office of the Director of National Intelligence Fifth Year Anniversary Celebration
- ^ DNI.gov
- ^ Miller, Greg. Dennis C. Blair to resign as director of national intelligence, Washington Post. Published May 21, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
- ^ Executive Order 13470
- ^ "Bush Orders Intelligence Overhaul", by Associated Press, July 31, 2008
- ^ Kaplan, Fred (7 December 2004). "You Call That a Reform Bill?". Slate Magazine. http://www.slate.com/id/2110767/.
- ^ CNN.com (2005) Bush names Negroponte intelligence chief. Retrieved May 14, 2006.
- ^ Feds use robots.txt files to stay invisible online. Lame. | The Iconoclast - politics, law, and technology - CNET News.com
- ^ National Intelligence Web site no longer invisible to search engines | The Iconoclast - politics, law, and technology - CNET News.com
- ^ DNI.gov
- ^ The National Intelligence Strategy. August 2009. (PDF-File; 5.7 MB)
- ^ a b 07-0224 DNIHandbook
- ^ Pincus, Walter (2007-02-26). "An Admonition on Intelligence". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/25/AR2007022501099.html. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- ^ Negroponte, John (2006-05-08). "Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Intelligence Community Policy Memorandum Number 2006-200-2" (PDF). http://www.fas.org/irp/dni/icpm/2006-200-2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- ^ "ODNI Announces Senior Leadership Positions, ODNI News Release No. 5-05". 2005-10-31. http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20051031_release.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- ^ Negroponte, John (2005-11-09). "Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Intelligence Community Policy Memorandum Number 2005-200-1" (PDF). http://www.fas.org/irp/dni/icpm/2005-200-1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- Office of the Director of National Intelligence
- US Intelligence Community
- An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community
- The National Counterproliferation Center
- The National Counterterrorism Center
- The National Counterintelligence Executive
- Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment
- Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004
- U.S. News & World Report: First line of Defense: Inside the Efforts to Remake U.S. Intelligence
- Fact Sheet: Real Progress in Reforming Intelligence
- The Washington Post - December 29, 2006: DNI Awards $2 Million in Hush-Hush Money
- The National Security Archive: From Director of Central Intelligence to Director of National Intelligence
United States Directors of National Intelligence War on Terror (according to USA, European Union and NATO) ParticipantsOperationalTargetsAl-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · Abu Sayyaf · Anwar al-Awlaki · Al-Shabaab · Hamas · Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami · Hezbollah · Hizbul Mujahideen · Islamic Courts Union · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Jemaah Islamiyah · Lashkar-e-Taiba · Mujahideen · Taliban · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan ConflictsOtherInsurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) · Insurgency in the Philippines · Iraq War · Iraqi insurgency · Kenyan incursion into Somalia (2011) · South Thailand insurgency · Terrorism in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · War in Somalia (2006–2009) · 2007 Lebanon conflict · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown See alsoAbu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse · Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act · Axis of evil · Black sites · Bush Doctrine · The Clash of Civilizations · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Criticism of the War on Terror · Death of Osama bin Laden · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Torture Memos · Extrajudicial prisoners · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act of 2006 · NSA electronic surveillance program · Pakistan's role · President's Surveillance Program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Targeted killing · Targeted Killing in International Law · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act
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