Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda


Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda

The Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda ( _pt. Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda, FLEC) is a separatist guerrilla and political movement in Cabinda, Angola.AlʻAmin Mazrui, Ali. "The Warrior Tradition in Modern Africa", 1977. Page 227.] Formerly under Portuguese administration, with the independence of Angola from Portugal in 1975, the territory became a province of the newly-independent Angola. The FLEC acts in the region occupied by the former kingdoms of Kakongo, Loango and N'Goyo.

History

On February 1, 1885 a treaty was signed at Simulambuco establishing Cabinda as a Portuguese protectorate. A monument was built there later.

The FLEC was founded in 1963 by the union of three nationalist movements; MLEC - Movemento de Liberação do Enclave of Cabinda (Movement for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda), CAUNC - Comite d'acção de União Nacional Cabindesa (Action Committee of the Cabinda National Union), and ALLIAMA - Aliança Nacional do Mayombe (Mayombe National Alliance). Mayombe is a mountain between Cabinda and the Republic of Congo. The MLEC flag was yellow with a seal in the center showing the Mayombe. The leader of the united group was Luiz Ranque Franque, who refused to join other Angolan independence movements. FLEC adopted a flag was with horizontal red, yellow and blue bands -- one color for each of the groups. The new emblem (a white star and a green triangle within a ring) was added in the center.

During the Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974), the nationalist movements of Cabinda fought against the Portuguese Armed Forces. After the fall of the Estado Novo regime which ruled Portugal and its overseas territories, due to a leftist military coup on the 24th April 1974 in Lisbon, independence was offered to all the territories abroad, including to Angola. In 1975 FLEC constituted a provisional government led by Henriques Tiago that proclaimed Cabindan independence from Portugal on August 1, 1975. Luiz Ranque was the president.

Between November 1975 and January 4, 1976, the Cabinda enclave was invaded by soldiers of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which was a dominant independence movement in Angola, supported by Cuban troops. The MPLA quickly gained control of the urban areas while FLEC controlled the countryside.

FLEC broke into three factions; FLEC-Ranque Franque, FLEC-N'Zita, led by N'Zita Henriques Tiago, and FLEC-Lubota, led by Francisco Xavier Lubota. In November 1977 another faction, the Military Command for the Liberation of Cabinda, was created. In June 1979 the Armed Forces for the Liberation of Cabinda created another movement, the MPLC - the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Cabinda (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Cabinda). In the 1980s FLEC received help from the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which opposed the MPLA-controlled government of Angola, and from South Africa. In 1988, CCC - the Communist Committee of Cabinda (Comité Comunista de Cabinda) divorced from FLEC, led by Kaya Mohamed Yay. In the 1990s another faction, the National Union for the Liberation of Cabinda (União Nacional de Libertação de Cabinda), led by Lumingu Luis Gimby, was created.

The original FLEC was re-formed in the 1990s, and two factions, FLEC-Renovada, whose flag was white with a central stripe divided into three colors: green, yellow and black, with a red ring in the center of the flag and FLEC-Armed Forces of Cabinda (Forças Armadas de Cabinda - FLEC-FAC), using the original red, yellow, and blue flag, with emblem, were created.

Another group was created by Cabindese ex-patriates in the Netherlands in 1996, the FLEC(Lopes) - Frente de Libertação do Estado de Cabinda" (Liberation Front of the State of Cabinda). This group adopted a flag blue, yellow and black with the Silambuco monument in the center. In August 2006 a ceasefire was signed between FLEC-Renovada and Angola government. This has been denounced by most Cabindan groups both inside and outside Cabinda as a sham. FLEC-FAC continues its struggle for independence both inside and outside Cabinda. In October 2006 FLEC-FAC asked for intervention by the African Union's Commission on Human and People's Rights. The request was still pending as of August 2007.

The FLEC received support from the French government.

ee also

*African independence movements
*List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
*Angolan Civil War

References


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