Junkers Ju 88


Junkers Ju 88

infobox Aircraft
name = Junkers Ju 88
type = Dive bomber/Tactical bomber/Night fighter/Torpedo bomber
manufacturer =Junkers




caption = Ju 88A
designer =
first flight = 21 December 1936
introduced =1939
retired = 1951 (France)
number built = circa 15,000
status =
primary user =Luftwaffe
more users =
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles = Junkers Ju 188

The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers in the mid 1930s, it became one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war. The Ju 88 suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early operational roles. Like a number of other "Luftwaffe" bombers, it was used successfully as a bomber, dive bomber, night fighter, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, heavy fighter, and even as a flying warhead during the closing stages of conflict. [ Taylor 1969, p. 178.] Despite its protracted development, the aircraft became one of the Luftwaffe's most crucial assets. There were 15,000 Ju 88s built during World War II, more than any other twin-engined German aircraft of the period.

Design and development

In August 1935, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium submitted its requirements for an unarmed, three seat, high-speed bomber, with a payload of 800-1,000 kg.Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 71.] Junkers presented their initial design in June 1936, and were given clearance to build two prototypes (Werknummer 4941 and 4942).Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 71.] The first two aircraft were to have a range of 2,000 km and were to be powered by two DB 600s. Three further aircraft, (Werknummer "4943", "4944" and "4945"), were to be powered by Jumo 211 engines.Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 71.] The first two prototypes, Ju 88 V1 and V2, were different from the V3, V4 and V5 in that the latter three models were equipped with three defensive armament positions to the rear of the cockpit, and were able to carry two 1,000 kg bombs under the inner wing. The first five prototypes had conventionally operating dual strut leg rearwards-retracting main gear, but starting with the V6 prototype, a main gear design that twisted the new, single-leg main gear strut through 90° during the retraction sequence debuted, much like the American P-40 fighter design used. This feature allowed the main wheels to end up above the lower end of the strut when fully retracted and was adopted as standard for all future production Ju 88 aircraft. These single-leg landing gear struts also made use of stacks of conical Belleville washers inside them, as their main form of suspension for takeoffs and landings. At this time radical modifications began to produce a "heavy" dive-bomber. The wings were strengthened, dive brakes were added, the fuselage was extended and the number of crewmembers was increased to four. Despite these advances, the Ju 88 was to enter the war as a medium bomber.

The choice of annular radiators for engine cooling on the Ju 88, which placed these radiators immediately forward of each engine, and directly behind each propeller, allowed the cooling lines for the engine coolant and oil cooling radiators (integrated within the annular design) to be just about as short as possible. The concept may have led to a number of other German military aircraft designs adopting the same solution, such as the Arado Ar 240, Heinkel He 177, Heinkel He 219, the inline powered developments of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 and the twin engined Focke-Wulf Ta 154.

The aircraft's first flight was made by the prototype Ju 88 V1, which bore the civil registration D-AQEN, on 21 December 1936. When it first flew, it managed about 580 km/h (360 mph) and Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe was ecstatic. It was an aircraft that could finally fulfill the promise of the Schnellbomber, a high-speed bomber. The streamlined fuselage was modeled after its contemporary, the Dornier Do 17, but with fewer defensive guns because the belief still held that it could outrun late 1930s-era fighters. The fifth prototype set a 1,000 km (620 mile) closed-circuit record in March 1939, carrying a 2,000 kg (4,100 lb) payload at a speed of 517 km/h (320 mph). [ Winchester 2004, p. 146.] However, by the time Luftwaffe planners had had their own "pet" features added (including dive-bombing), the Ju 88's top speed had dropped to around 450 km/h (280 mph). The Ju 88 V7 was fitted with cable cutting equipment to combat the potential threat of British Barrage balloons, and was successfully tested in this role. The V7 then had the Ju 88 A-1 nose installed, and was put through a series of dive-bombing tests with 250, and 500 kg bombs, and in early 1940, with 1000 KG bombs.The Ju 88 V8 (DG+BF, Wrk Nr 4948) flew on the 3 October 1938. The A-0 series was developed through the V9 and V10 prototypes. The A-1 series prototypes were Wrk Nrs 0003, 0004 and 0005. The A-1s were given the Jumo 211 B-1 or G powerplants. [Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 75.]

Dr. Heinrich Koppenberg (managing director of Jumo) assured Göring in the autumn of 1938 that 300 Ju 88s per month was definitely possible. Göring was in favour of the A-1 variant for mass production.

Production was delayed drastically with developmental problems. Although planned for a service introduction in 1938, the Ju 88 finally entered squadron service (with only 12 aircraft) on the first day of the attack on Poland in 1939. Production was painfully slow with only one Ju 88 manufactured per week, as problems continually kept cropping up. The Ju 88C series of heavy fighter was also designed very early in 1940, but kept secret from Göring, as he only wanted bombers.

Operational history

Polish Campaign

Only 12 Ju 88s saw action in Poland. The unit "Erprobungskommando 88" (Ekdo 88) was responsible for testing new bomber designs and their crews under hostile conditions. They selected 12 machines and their crews and attached them to "1./Kampfgeschwader 25". [Weal 2000, p. 8.] As a result of its small operational numbers, the type made no impact.

Battle of Norway

The "Luftwaffe" committed "II./Kampfgeschwader 30" to the campaign under "Fliegerkorps X" for Operation Weserübung. [Hooton 2007, p. 32.] The unit was equipped with Ju 88s and engaged Allied shipping as its main target. On 9 April 1940 Ju 88s of KG 30 dive-bombed, in cooperation with high-level bombing Heinkel He 111s of KG 26, and helped damage the battleship HMS "Rodney" and sink the destroyer HMS "Gurkha". However the unit lost four Ju 88s in the action, the highest single loss of the aircraft in combat throughout the campaign. [Hooton 2007, p. 34.]

Battle of France

The "Luftwaffe's" order of battle for the French campaign reveals all but one of the "Luftwaffe's" "Fliegerkorps" ("Fliegerkorps I") contained Ju 88s in the combat role.The mixed bomber units, including the Ju 88, of "Kampfgeschwader 51" (under the command of "Luftflotte 3") helped claim between 233 and 248 Allied aircraft on the ground between 10-13 May 1940. [Hooton 2007, p. 62.] The Ju 88 was particularly effective at dive-bombing. Between 13-24, May I. and II./KG 54 flew 174 attack against rail systems, paralysing French logistics and mobility. [Hooton 2007, p. 66.] On 17 June 1940, Junkers Ju 88s (mainly from "Kampfgeschwader 30") destroyed a "10,000 tonne ship", the 16,243 grt "Lancastria", off St. Nazaire, killing some 5,800 Allied personnel [Hooton 2007, p. 88.] .Some 133 Ju 88s were pressed into the Blitzkrieg, but very high combat losses and accidents forced a quick withdrawal from action to re-train crews to fly this very high performance aircraft. Some crews were reported to be more scared of the Ju 88 than the enemy, and requested a transfer to a He 111 unit. ["Heinkel He 111". Network Projects Production, 1993.] By this time, major performance deficiencies in the A-1 led to an all-out effort in a major design rework. The outcome was a longer, 20.08 meter (65 ft 10.5 in) wingspan, from extended rounded wingtips, that was deemed needed for all A-1s; thus the A-5 was born. Surviving A-1s were modified as quickly as possible, with new wings to A-5 specifications.

Battle of Britain

By August 1940 A-1s and A-5s were reaching operational units, just as the battle was intensifying.The Battle of Britain proved very costly. Its faster speed did not prevent Ju 88 losses exceeding those of its Dornier Do 17 and Heinkel He 111 stablemates, despite being deployed in smaller numbers than either. Ju 88 losses over Britain in 1940 amounted to 313 machines between July-October 1940. Do 17 and He 111 losses for the same period amounted to 132 and 252 machines destroyed respectively. [ [http://members.tripod.com/Rush_9/OoBob1.htm Aircraft Strength and Losses.] . Source used: "The Battle of Britain" by Peter G. Cooksley, Ian Allan Ltd, 1990.] A series of field kits were made to make it less vulnerable, including the replacement of the rear machine gun by a twin barreled machine gun, and additional cockpit armour.

It was during the closing days of the Battle of Britain that the flagship Ju 88 A-4 went into service. Although slower yet than the A-1, nearly all of the troubles of the A-1 were gone, and finally the Ju 88 matured into a superb warplane. The A-4 actually saw additional improvements including more powerful engines, but, unlike other aircraft in the Luftwaffe, did not see a model code change. The Ju 88 C series also benefited from the A-4 changes, and when the Luftwaffe finally did decide on a new heavy fighter, the Ju 88 C was a powerful, refined aircraft.

Eastern Front

By the summer of 1941, most of the units equipped with the Dornier Do 17 were upgrading to the Ju 88. With a few exceptions, most of the German bomber units were now flying the He 111 and Ju 88.The Ju 88 was to prove a very capable and valuable asset to the Luftwaffe in the east. The Ju 88 units met with instant success, attacking enemy airfields and positions at low level and causing enormous losses for little damage in return. 3./"Kampfgeschwader 3" attacked Pinsk airfield in the morning of the 22 June 1941. It caught, and claimed destroyed, 60 Soviet bombers on the ground. The 39 SBAP Regiment of the 10 Division SAD actually lost 43 Tupolev SBa and five Petlyakov Pe-2s. Ju 88s from "Kampfgeschwader 51" destroyed over 100 aircraft after dispatching 80 Ju 88s to hit airfields. In general the Soviet aircraft were not dispersed and the Luftwaffe found them easy targets. [Bergström 2007, p. 14.] A report from the Soviet 23rd Tank Division of the 12th Armoured Corps reported a low-level attack by Ju 88s on 22 June, resulting in the loss of 40 tanks. However, the Ju 88s were to suffer steady attritional losses. At 04:15 on 22 June 1941, III./KG 51 attacked the airfield at Kurovitsa. Despite destroying 34 Polikarpov I-153s, the Ju 88s were intercepted by 66 ShAP I-153s. Six Ju 88s were shot down before the German fighter escort dealt with the threat. [Bergström 2007, p. 16.] By the end of the first day of the campaign, Ju 88 losses amounted to 23 destroyed. [Bergström 2007, p. 20.]

Due to the lack of sufficient numbers of Ju 87 "Stukas", the Ju 88 was employed in the direct ground support role. This resulted in severe losses from ground-fire. "Kampfgeschwader 1","Kampfgeschwader 76" and "Kampfgeschwader 77" reported the loss of 18 Ju 88s over enemy territory on 23 June. KG 76 and KG 77 reported the loss of a further four Ju 88s, of which 12 were 100% destroyed. [Bergström 2007, p. 22.]

In the north, the VVS North-Western Front lost 465 aircraft on the ground to the Ju 88s of KG 1. 148 of the Soviet machines were bombers. A further 33 were damaged. Out of a total of 1,720 aircraft deployed by the VVS Northern Front on 22 June, [Bergström 2007, p. 131.] it lost 890 and a further 187 suffered battle damage in eight days. [Bergström 2007, p. 29.] The Ju 88s units helped virtually destroy Soviet airpower in the northern sector.

Again, the Ju 88 demonstrated its dive-bombing capability. Along with He 111s from KG 55, Ju 88s from KG 51 and 54 destroyed some 220 trucks and 40 tanks on 1 July, which helped repulse the Soviet South Western Front's offensive. The Ju 88s destroyed most rail links during interdiction missions in the area, allowing "Panzergruppe 1" to maintain the pace of its advance. [Bergström 2007, p. 39.]

Ju 88 units operating over the Baltic states during the battle for Estonia inflicted severe losses on Soviet shipping, with the same dive-bombing tactics used over Norway, France and Britain. KGr 806 sank the Soviet destroyer "Karl Marx" on 8 August 1941 in Loksa Bay Tallin. [Bergström 2007, p. 36.] On 28 August the Ju 88s had more success when KG 77 and KGr 806 sank the 2,026 grt steamer "Vironia", the 2,317 grt "Lucerne", the 1,423 "Artis Kronvalds" and the ice breaker "Krisjanis Valdemars" (2,250 grt). The rest of the Soviet "fleet", were forced to change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines and sank. On 29 August, the Ju 88s accounted for the transport ships "Vtoraya Pyatiletka" (3,974 grt), "Kalpaks" (2,190 grt) and "Leningradsovet" (1,270 grt) sunk. Furthermore, the ships "Ivan Papanin", "Saule", "Kazakhstan" and the "Serp i Molot" were damaged. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers were lost. [Bergström 2007, p. 60.]

Versatility and Operational Development

Dive bomber

In October 1937 "Generalluftzeugmeister" Ernst Udet had ordered the development of the Ju 88 as a heavy dive-bomber. This decision was influenced by the success of the Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" in this role. The Junkers development center at Dessau gave priority to the study of pull-out systems, and dive brakes.Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 74.] The first prototype to be tested as a dive-bomber was the Ju 88 V4 followed by the V5 and V6. These models became the planned prototype for the A-1 series. The V5 made its maiden flight on 13 April 1938, and the V6 on 28 June 1938. Both the V5 and V6 were fitted with four bladed propellers, an extra bomb bay and a central "control system".Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 74.] As a dive bomber, the Ju 88 was capable of pinpoint deliveries of heavy loads; however, despite all the modifications, dive bombing still proved too stressful for the airframe, and in 1943, tactics were changed so that bombs were delivered from a shallower, 45° diving angle. Aircraft and bomb sights were accordingly modified and dive brakes were removed. With an advanced Stuvi dive-bomb sight, accuracy remained very good for its time. Maximum bomb load of the A-4 was 2,500 kg, but in practice, standard bomb load was 1,500 to 2,000 kg. [ Winchester 2004, p. 147.] Junkers later used the A-4 airframe for the A-17 torpedo carrier. However the variant lacked a ventral gun position. [Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 74.]

Fighter-bomber

The standard fighter-bomber version became the Ju 88C-6, applying experience acquired with the A-4 bomber, equipped with the same Jumo 211J engines. The C-6 was used mostly as fighter-bomber and therefore assigned to bomber units. As a reaction to the increasing number of attacks on German shipping, especially on U-boats in the Bay of Biscay, from July 1942 started flying anti-shipping patrols and escort missions from bases in France.Goss 1997, p. 10.] "V/.Kampfgeschwader 40" being formed to operate the C-6.

The aircraft of V./KG 40 (which was redesignated "I./Zerstörergeschwader 1" in 1943 Goss 1997, p. 121.] ) were a significant threat to the antisubmarine aircraft and operated as escort fighters for the more vulnerable Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor bombers. Between July 1942 and July 1944, the Ju 88s of KG 40 and ZG 1 were credited with 109 confirmed air-to air victories,Goss 1997, p. 222.] at a cost of 117 losses. Goss 1997, p. 242.] They were finally deployed against the Allied Invasion of Normandy in June 1944, incurring heavy losses for little effect before being disbanded on 5 August 1944. Goss 1997, p. 174.]

Heavy fighter and Night fighter

Ju 88C

The Ju 88C was originally intended as a fighter-bomber and heavy fighter by adding fixed, forward-firing guns to the nose while retaining some bomb carrying ability of the A-series bomber. It was later used as a night fighter and this became the main role of the Ju 88C.

The first night fighter version of the Ju 88 was the C-2, based on the A-1 and armed with one 20 mm MG FF cannon and three 7.92 mm MG 17 machine guns placed in new metal nose. These examples entered service in "Zerstörerstaffel" of KG 30 and the unit was renamed II./NJG 1 in July 1940.

The C-6b version was the C-6 "Zerstörer" plane equipped with FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC low-UHF band airborne intercept radar. The first four C-6b fighters were tested in early 1942 in NJG 1. The trials were successful and the aircraft was ordered into production. In October 1943, many C-6bs were upgraded with new radar systems. The first new radar equipment was the FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1, followed in 1944 by the FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2.

A small number of the C-series fighters had their new solid-metal noses specially painted to resemble the bomber A-series' "beetle's eye" faceted clear view nose glazing, in an attempt to deceive Allied pilots into thinking the fighters were actually bombers; the unusual "camouflage" attempt did result initially in a number of Allied aerial losses.

Ju 88R

The Ju 88 "R-series" night fighters were basically versions of the Ju 88 C-6b powered by BMW 801 radial engines. The R-1 had 1560 PS BMW 801L engines and the R-2 had 1,700 PS BMW 801 G-2 engines.

The Defection of Werknummer 360043

One of the first aircraft from the R-1 series that went into service (Werknummer 360043) was involved in one of the most significant defections which the Luftwaffe suffered. On 9 May 1943, this night fighter, which was stationed with 10./NJG 3 in Norway, flew to Dyce Airfield (now Aberdeen Airport) with its entire crew complement and complete electronic equipment on board. The fact that Spitfire fighters escorted it towards the end of its flight could indicate that its arrival had been expected. It was immediately transferred to Farnborough Airfield, received RAF markings (PJ876), and was tested in great detail. [Verlag 1994, p. 93.] The preserved aircraft is on exhibit at the RAF Museum. The "Luftwaffe" was only to learn of this defection the next month when part of the crew, pilot "Oberleutnant" Heinrich Schmitt, "Oberfeldwebels" Paul Rosenberger and Erich Kantwill made broadcasts over British radio. [Scutts 1998, p. 47.]

Ju 88G

All previous night fighter versions of the Ju 88 used a modified A-series fuselage. The "G-series" fuselage was purpose-built for the special needs of a night fighter. G-1 aircraft were fitted with the enlarged squared-off vertical fin/rudder tail unit of the Ju 188, more powerful armament and 1,700 PS BMW 801 G-2 radial engines plus additional FuG 350 Naxos or FuG 227 Flensburg homing devices as well as the now-standard FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 90 MHz VHF radar.

G-6 versions were equipped with 1750 PS Jumo 213A inline-V12 engines, enlarged fuel tanks and often one or two MG 151/20 cannons in a "Schräge Musik" ("Jazz Music", i.e. slanted) installation. Guns were firing obliquely upwards and forwards from the upper fuselage - usually at an angle of 70 degrees.

Some of the final G-series models received updates to the engine, a high-altitude Jumo 213E or to the radar, FuG 218 Neptun V/R or the even newer FuG 240 Berlin N-1 cavity magnetron based, 30 gigahertz-band (centimetric) radar. Only about 10-20 of those were completed before V-E Day.

Many "Luftwaffe" night fighter aces, such as Helmut Lent (110 victories) and Heinrich von und zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (87 victories) flew Ju 88s during their careers.

The Japanese Navy ordered the specifications of an antisubmarine patrol/escort fleet aircraft, based on a medium bomber. Kyūshū closely patterned the Kyūshū Q1W "Tokai" ("Eastern Sea", Allied codename "Lorna") antisubmarine patrol/fleet escort aircraft after the Ju 88.

Finnish Air Force

In early 1943, as Finland was fighting its Continuation War against the USSR, the Finnish Air Force bought 24 Ju 88s from Germany. The aircraft were transferred to No. 44 Sqn in April. The 44th Sqn, had previously been equipped with Bristol Blenheims, but these were instead transferred to No. 42 Sqn. Due to the complexity of the Ju 88, most of 1943 was used for training the crews on the aircraft, and only a handful of bombing missions were undertaken. The most notable was a raid on the Lehto partisan village on 20 August 1943 (in which the whole squadron participated), and a raid on the Lavansaari air field (leaving seven Ju 88 damaged from forced landing in inclement weather). In the summer of 1943, the Finns noted stress damage on the wings. This had occurred when the aircraft were used in dive bombing. Restrictions followed: the dive brakes were removed and it was only allowed to dive at a 45 degree angle (compared to 60-80 degrees previously). In this way, they tried to spare the aircraft from unnecessary wear.

One of the more remarkable missions was a bombing raid on 9 March 1944 against the Kasimovo airfield near Saint Petersburg, and a raid against the Aerosan base at Petsnajoki on 22 March 1944. The whole bomber regiment took part in the defence against the Soviets during the fourth strategic offensive. All aircraft flew several missions per day, day and night, when the weather permitted.

No. 44 Sqn was subordinated "Lentoryhmä Sarko" during the Lapland War (now against Germany), and the Ju 88s were used both for reconnaissance and bombing. The targets were mostly vehicle columns. Reconnaissance flights were also made over northern Norway. The last war mission was flown on 4 April 1945.

After the wars, Finland was prohibited from using bomber aircraft with internal bomb stores. Consequently, the Finnish Ju 88s were used for training until 1948. The aircraft were then scrapped over the following years. No Finnish Ju 88s have survived, but an engine is on display at the Central Finland Aviation Museum, and the structure of a German Ju 88 cockpit hood is preserved at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa.

Variants

;Ju 88A:Main bomber type with Jumo 211 engines.;Ju 88A-0:Pre-production aircraft.;Ju 88A-1:Initial production variant. 895 kW (1,200 hp) Jumo 211B-1 engines;Ju 88A-2:Jumo 211G-1 engines.;Ju 88A-3:Conversion trainer. Dual controls.;Ju 88A-4:Improved variant. Long span wings. Modified with new bomb dropping equipment to produce a A-15 "special" bomber variant. RLM refused to authorise mass production, as the wooden bomb bay "bulge" caused too much drag and a thus a reduction in speed. [Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 78.] ;Ju 88B:Prototype with all-new fully glazed "stepless" crew compartment nose, developed into Ju 188.;Ju 88B-0:Ten pre-production aircraft with "stepless" fully glazed nose.;Ju 88C:Zestörer, fighter-bomber and night fighter, based on A-series, but with sheet metal nose.;Ju 88C-1:Planned fighter variant, powered by two BMW 801MA engines. Never built.;Ju 88C-2:Initial production variant.;Ju 88C-4:Heavy fighter, reconnaissance variant.;Ju 88C-5:Improved heavy fighter variant.;Ju 88C-6a:Improved Ju-88C-5 variant.;Ju 88C-6b:Night fighter variant.;Ju 88C-6c:Night fighter variant.;Ju 88C-7a:Intruder variant.;Ju 88C-7b:Intruder variant.;Ju 88C-7c:Heavy fighter variant.;Ju 88D.:Long-range photo-reconnaissance variants, based on the Ju 88A-4.;Ju 88D-1:long-range photo-reconnaissance variant.;Ju 88D-2;Ju 88D-3;Ju 88D-4;Ju 88D-5;Ju 88G:Night fighter, new fuselage, tail section from Ju 188, optional Schräge Musik.;Ju 88H:Long-range photo-reconnaissance, fighter variants, based on the stretched Ju 88G-series fuselage.;Ju 88H-1:Long-range photo reconnaissance variant.;Ju 88H-2:Fighter variant.;Ju-88H-3:Long-range photo-reconnaissance variant.;Ju-88H-4:Fighters variant.;Ju 88P:Anti-Tank and anti-bomber variant with single "Bordkanone" series 50 or 75 mm or twin 37 mm cannons, small series, conversion of A-series bomber.;Ju 88P-1:Anti-tank variant fitted with a 75 mm PaK 40 cannon.;Ju 88P-2;Ju 88P-4;Ju 88R:C-series night fighter with BMW 801 engines.;Ju 88S:High-speed bomber based on Ju-88A-4 but with ventral "Bola" gondola removed, smooth nose and GM-1 nitrous oxide boost, fastest of all variants.;Ju-88S-0:Fitted with two BMW801D engines, single 13mm dorsal gun and 14 SD65 (65kg 143lb) bombs.;Ju-88S-1:Fitted with two BMW801G engines, the GM-1 boost system and could carry two SD1000 1000kg bombs externally.;Ju-88S-2:Fitted with two turbocharged BMW801TJ engines, wooden bomb bay extension as used on the Ju-88A-15.;Ju-88S-3:Fitted with two 1671kW (2240hp) Juma 213A engines and GM-1 boost system.;Ju 88T:Three-seat photo-reconnaissance version of S-series.;Ju-88T-1:Based on the Ju-88S-1 but with bomb bays fitted for extra fuel of GM-1 tanks.;Ju-88T-3:Based on the Ju-88S-3.

Operators

;flag|Bulgaria|1878;FIN: Finnish Air Force (24)::No. 44 Squadron;FRA: Armée de l'Air (captured aircraft in Toulouse repair depot plus handed over to the French by the RAF and USAAF);flag|Germany|Nazi: Luftwaffe;flag|Hungary|1940;flag|Italy|1861-state: Regia Aeronautica;flagicon|Romania Romania;USSR: Soviet Air Force (captured);flagicon|Spain|1939 Spanish State: Spanish Air Force (10 bought plus up to 15 interned and put into service)

urvivors

Around 14 aircraft still exist, although many of these are little more than collections of wreckage recovered from remote crash sites. Several reasonably intact airframes have been recovered from underwater crash sites in recent years, some of these aircraft are under restoration for static display, such as WNr.0881203 in Bodø and WNr.088119 at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen.Only two complete aircraft exist:;Ju 88 D-1/Trop, Werk Nr. "430650"Long-range photographic reconnaissance aircraft that was in the service of the Romanian Air Force. In July 1943, it was flown to Cyprus by a Romanian pilot who wanted to defect to the British forces on the island. Given the name Baksheesh, it was subsequently handed over to the U.S. Air Force for examination and test flying. It is displayed at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, presently finished in its original-style Romanian military insignia.;Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. "360043"Aircraft taken to Scotland by its defecting crew, exhibited at the RAF Museum, which still has its Lichtenstein BC radar's "Matratze" nose-mounted aerial array in place.

pecifications Ju 88 A-4

aircraft specification

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=
crew=4
length main=14.36 m
length alt=47 ft 2⅞ in
span main= 20.08 m
span alt=65.88 ft
height main=5.07 m
height alt=16.63 ft
area main=54.7 m²
area alt=587 ft²
empty weight main=
empty weight alt=
loaded weight main=9,000 kg
loaded weight alt=20,000 lb
max takeoff weight main=14,000 kg
max takeoff weight alt=30,865 lb
engine (prop)=Junkers Jumo 211J [Manfred & Griehl 1994, p. 77]
type of prop=liquid-cooled inverted V-12
number of props=2
power main=1,044 kW
power alt=1,420 PS, 1,401 hp
max speed main=475 km/h
max speed alt=295 m
max speed more=at 5,300 m (17,388 ft)
range main=2,300 km (max internal fuel)
range alt=1,429 mi
ceiling main=8,500 m
ceiling alt=26,900 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
guns=
** 3-6 machine guns, either MG 15, MG 81, MG 81Z or MG 131, with one each firing forward from both main cockpit windscreen glazing, and undernose "Bola" gondola, and one or two guns firing from the rear of the main cockpit (some carried one MG FF cannon in the nose) [Dressel & Griehl 1994, p. 77.]
bombs=Max load 2,005kg (4,420 lb)
**Ten 50kg (110 lb) bombs internally + four 250kg (551 lb) bombs externally.
**Two 500kg (1,105 lb) externally.
**Four 500kg (1,105lb) bombs externally. [Green 1970, p. 455.]

pecifications Ju 88 G-1

aircraft specification

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref= [Munson 1983, p. 78.]
crew=4
length main=15.50 m (without radar)
length alt=50.85 ft
span main= 20.08 m
span alt=65.88 ft
height main=5.07 m
height alt=16.63 ft
area main=54.7 m² Fact|date=June 2008
area alt=587 ft²
empty weight main=9,081 kg Donald 1994, p.179.]
empty weight alt=20,020 lb
loaded weight main=13,100 kg
loaded weight alt=28,880 lb
max takeoff weight main=14,690 kg
max takeoff weight alt=32,385 lb
max takeoff weight more=(overload)
engine (prop)=BMW 801G
type of prop=double-row radials
number of props=2
power main=1,250 kW
power alt= 1,700 PS, 1,677 hp
max speed main=550 km/h
max speed alt=342 mph
max speed more=at 8,500 m (27,890 ft)
range main=2,500 km
range alt=1,553 mi
ceiling main=9,900 m
ceiling alt=32,480 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=240 kg/m²
loading alt=49.2 lb/ft²
power/mass main=0.18 kW/kg
power/mass alt=0.12 hp/lb
more performance=*Endurance: 4 hours
guns=
** 4x 20 mm MG 151, one or two 13mm MG 131 machine guns, one or two MG 151/20 as Schräge Musik
bombs=

ee also

aircontent
related=
*Ju 188
*Ju 388
similar aircraft=
*de Havilland Mosquito
*Bristol Blenheim
*Bristol Beaufighter
*Petlyakov Pe-2
*Mitsubishi Ki-21
*Yokosuka P1Y
lists=
*List of military aircraft of Germany
*List of bomber aircraft

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Bergström, Christer. "Barbarossa: The Air Battle, July-December 1941". London: Chevron/Ian Allen, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
* de Zeng, H.L; D.G. Stanket, and E.J. Creek. "Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933-1945: A Reference Source, Volume 1". London: Ian Allen Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-279-5.
* Donald, David (editor). "Warplanes of the Luftwaffe". London: Aerospace Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
* Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. "Bombers of the Luftwaffe". London: Arms and Armour (DAG Publications), 1994. ISBN 1-85409-140-9.
* Feist, Uwe. "Junkers Ju 88 in action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1974. ISBN 3-79090-026-5.
* Goss, Chris. "Bloody Biscay". Manchester, UK: Crécy Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-947554-874.
* Green, William. "The Warplanes of the Third Reich". New York: Doubleday & Co., 1970. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
* Hooton, E.R. "Luftwaffe at War: Blitzkrieg in the West, Volume 2". London: Chevron/Ian Allen, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-272-6.
* Munson, Kenneth. "Fighters and Bombers of World War II". London: Peerage Books. 1983. ISBN 0-9-0740-837-0
* Scutts, Jerry. "German Night Fighter Aces of World War 2 (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces, Vol. 20)". London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-696-5.
* Taylor, John W.R. "Junkers Ju 88." "Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
* Verlag, Kaiser. "Die großen Luftschlachten des Zweiten Weltkriegs: Flugzeuge - Erfolge - Niederlagen" (in German). Gebunden, Germany: Neuer Kaiser Vlg GmbH, 1994. ISBN 3-7043-6029-5.
* Weal, John."Ju 88 Kampfgeschwader on the Western Front". Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Aviation, 2000. ISBN 978-1-84176-020-9.
* Winchester, Jim. "Junkers Ju 88". "Aircraft of World War II". London: Grange Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.

External links

* [http://www.ju88.net www.Ju88.net]


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