- History of the Scots language
Speakers of Northumbrian
Old Englishsettled in south eastern Scotlandin the 7th century, at which time Celtic Brythonic was spoken in the south of Scotland to a little way north of the Firth of Forthand the Firth of Clyde, and Pictish was spoken further north: almost nothing is known nowadays about Pictish. At the same time Gaelic speakers began to spread from the Western Coast of Scotland north of the Clyde into the east. Over the next five hundred years with the founding of Scotlandand spread of Christianityacross the north of Britain by the Columban Church the Gaelic language slowly moved eastwards and southwards across the lowlands. When Northumbrian lands were incorporated into Scotland in the 11th century Gaelic became the prestige language there and had some influence, but the south east remained largely English speaking. In the far north, Viking incursions brought Old Norsespeakers into Caithness, Orkneyand Shetland.
Scholars of the
languagegenerally use the following chronology [Such chronological terminology is widely used, for example, by " [http://www.scotsdictionaries.org.uk/ Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd.] " (Formally SNDA), [http://www.englang.ed.ac.uk/people/anne.html Dr. Anne King] of " [http://www.englang.ed.ac.uk/scots.html The University of Edinburgh] " and by " [http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/SESLL/Stella/packs/oldscot.htm The University of Glasgow] ". It is also used in "The Oxford Companion to the English Language" and " [http://www.bartleby.com/212/0401.html The Cambridge History of English and American Literature] ". ] :
* (Northumbrian) Anglo-Saxon to 1100
* Pre-literary Scots to 1375
Early Scotsto 1450
Middle Scotsto 1700
* Modern Scots 1700 onwards
The nature of early forms of the language are obscure due to
vikingplundering and destruction, Edward I's removal of the national records and their later loss, the destruction of the monasteries in border warfare and the vandalism of the Reformation. It is difficult to assess whether Scots descends largely from the Anglo-Saxon of Lothianor the Anglo-Danishof Yorkshireintroduced some four hundred years later, which would explain the Norse elements in Early Scots which are lacking in Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon. Current insights into pre-literary Scots stem largely from place-names, archaeology and a few words in Latin documents.
Old Englishhad been established in south-eastern Scotland as far as the River Forthby the 7th century. It remained largely confined to this area until the 13th century, continuing in common use while Gaelic was the court language. English then spread further into Scotland via the burgh.
12th centuryearly northern Middle Englishbegan to spread north and eastwards. It was from this dialect that Early Scots, known to its speakers as "English" ("Inglis"), began to develop, which is why in the late 12th century Adam of Dryburgh described his locality as "in the land of the English in the Kingdom of the Scots" ["in terra Anglorum et in regno Scottorum", Adam of Dryburgh, "De tripartito tabernaculo", II.210, tr. Keith J. Stringer, "Reform Monasticism and Celtic Scotland", in Edward J. Cowan & R. Andrew McDonald (eds.), "Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages", (East Lothian, 2000), p. 133.] and why the early 13th century author of " de Situ Albanie" thought that the Firth of Forth"divides the kingdoms of the Scots and of the English" [A.O. Anderson, "Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286", 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922), v.i, pp. cxv–cxix; see also Dauvit Broun, “The Seven Kingdoms in De Situ Albanie: A Record of Pictish political geography or imaginary Map of ancient Alba”, in E.J. Cowan & R. Andrew McDonald (eds.), Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, (Edinburgh, 2000, rev. 2005), pp. 24-42.] .
Most of the evidence suggests that English spread further into Scotland via the
burgh, proto-urban institutions which were first established by King David I. Incoming burghers were mainly English (especially from Northumbria, and the Earldom of Huntingdon), Flemish and French. Although the military aristocracy employed French and Gaelic, these small urban communities appear to have been using English as something more than a " lingua franca" by the end of the 13th century. As a consequence of the outcome of the Wars of Independence though, the English-speaking people of Lothian who lived under the King of Scots had to accept Scottish identity. The growth in prestige of English in the 14th century, and the complementary decline of French in Scotland, made English the prestige language of most of eastern Scotland.
Divergence from Northumbrian
Middle Englishwas influenced by the Norse of Scandinavian-influenced Middle English-speaking immigrants from the North and Midlands of England during the 12th and 13th centuries, Dutch and Middle Low Germanthrough trade and immigration from the low countries, and Romance via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman and later Parisian French due to the Auld Alliance. Some loan words resulting from contact with Scottish Gaelic —often for geographical features such as "loch" or "strath," but there are others such as "bog" from "bog" (moist or damp); "twig" (catch on) from "tuig" (understand), "galore" (lots of) from "gu leòr" (plenty), "boose" or "buss" from "bus" (mouth) also entered the language.Eventually the royal court and barons all spoke "Inglis". Further spreading of the language eventually led to Gaelic being confined mostly to the highlands and islands by the end of the Middle Ages, although some lowland areas, notably in Galloway and Carrick, retained the language until the 17th, perhaps even until the 18th, century. From the late 14th century even Latin was replaced by "Inglis" as the language of officialdom and literature.
By the early 16th century what was then called "Inglis" had become the language of government, and its speakers started to refer to it as "Scottis" and to Scottish Gaelic, which had previously been titled "Scottis", as "Erse" (Irish). The first known instance of this was by an unknown man in
1494. In 1559 William Nudrye was granted a monopoly by the court to produce school textbooks, two of which were "Ane Schort Introduction: Elementary Digestit into Sevin Breve Tables for the Commodius Expeditioun of Thame That are Desirous to Read and Write the Scottis Toung" and "Ane Intructioun for Bairnis to be Learnit in Scottis and Latin".
By this time Scots had diverged significantly from its sister south of the border. By the standards of the time it had a 'standardised' orthography and had become the vehicle for an extensive and diverse national literature. From 1610 to the 1690s during the
Plantation of Ulstersome 200,000 Scots settled in the north of Ireland taking what were to become Ulster Scots dialects with them. From the middle of the 16th century Scots began to become increasingly Anglicized. With the reformationcame Bibles in English. By the late 16th century most all writing was composed in a mixture of Scots and English spellings, the English forms slowly becoming more common so that by the end of the 17th century Scots spellings had almost disappeared completely. This process took slightly longer in unpublished vernacular literature and official records. After the Union of the Crownsin 1603 the Scots speaking gentry had increasing contact with English speakers and began to remodel their speech on that of their English peers. It was this remodeling that eventually led to the formation of Scottish English.
In the 18th century 'polite society' now considered Scots as 'provincial and unrefined' and much of the gentry endeavoured to rid itself of the former national tongue. This was not universally accepted by all educated Scots of the period and a new literary Scots came into being. Unlike Middle Scots, it was usually based on contemporary colloquial speech. Its orthography was generally an adaptation of the imported standard, though some orthographic features from Middle Scots continued to be used. This modern literary Scots was exemplified by Allan Ramsay and his followers, and their successors such as
Robert Burns. Many writers and publishers found it advantageous to use English forms and copious apostrophes in order to secure a larger English readership unfamiliar with Scots. The pronunciation undoubtedly remained Scots as the rhymes reveal. Early in the 19th century the publication of Jamieson’s Etymological Dictionary of the Scots Language was accompanied by a renewed interest in Scots among the middle and upper classes. In this period the absence of an official standard or socially acceptable norm led to further dialect divergence.
Phonological history of the Scots language
Written Scots language
* "A History of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of Older Scots Vol. 12. Oxford University Press 2002.
* Aitken, A.J. (1977) "How to Pronounce Older Scots" in Bards and Makars. Glasgow, Glasgow University Press.
* Aitken, A. J. (1987) "The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language". Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 0-08-034530-1
* Caldwell, S.J.G. (1974) "The Pronoun in Early Scots". Helsinki, Société Néophilique.
* Corbett, John; McClure, Derrick; Stuart-Smith, Jane (Editors)(2003) "The Edinburgh Companion to Scots". Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1596-2
* Jones, Charles (1997) "The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language". Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Press. ISBN 0-7486-0754-4
* Jones, Charles (1995) "A Language Suppressed: The pronunciation of the Scots language in the 18th century". Edinburgh, John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-427-3
* [http://www.dsl.ac.uk/ Dictionary of the Scots Language]
* [http://www.scotsdictionaries.org.uk/ Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd]
* [http://roepstem.net/scots.html The Scots Spelling System in Early Modern Texts]
* [http://www.scots-online.org/airticles/eurlang.htm NOSTRA VULGARI LINGUA: SCOTS AS A EUROPEAN LANGUAGE 1500 - 1700]
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