Rhododendron


Rhododendron

Taxobox
name = "Rhododendron"


image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Rhododendron ponticum"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Ericales
familia = Ericaceae
genus = "Rhododendron"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Subgenera
subdivision =
*"Azaleastrum"
*"Candidastrum"
*"Hymenanthes"
*"Mumeazalea"
*"Pentanthera" (Azaleas)
*"Rhododendron"
*"Therorhodion"
*"Tsutsusi" (Azaleas)----Source: [http://www.rbge.org.uk RBG, Edinburgh]

"Rhododendron" (from the Greek: "rhodos", "rose", and "dendron", "tree") is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. It is a large genus with over 1000 species and most have showy flower displays. It includes the plants known to gardeners as azaleas. It's the national flower of Nepal.

The Rhododendron is a genus characterized by shrubs and small to (rarely) large trees, the smallest species growing to 10-100 cm tall, and the largest, "R. arboreum", reported to 12 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged; leaf size can range from 1-2 cm to over 50 cm, exceptionally 100 cm in "R. sinogrande". They may be either evergreen or deciduous. In some species the underside of the leaves is covered with scales (lepidote) or hairs (indumentum). Some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, and tropical species such as section "Vireya" that often grow as epiphytes.

Distribution

Rhododendron is a very widely distributed genus, occurring throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere except for dry areas, and extending into the Southern Hemisphere in southeastern Asia and northern Australasia. The highest species diversity is found in the Himalayan mountains from Uttarakhand, Nepal and Sikkim to Yunnan and Sichuan, with other significant areas of diversity in the mountains of Indo-China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. Rhododendron is the state tree of the state of Uttarakhand in India. In Korea, Rhododendron schlippenbachii is particularly common (called 철쭉(choltjuk)). In addition, there are a significant number of tropical rhododendron species from southeast Asia to northern Australia, with 55 known species in Borneo and 164 in New Guinea. Argent, G. "Rhododendrons of subgenus Vireya". 2006. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 1-902896-61-0] Relatively fewer species occur in North America and Europe. Rhododendrons have not been found in South America or Africa.

Classification

The species are organized by subgenus, section, subsection and series. These are currently divided into four large and four small subgenera:
*Subgenus "Rhododendron" L.: small leaf or lepidotes (with scales on the underside of their leaves); several hundred species, type: "Rhododendron ferrugineum". The tropical rhododendrons (sect. "Vireya", about 300 species) are usually included as a section in this subgenus, but sometimes split off as a ninth subgenus.] ".

Recent genetic investigations have caused an ongoing realignment of species and groups within the genus, and also have caused the old genus "Ledum" to be reclassified within subgenus "Rhododendron". Further realignment within the subgenera is currently proposed Goetsch, L. A., Eckert, A. J. & Hall, B. D. (2005). [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aspt/sb/2005/00000030/00000003/art00012 The molecular systematics of Rhododendron (Ericaceae): A Phylogeny based upon RPB2 gene sequences] . "Sys. Bot". 30(3): 616-626.] [ [http://www.flounder.ca/FraserSouth/Goetsch-Eckert-Hall.asp Summary of Goetsch-Eckert-Hall results] ] , including the merging of subgenus "Hymenanthes" into subgenus "Pentanthera".

Rhododendrons are extensively hybridized in cultivation, and natural hybrids often occur in areas where species ranges overlap. There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the [http://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/registration_rhododendron.asp International Rhododendron Registry] held by the Royal Horticultural Society. Most have been bred for their flowers, but a few are of garden interest because of ornamental leaves and some for ornamental bark or stems.

Some species (e.g. "Rhododendron ponticum" in the United Kingdom) are invasive as introduced plants, spreading in woodland areas replacing the natural understory. R. ponticum is difficult to eradicate, as its roots can make new shoots.

;Sample species:
*"Rhododendron atlanticum"
*"Rhododendron canadense"
*"Rhododendron catawbiense"
*"Rhododendron chapmanii"
*"Rhododendron ferrugineum"
*"Rhododendron groenlandicum"
*"Rhododendron hirsutum"
*"Rhododendron lochiae"
*"Rhododendron luteum"
*"Rhododendron macrophyllum"
*"Rhododendron maximum"
*"Rhododendron moulmainense"
*"Rhododendron occidentale"
*"Rhododendron ponticum"
*"Rhododendron schlippenbachii"
*"Rhododendron spinuliferum"
*"Rhododendron tomentosum"

A sample hybrid:
*"Rhododendron" 'President Roosevelt'

Toxicology

Some species are poisonous to grazing animals. These Rhododendrons have a toxin called grayanotoxin in their pollen and nectar. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. Xenophon described the odd behavior of Greek soldiers after having consumed honey in a village surrounded by rhododendrons. Later, it was recognized that honey resulting from these plants have a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative effect.Fact|date=July 2008 The suspect rhododendrons are "Rhododendron ponticum" and "Rhododendron luteum" (formerly "Azalea pontica"), both found in northern Asia Minor. Eleven similar cases have been documented in Istanbul, Turkey during the 1980s Nurhayat Sütlüpmar, Afife Mat and Yurdagül Satganoglu " [http://www.springerlink.com/content/w322484735r06208/ Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey] ". Archives of Toxicology. Volume 67, Number 2, pages 148-150, February, 1993 ] . Rhododendron is extremely toxic to horses, with some animals dying within a few hours of ingesting the plant, although most horses tend to avoid it if they have access to good forage.

Use in landscaping

Both species and hybrid rhododendrons (including azaleas) are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world, and many species and cultivars are grown commercially for the nursery trade. Rhododendrons are often valued in landscaping for their structure, size, flowers, and the fact that many of them are evergreen Huxley, A., ed. (1992). "New RHS Dictionary of Gardening". Macmillan] . Azaleas are frequently used around foundations and occasionally as hedges, and many larger-leafed rhododendrons lend themselves well to more informal plantings and woodland gardens, or as specimen plants. In some areas, larger rhododendrons can be pruned to encourage more tree-like form, with some species such as "R. arboreum" and "R. falconeri" eventually growing to 10-15 m or more tall.

Commercial growing

Rhododendrons are grown commercially in many areas for sale, and are occasionally collected in the wild, a practice now rare in most areas. Larger commercial growers often ship long distances; in the United States most of them are located on the west coast (Oregon, Washington and California). Large-scale commercial growing often selects for different characteristics than hobbyist growers might, such as resistance to root rot when over-watered, ability to be forced into budding early, ease of rooting or other propagation, and saleability. Peter A. Cox (1993). "The Cultivation of Rhododendrons". B. T. Batsford, London ISBN 0-7134-5630-2 (pp80-1) ]

Planting and care

Like other ericaceous plants, most rhododendrons prefer acid soils with a pH of roughly 4.5-5.5; some tropical Vireyas and a few other rhododendron species grow as epiphytes and require a planting mix similar to orchids. Rhododendrons have fibrous roots and prefer well-drained soils high in organic material. In areas with poorly-drained or alkaline soils, rhododendrons are often grown in raised beds using mediums such as composted pine bark. [ [http://www.rhododendron.org/soil.htm Soil information for planting rhododendrons] ] Mulching and careful watering are important, especially before the plant is established.

Insects and diseases

There are a number of insects that either target rhododendrons or will opportunistically attack them. Rhododendron borers and various weevils are major pests of rhododendrons, and many caterpillars will attack rhododendrons. Major diseases include "Phytophthora" root rot, stem and twig fungal dieback; Ohio State University Extension provides [http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/hyg-fact/3000/3043.html information on maintaining health of rhododendrons] Rhododendrons can easily be suffocated by other plants.

"Rhododendron" species are used as food plants by the larvae of some members of the Order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) (See List of Lepidoptera that feed on rhododendrons).

ymbolism

"Rhododendron ponticum" is the national/state flower of Jammu and Kashmir (Indian Controlled) and Pakistan Controlled Kashmir "Rhododendron arboreum" (Lali Gurans) is the national flower of Nepal. "Rhododendron niveum" is the state tree of Sikkim in India. Rhododendron catawbiense, the predominant Rhododendron in the Appalachian Mountains, is the state flower of West Virginia, and is in the Flag of West Virginia. Rhododendron macrophyllum, the predominant rhododendron on the Pacific Coast and in the Cascade Mountains is the state flower of Washington.

Gallery

Footnotes

References

*Cox, P. A. & Kenneth, N. E. "The Encyclopedia of Rhododendron Species". 1997. Glendoick Publishing. ISBN 0-9530533-0-X.
*Davidian, H. H. "The Rhododendron Species". In four volumes from 1982-1995. Timber Press. ISBN 0-917304-71-3, ISBN 0-88192-109-2, ISBN 0-88192-168-8, ISBN 0-88192-311-7.

ee also

* List of plants poisonous to equines
*Chinese herbology 50 fundamental herbs

External links

* [http://www.lahana.org/blog/Rhododendrons.htm Rhododendrons from Turkey, Anatolia]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=128386 Flora of China: "Rhododendron"]
* [http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/rhododen.htm Description of damage caused by Rhododendrons in the UK]
* [http://www.wfu.edu/~kronka/kakbek/rhododendrons.html Information on rhododendrons at the Ericaceae web pages of Dr. Kron at Wake Forest University.]
* [http://www.vireya.net/ Information on Vireyas]
* [http://www.rhodophiles.com/ Information on Rhododendrons by Marc Colombel, founder of the Société Bretonne du Rhododendron.]
* [http://rhodyman.net/rahome.html Extensive information on rhododendron species: the history of their discovery, botanical details, toxicity, classification, cultural conditions, care for common problems, and suggestions for companion plants by Steve Henning.]

Rhododendron Societies

* [http://rhododendron.org/ American Rhododendron Society]
* [http://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/plant_groups/rhododendrons.asp UK Royal Horticultural Society]
* [http://www.rhodygarden.org/ Rhododendron Species Foundation and Botanical Garden]
* [http://honeybee.helsinki.fi/users/avainola/rhodo/club.htm Société Finlandaise du Rhododendron]
* [http://www.eisa.net.au/~mirra/australi.html Australian Rhododendron Society]
* [http://www.rhodo.org/wissen.php?lang=gb German Rhododendron Society]


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Synonyms:
(Ericacea)


Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rhododendron — Rhododendron …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rhododendron — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Rododendro Flor de rododendro Clasificación científica …   Wikipedia Español

  • rhododendron — [ rɔdɔdɛ̃drɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1779; « laurier rose des Alpes » 1500; lat. rhododendron, mot gr., de rhodon « rose » et dendron « arbre » ♦ Arbuste ou arbre (éricacées), à feuilles persistantes, à fleurs blanches, roses, rouges, violettes, dont de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Rhododendron — (del griego: rhodos, rosa; dendron, árbol) es un género de plantas de flor de la familia Ericaceae. Dado que es un género muy extenso, las plantas se han organizado en subgéneros, secciones, subsecciones y series. Estos subgéneros se dividen… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • rhododendron — c.1600, from L. rhododendron, from Gk. rhododendron, lit. rose tree, from rhodon rose (see ROSE (Cf. rose)) + dendron tree (see DENDRO (Cf. dendro )) …   Etymology dictionary

  • rhododendron — [rō΄dəden′drən] n. [L < Gr rhododendron < rhodon, rose (see RHODA) + dendron,TREE] any of a genus (Rhododendron) of trees and shrubs of the heath family, mainly evergreen, with showy flowers of pink, white, or purple …   English World dictionary

  • Rhododendron — (Ле дез Альп,Франция) Категория отеля: Адрес: 4 rue de la Glisse, 38860 Ле дез Альп, Ф …   Каталог отелей

  • Rhododendron — Rho do*den dron, n. [L., fr. Gr. rodo dendron, literally, rose tree; ro don rose + de ndron tree. See {Rose}.] (Bot.) A genus of shrubs or small trees, often having handsome evergreen leaves, and remarkable for the beauty of their flowers;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Rhododendron — (R. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Ericaceae Rhododendreae, 10. Kl. 1. Ordn. L.; Arten: R. ferrugineum u. R. hirsutum (Alpenrose), niedriger, auf den Alpen heimischer Strauch, mit elliptisch lanzettförmigen, steifen, lederartigen, am… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Rhododéndron — L. (Alpenrose, Rosenbaum), Gattung der Erikazeen, Sträucher, selten niedere Bäume mit wechselständigen, lederartigen, bleibenden oder wechselnden, ganzen und ganzrandigen, behaarten, glatten oder schuppig bestreuten und glänzenden Blättern,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rhododéndron — L., Pflanzengattg. der Erikazeen, Sträucher mit immergrüner Belaubung und schön gefärbten Blumen, fast alle in höhern Regionen der Hochgebirge Europas, Asiens und Nordamerikas; in den europ. Alpen häufig R. hirsūtum L. und ferruginĕum L.… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


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