- Central Java
Infobox Provinces of Indonesia
name="Provinsi Jawa Tengah"
Province of Central Java
motto = "Prasetya Ulah Sakti Bhakti Praja"
(Javanese, "A vow of devotion with all might to the country")"
coordinate = - Latitude
6°S to 7°30'S
108°30'E to 112°00'E
population_as_of = 2005
ethnicity = Javanese (98%), Sundanese (1%), Chinese, Arabcite book
publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
title =Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape
accessdate = ]
Islam, Christian, Hindu, Buddhismand traditional Javanese beliefs
language = Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese
governor=H. Ali Mufiz
site= [http://www.jawatengah.go.id/ www.jawatengah.go.id]
Central Java ( _id. Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of
Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept. Culturally and historically Yogyakartais a significant part of Central Java. However, administratively the city and surrounding region has been part of a separate special region since Indonesian independence. In the same context, but in contrast - the region of Surakartais a significant incorporated component of Central Java.
The province of Central Java is 32,548.20 km² in area; approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population is 31,820,000 (2005), making it the third most-populous province in Indonesia after
West Javaand East Java, and constituting approximately one quarter of the island's population.
Located in the middle of the island of
Java, the Central Java province is bordered by the West Javaand the East Javaprovinces. A small portion of its south region is the Yogyakarta Special Region province, fully enclosed by the Central Java province. Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, although it is currently a separate political entity. To the north and the south, the Central Java province faces the Java Seaand the Indian Ocean. Central Java also includes some offshore islands: Karimun Jawa Islands in the north, and Nusakambanganin the southwest.
The average temperature in Central Java is between 18–28 degrees celsius and the relative humidity varies between 73–94 percent. [http://www.jawatengah.go.id/framer.php?SUB=ttg_jateng&DATA=profil_jawa_tengah Tentang Jawa Tengah ] ] While a high level of humidity exists in most low lying parts of the province, it drops significantly in the upper mountains. The highest average annual rainfall of 3,990 mm with 195 rainy days was recorded in
The geography of Central Java is regular with small strips of lowlands near the northern and southern coast with mountain ranges in the centre of the region. To the west lies an active
stratovolcano Mount Slamet, then a bit further to the east is the Dieng Volcanic Complexon the Dieng Plateau. At southeast of the Dieng plateau lies the high plateau of Kedu Plain, bordered on the east side by the twin volcanoes of Mount Merapi(the most active volcanoes in Indonesia) and Mount Merbabu. At the south of Semarang, lies Mount Ungaran, and to the north-east of the city lies Mount Muriaon the most northern tip of Java. To the east near the border with East Javalies Mount Lawu, where its eastern slopes are in the East Java province.
Due to active volcanic history and therefore
volcanic ash, Central Java is a very fertile region for agriculture. Sight of extensive paddy fields is common, except in the southeastern — Gunung Kidul region — partly due to the high concentration of limestoneand its location in a rain shadow from the prevailing weather.
Two major rivers run through Central Java;
Serayuin the west, which empties in the Indian Ocean, and the Solo River(Javanese: "Bengawan Solo"), which flows to the East Java province.
On the eve of the
World War IIin 1942, Central Java was subdivided into 7 residencies (Dutch "residentie" or plural "residenties", Javanese "karésiḍènan" or "karésidhènan") which correspond more or less with the main regions of this area. These residencies were "Banjoemas", "Kedoe", "Pekalongan", "Semarang", and "Djapara-Rembang" added with the so called "Gouvernement Soerakarta" and "Gouvernement Jogjakarta". However after the local elections in 1957 the role of these regencies were reduced until they finally disappeared. [ Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:165)]
Nowadays Central Java (excluding Yogyakarta) is divided in 29 regencies ("
kabupaten") and 6 cities ("kota", previously "kotamadya" and "kota pradja"). A regency can also be called a rural district while an autonomous city is an urban district. Below are regencies and autonomous cities of Central Java:
*Regencies: Banjarnegara, Banyumas, Batang, Blora, Boyolali, Brebes, Cilacap, Demak, Grobogan, Jepara, Karanganyar, Kebumen, Kendal, Klaten, Kudus, Magelang, Pati, Pekalongan, Pemalang, Purbalingga, Purworejo, Rembang, Semarang, Sragen, Sukoharjo, Tegal, Temanggung, Wonogiri, Wonosobo
Magelang, Pekalongan, Salatiga, Semarang, Surakarta, Tegal
These contemporary regencies and cities can further be subdivided into 565 sub-districts ("
kecamatan"). Furthermore sub-districts are subdivided into 7,804 rural communes or "villages" (" desa") and 764 urban communes (" kelurahan").
Java has been inhabited by humans or their ancestors (
hominina) since prehistorical times. In Central Java and the adjacent territories in East Java remains known as " Java Man" were discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch anatomist and geologist Eugène Dubois. Java Man belongs to the species " Homo erectus". [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043428/Java-man Java man - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] They are believed to be about 1.7 millions years old. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043428/Homo-erectus Java man - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]
Then about 40,000 years ago,
Australoidpeoples related to modern Australian Aboriginals and Melanesians colonised Central Java. They were assimilated or replaced by Mongoloid Austronesiansby about 3000 BC, who brought with them technologies of pottery, outrigger canoes, the bow and arrow, and introduced domesticated pigs, fowls, and dogs. They also introduced cultivated rice and millet. [ Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:30)]
Recorded history began in Central Java in the 7th century AD. The writing, as well as Hinduism and Buddhism, were brought to Central Java by Indians from South Asia. Central Java was a centre of power in Java back then.
In 664 AD, the Chinese monk Hui-neng visited the Javanese port city of "Ho-ling", where he translated various Buddhist scriptures into Chinese with the assistance of the Javanese Buddhist monk Jñānabhadra. [ [http://www.borobudur.tv/history_2.htm History of Central Java, Part Two ] ] It is not precisely known what is meant by the name "Ho-ling". It used to be considered the Chinese transcription of "Kalinga" but it now most commonly thought of as a rendering of the name "Areng". "Ho-ling" is believed to be located somewhere between Semarang and
Jepara.Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:85)]
The first dated inscription in Central Java is the Inscription of Canggal which is from 732 AD (or 654 Saka). This inscription which hailed from Kedu, is written in
Sanskritin Pallava script.cite journal |journal=Indonesia |title=In Search of "Ho-Ling" |author=W. J. van der Meulen| volume=23 |year=1977 |pages=87–112 |url=http://cip.cornell.edu/Dienst/UI/1.0/Display/seap.indo/1107118718] In this inscription it is written that a Shaivite king named Sri Sanjayaestablished a kingdom called Mataram. Under the reign of Sanjaya's dynasty several monuments such as the Prambanantemple complex were built.
In the meantime a competing dynasty arose, which adhered to
Buddhism. This was the Sailendradynasty, also from Kedu, which built the Borobudurtemple.
After 820 there is no more mention of "Ho-ling" in Chinese records. This fact coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by the Sanjayas who restored Shaivism as the dominant religion. Then in the middle of the 10th century, for unknown reason, the centre of power moved to Eastern Java.
A few centuries later, after the destruction of the great Hindu
Majapahit Empirein the 15th - 16th centuries by the Central Javanese Muslim kingdom of Demak, the Javanese centre of power moved back to Central Java. In the meanwhile European traders began to frequent Central Javanese ports. The Dutch established a presence in the region through their East India Company.
After Demak itself collapsed, a new kingdom on the Kedu Plain emerged. This new kingdom, which was also a
sultanatebore the old name of "Mataram". Under the reign of Sultan Agung, Mataram was able to conquer almost all of Java and beyond by the 17th century, but internal disputes and Dutch intrigues forced Mataram to cede more and more land to the Dutch. These cessions finally led to several partitions of Mataram. The first partition was after the Treaty of Giyantion February 13, 1755. This treaty divided the old kingdom in two, the Sultanate of Surakartaand the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. Then few years later Surakarta was divided again with the establishment of the Mangkunegaranafter the Treaty of Salatigaon March 17, 1757.
During Napoleonic Wars in Europe, Central Java as part of the Netherlands East-Indies, a Dutch colony, was handed over to the British. In 1813, the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was also divided with the eastablishment of the
After the British left, the Dutch came back as was decided by the
Congress of Vienna. Between 1825 - 1830 the Java Warravaged Central Java. The result of the war was a consolidation of the Dutch power. The power and the territories of the divided kingdom of Mataram were greatly reduced.
However Dutch rule brought modernization to Central Java. In the 1900s the modern province of Central Java, the predecessor of the current one was created. It consisted of five regions or "gewesten" in Dutch. Surakarta and Yogyakarta were autonomous regions called "Vorstenlanden" (literally "princely states"). Then after the Indonesian independence the province of Central Java was formalized on
August 15, 1950, excluding Yogyakarta but including Surakarta Since then there have been no (major) changes in the administrative division of Central Java.
30 September Movement's abortive coup, on 30 September 1965, [an anti-communist purge took place in Central Java, in which Communists and leftists (both actual and alleged) killed by the army and community vigilante groups. Others were interned in concentration camps, the most infamous of which was on the isle of Buruin the Moluccas (first used as a place of political exile by the Dutch). Many were executed years later but most were released in 1979 [Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:170-171).]
In 1998, preluding the downfall of president Suharto, anti Chinese violence broke out in Surakarta (Solo) and surrounding areas. Much Chinese property and other buildings were burnt down. In 1999, public buildings in Surakarta were burnt again by supporters of
Megawati Soekarnoputriafter the Indonesia parliament chose Abdurrahman Wahidinstead of Soekarnoputri. They carried out 'sweeping actions' against Western foreigners who reside in this city after the September 11, 2001 attacks. [http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0110/06/daerah/aksi19.htm]
In May 2006, earthquakes in southern Central Java and Yogyakarta devastated many buildings and caused thousands of deaths and more than 37,000 injuries. Today, some areas are still under reconstruction.
As of the 2005 census, Central Java's population stood at some 31,820,000. As of the 1990 census, the population was 28,516,786. ["Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia" (1997:1249)"] So the population has increased approximately 11.6% in 15 years.
The three biggest regencies in terms of population are: Brebes, Banyumas and Cilacap. Together these regencies make up approximately 16% of the Central Javanese population. Major urban population centers are greater
Semarang, greater Surakartaand Brebes- Tegal- Slawiarea.
Officially, in 1990 the majority of the Central Javanese population or about 96%, was nominally Muslims. The second largest religion was Protestantism which was professed by 2% of the population. [Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:51)] The remainder of the population was either Catholic, Hindu or Buddhist.
Although the overwhelming majority of Javanese are Muslims, many of them also profess indigenous Javanese beliefs.
Clifford Geertz, in his book about the religion of Java made a distinction between the so-called " santri" Javanese and " abangan" Javanese. [Clifford Geertz, "The Religion of Java" (1976:121-131), paperback edition] He considered "santri" Javanese as orthodox Muslims while "abangan" Javanese are nominal Muslims that devote more energy to indigenous traditions.
Dutch Protestants were active in missionary activities and were rather successful. The Dutch Catholic
Jesuitmissionary man, F.G.C. van Lith also achieved some success, especially in areas around the central-southern parts of Central Java and Yogyakarta in the beginning of the 20th century, [http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0312/27/natal/768772.htm] and he is buried at the Jesuit necropolis at Muntilan.
Overthrow of Sukarnoin 1965, religious identification of citizens became compulsory. Therefore there has been a renaissance of Buddhism and Hinduism since then. As one has to choose a religion out of the five official religions in Indonesia; i.e. Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, the latter two became alternatives for people who didn't want to be Muslims or Christians. Confucianismis also common amongst Chinese Indonesians. Since 2006 it is a recognised official religion.
The vast majority of the population in Central Java are ethnic Javanese, they constitute approximately 98% of the whole population. In addition to the Javanese, small pockets of Sundanese communities are to be found near the border with West Java, especially in
Brebesand Cilacapregencies. Sundanese toponyms are common in these regions such as Dayeuhluhurin Cilacap, Ciputihand Citimbangin Brebes and even Cilongokas far away in Banyumas. [Sundanese toponyms often begins with the morpheme"ci-", which means "river" or "water" [http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/Indonesia_Names_Standardization_Policy1.0.pdf] . "Dayeuh" is a Sundanese word which means "region", q.v. F.S. Eringa "Soendaas-Nederlands woordenboek" (1984)]
In urban centers, other minorities such as
Chinese Indonesians and Arabs are common. The Chinese are even to be found in rural areas. The urban areas that are densely populated by Chinese Indonesian, are called " pecinan", which means " China Town".
As the overwhelming majority of the population of Central Java are Javanese, the most dominant language is Javanese. There are several dialects which are spoken in Central Java, the two main dialects are western Javanese (also called "Basa Ngapak" which includes the "Banyumasan dialect" and the dialect of Brebes-Tegal-Pekalongan [E.M. Uhlenbeck, "A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages of Java and Madura" (1964:62-65)] ) and central Javanese.
Sundanese is also spoken in some pockets near the border with West Java, especially in
Brebesand Cilacapregencies. However, according to some sources, Sundanese used to be spoken as far away as in Dieng Plateau. [Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000:33)] This former boundary of Sundanese coincides more or less with the isoglossdividing Central Javanese with Western Javanese.
In urban centers Indonesian is widely spoken.
Central Java is considered to be the heart of the Javanese culture. Home of the Javanese courts, Central Javanese culture formed what non-Javanese see as the "Javanese Culture" along with it stereotypes. The ideal conducts and morals of the courts (such as politeness, nobility and grace) influence the people tremendously. The people of Central Java are known as soft-spoken, very polite, extremely class-conscious, apathetic, down-to-earth, et cetera. These stereotypes formed what most non-Javanese see as "Javanese Culture", when in fact not all of the
Javanese peoplebehave that way. Moreover, most Javanese are far from the court culture.Ron Hatley 'Mapping Cultural Regions of Java' in "Other Javas: away from the kraton". R. Hatley et al. (1984:1-32)]
Mapping the Javanese cultures
The Javanese cultural area can be divided into three distinct main regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese and Eastern Javanese culture or in their Javanese names as "Ngapak", "Kejawèn" and "Arèk".
The boundaries of these cultural regions coincide with the
isoglosses of the Javanese dialects. Cultural areas west of Dieng Plateauand Pekalongan Regencyare considered "Ngapak" whereas the boundary of the eastern cultural areas or "Arèk" lies in East Java. Consequently culturally, Central Java consists of two cultures, while the Central Javanese Culture proper is not entirely confined to Central Java.
The architecture of Central Java is characterised by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of many successive influences by the Indians, the Persians and the Arabs, the Chinese, and the Europeans. In particular, northern coastal cities such as Semarang, Tegal and Pekalongan can boast fine colonial European architecture. The European and Chinese influence can be seen in Semarang's temple of Sam Po Kong dedicated to
Zheng Heand the Domed Church built in 1753. The latter is the second oldest church in Java and the oldest in Central Java. Inland Surakarta, as a former capital, also has some fine European architecture.
Famous for its religious heritage, Central Java has some notable religious buildings. The
Borobudurand the Prambanantemple complexes are among the largest Buddhist and Hindu structures in the world. In general, a characteristic Javanese mosque doesn't have a dome as its roof but a "Meru"-like roof instead, which is reminiscent of a Hindu or Buddhist temple. The tower of the famous Mosque of Kudusresembles a Hindu-Javanese or Balinese temple more than a traditional Middle-Eastern mosque.
Central Java is famous and well known for its exquisite "
batik", a generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on textile. There are different styles of batik motives. A centre of batik production is Pekalongan. Other centres are Surakartaand Yogyakarta. "Batik" in Pekalongan style which represent "gaya pesisir" (or coastal style) is different than the one in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which represent "batik" from the heartland of Java ("gaya kejawèn"). [Ron Hatley, "Mapping the Javanese cultures (1984:10-11)]
You can even see the court influences in the art forms. The dances of the courts of Java are usually slow and graceful, with no excessive gestures. The people followed these kind of approach, and as a result, slow-paced and graceful movements can even be found in folk dances throughout Central Java (with some exceptions). You can enjoy the beauty of Central Javanese dances in “Kamajaya-Kamaratih” or “Karonsih”, usually performed in a traditional Javanese wedding.
There are several kinds of Central Javanese theater and performing arts. The most well known are is of course the Javanese "
wayang" theater. There are several kinds of Central Javanese "wayang", amongst others: "wayang kulit", "wayang klitik", "wayang bèbèr", "wayang golèk", and "wayang wong". "Wayang kulit" are shadow puppets theater with leather puppets. The stories are loosely based on Mahabharataand Ramayanacycles. "Wayang klitik" are puppets theater with flat wooden puppets. The stories are based on Panji (king)stories. Panji was a native Javanese princes who set of in a 'journeys of desire'. [Adrian Vickers, "Journeys of desire" (2005). Leiden:KITLV] "Wayang bèbèr" is scroll theater, and it involves "performing" scenes of a story elaborately drawn and painted on rolled sheets. "Wayang golèk" consists of three dimensional wooden puppets. The narrative can be based on anything, but usually the stories are drawn from Islamic heroic narratives. Finally "wayang wong" is "wayang" theater involving live figures; actors who are performing a play. The narrative however must be based on Mahabharata or Ramayana.
In addition to "wayang", there is another form of theater which is called "
ketoprak". "Ketoprak" is a staged play by actors accompanied with Javanese " gamelan". The narrative is free but cannot be based on Mahabharata or Ramayana. Otherwise it will be some kind of "wayang wong".
Central Javanese music is almost synonymous with "
gamelan". This is a musical ensemble typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. The term refers more to the set of instruments than the players of those instruments. A gamelan as a set of instruments is a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are not interchangeable. However, gamelan is not typically Central Javanese as it is also known somewhere else.
Contemporary Javanese pop music is called "
campursari". It is a fusion between gamelan and Western instruments, much like " kroncong". Usually the lyrics are in Javanese, but not always. One notable singer is Didi Kempot, born in Sragen, north of Surakarta. Didi Kempot mostly sings in Javanese.
It can be argued that Javanese literature started in Central Java. The oldest known literary work in the
Javanese languageis the Inscription of Sivagrhafrom Kedu Plain. This inscription which is from 856 AD, is written as a " kakawin" or Javanese poetry with Indian metres. [De Casparis, "A Metrical Old Javanese Inscription Dated 865 A.D." in "Prasasti Indonesia II" (1956:280-330)] Then the oldest of narrative poems, " Kakawin Ramayana", which tells the well-known story of Ramayanais believed to have come from Central Java. It can be safely assumed that this "kakawin" must have been written in Central Java in the 9th century. [Zoetmulder, "Kalangwan" (1974:231).]
After the shift of Javanese power to East Java, it had been quiet from Central Java for several centuries, concerning Javanese literature until the 16th century. At this time the centre of power was shifted back to Central Java. The oldest work written in Modern Javanese language concerning Islam is the so-called "Book of Bonang" or also "The Admonitions of Seh Bari". This work is extant in just one manuscript, now kept in the University Library in Leiden, The Netherlands as codex Orientalis 1928. It is assumed that this manuscript originates from Tuban, in East Java and was taken to the Netherlands after 1598. [G.W.J. Drewes, "The Admonitions of Seh Bari" (1969:1-2)] However this work is attributed to
Sunan Bonang, one of the nine Javanese saints who spread Islam in Java (" Wali Songo") and Sunan Bonang came from Bonang, a place in Demak Regency, Central Java. So it can be argued that this work also mark the beginning of Islamic literature in Central Java.
However the pinnacle of Central Javanese literature was created at the courts of the kings of Mataram in Kartasura and later in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, mostly attributed to the Yasadipura family. The most famous member of this family is
Rangga Warsitawho lived in the 19th century. He is the best known of all Javanese writers and also one of the most prolific. He is also known as "bujangga panutup" or "the last court poet".
Indonesian independence, the Javanese language as a medium was pushed to the background. Still one of the greatest contemporary Indonesian author, Pramoedya Ananta Toerwas born in 1925 in Blora, Central Java. He was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics, and histories of his homeland and its people. A well-regarded writer in the West, Pramoedya's outspoken and often politically charged writings faced censorship in his native land during the pre-reformation era. For opposing the policies of both founding president Soekarno, as well as those of its successor, the New Order regime of Soeharto, he faced extrajudicial punishment. During the many years in which he suffered imprisonment and house arrest, he became a "cause célèbre" for advocates of freedom of expression and human rights. In his works he writes much about life and social problems in Java.
Rice is the staple food of Central Java. In addition to rice, dried cassava known locally as "gaplèk" also serve as staple food. Javanese food tends to taste sweet. Cooked and stewed vegetables, usually in coconut milk ("santen" in Javanese) are popular. Raw vegetable which is popular in West Java is less popular in Central Java.
Saltwater fish, both fresh and dried is common, especially among coastal populations. Freshwater fish is not popular in Central Java, unlike in West Java, except perhaps for
catfishknown locally as "lélé". Catfish is usually fried and served with chilli condiment (" sambal") and raw vegetables.
Chicken, mutton and beef are common meat. Although the majority of Central Javanese are Muslims, pork is common, especially around Semarang and Surakarta. Dog meat, known by its
euphemism"daging jamu" (literally "traditional medicine meat") is also occasionally eaten by certain parts of the population. Tofuand tempe serve as common fish and meat replacement. Famous Central Javanese dishes include " gudeg" (sweet stew of jackfruit) and " sayur lodeh" (vegetables cooked in coconut milk).
Besides the afore mentioned tofu, there is strong Chinese influence in many dishes. Some examples of Sino-Javanese food are
noodles, "bakso" (meatballs), " lumpia", "soto" (some kind of soup made with chicken or beef) et cetera. The widespread use of sweet soybeans sauce ("kecap manis") in the Javanese cuisine can also be attributed to Chinese influence.
As a province Central Java is headed by a
governor. The current governor Ali Mufizis in office since 2007. He was previously elected as the vice governor of Central Java, then when Mardiyanto has chosen as Minister of Home Affairs of Indonesia, Ali Mufiz replace his place as governor.
List of governors of Central Java after World War II
# 1945: Panji Suroso
# 1945 – 1949: K.R.T. Mr. Wongsonegoro
# 1949 – 1958: R. Boedijono
# 1958 – 1960: R. M. T. Soekadji Mangoenkoesoema
# 1960: R. M. Hadi Soebeno
# 1960 – 1966: Mokhtar
# 1966 – 1974: Moenadi
# 1974 – 1982:
Soepardjo Rustam( Golkar)
# 1982 – 1993:
# 1993 – 1998:
# 1998 - 2007:
# since 2007:
April 17-18, 2004 provincial elections
On April 17-18, 2004, provincial elections were held in Central Java for the "Regional People's Representative Council" ("Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah"). Out of the 24 contestants only 7 parties were able to reach the electoral threshold. [ [http://www.kpu-jateng.go.id/Suara_DPRD1.htm Komisi Pemilihan Umum Provinsi Jawa Tengah ] ]
There are exactly 100 seats in the regional parliament. [ [http://www.kpu-jateng.go.id/ANGGOTA_%20DPRDPROV.HTM Anggota Dprd Jateng ] ] Out of these 100 representatives, 15 are women, 88 are Muslims while 12 are Christians (7 Catholics and 5 Protestants). There is no representative who professes either Hinduism or Buddhism.
Central Java is connected to the interprovincial national way on the northern coast ("Jalur Pantai Utara" or "Jalur Pantura") which runs from Anyer in
Bantento Banyuwangi, East Javaon the opposite of Bali. Losari, the Central Javanese gate at the western border on the northern coast, could be reached from Jakarta in 4 hours drive. On the southern coast, there is also a national way which run from Kroya at the Sundanese-Javanese border, through Yogyakartato Surakartaand then to Surabaya via Kertosono in East Java. There is furthermore a direct connection from Tegal to Purwokerto. In addition to that there is a toll road from Semarang to Ungaran which runs for 14 kilometer.
Central Java was the province that first introduced a railway line in Indonesia. The very first line began in 1873 between Semarang and Yogyakarta by a private company, [Robert Cribb, "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" (2000:140)] but this route is now no longer used. Today there are five lines in Central Java: the northern line which runs from Jakarta via Semarang to Surabaya. Then there is the southern line from Kroya through Yogyakarta and Surakarta to Surabaya. There is also a train service between Semarang and Surakarta and a service between Kroya and Cirebon. At last there is a route between Surakarta and Wonogiri. All of these lines are single track lines, except the line between Yogyakarta and Surakarta which is double track.
On the northern coast Central Java is served by 8 harbours. The main port is Tanjung Mas in Semarang, other harbours are located in Brebes, Tegal, Pekalongan, Batang, Jepara, Juwana and Rembang. The southern coast is mainly served by the port Tanjung Intan in Cilacap. [ [http://www.jawatengah.go.id/framer.php?SUB=prog_pemb&SEKTOR=ekbang&DATA=ekbang_perhubungan Program Pembangunan Pemerintah Propinsi Jawa Tengah ] ]
Finally on mainland Central Java there is three commercial airports and one on Karimunjawa isles. The airports on the mainland are:
Adisumarmo International Airportin Surakarta, Achmad Yani Airportin Semarang and Tunggul Wulung Airport in Cilacap. Karimunjawa is served by Dewadaru Airport.
Much of Central Java is a fertile agricultural region, and the primary food crop is wet rice. An elaborate irrigation network of canals, dams, aqueducts, and reservoirs has greatly contributed to Central Java's the rice-growing capacity over the centuries. In 2001, productivity of rice was 5022 kilograms/ha, mostly contributed by irrigated paddy field (± 98%).
Klaten Regencyhad the highest productivity with 5525 kilograms/ha. [http://www.kbri-bangkok.com/about_indonesia/province_jawa_tengah/province_central_java_01.html#economy Welcome to the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia ] ]
Other crops, also mostly grown in lowland areas on small peasant landholdings, are corn (maize), cassava, peanuts (groundnuts), soybeans, and sweet potatoes. Terraced hillslopes and irrigated
paddy fields are familiar features of the landscape. Kapok, sesame, vegetables, bananas, mangoes, durian fruits, citrus fruits, and vegetable oils are produced for local consumption. Tea, coffee, tobacco, rubber, sugarcane and kapok; and coconuts are exported. Several of these cash crops at a time are usually grown on large family estates. Livestock, especially water buffalo, is raised primarily for use as draft animals. Salted and dried fish are imported. [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-3682 Java (island, Indonesia) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]
Central Java is home to such notable state universities, as
Diponegoro University, Semarang State University, and Walisongo Islamic University("Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo") in Semarang; Sebelas Maret State Universityin Surakarta; and Jenderal Soedirman Universityin Purwokerto.
The Military Academy ("Akademi Militer") is located in Magelang Regency while the Police Academy ("Akademi Kepolisian") is located in Semarang. Furthermore in Surakarta the
Surakarta Institute of Indonesian Arts(ISI Surakarta) is located. In addition to these, Central Java has hundreds of other private higher educations, including religious institutions.
For foreign students requiring language training Salatiga has been a location for generations of students attending courses.
There are several interesting places to be found in Central Java.
Semarangitself has lots of old picturesque buildings: Puri Maerokocoand Indonesian Record Museumare located in this city. Borobudur, which is one of the UNESCO World Cultural Heritagesites of Indonesia is also located in this province, in the Magelang regency. Candi Mendutand Candi Pawon can also be found near the Borobudur temple complex. Candi Prambananat the border of Klaten regency and Yogyakarta is the biggest complex of Hindu temples. It is also a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage SIte. In the region around the Dieng Plateau, one could find several temples. These are built before the era of the ancient Mataram.
Two interesting palaces, the
Palace of the Sunan("Keraton Kasunanan") and Pura Mangkunegaran, are located in Surakarta, which is considered one of the centers of Javanese culture. The Grojogan Sewu waterfallis located in Karanganyar Regency, which has a beautiful scenery. Several Majapahit temples and Sangiran museum are also located in Central Java.
Coat of arms and symbols
The motto of Central Java is "Prasetya Ulah Sakti Bhakti Praja". This is a Javanese phrase meaning "A vow of devotion with all might to the country".
The coat of arms of Central Java depicts a legendary flask, "Kundi Amerta" or "Cupu Manik", formed in a pentagon representing Pancasila. In the center of the emblem stands a sharp bamboo spike (representing the fight for independence, and it has 8 sections which represent Indonesia's month of Independence) with a golden five-pointed star (representing faith in God), superimposed on the black profile of a "
candi" (temple) with seven " stupas", while the middle stupa is the biggest. This "candi" is reminiscent of the Borobudur. Under the "candi" wavy outlines of waters are visible. Behind the "candi" two golden mountain tops are visible. This twin mountains represents the unity between the people and the government. The emblem shows a green sky above the "candi". Above, the shield is adorned with a red and white ribbon, the colours of the Indonesian flag. Lining the left and right sides of the shield are respectively stalk of rice (17 of them, representing Indonesia's day of Independence) and cotton flowers (5 of them, each one is 4-petaled, representing Indonesia's year of Independence). At the bottom, the shield is adorned with a golden red ribbon. On the ribbon the name "Central Java" ("Jawa Tengah") is inscribed in black.
The floral symbol of the province is the "
Michelia alba", while the provincial fauna is " Oriolus chinensis".
Notes and references
*"Tourist (printed information)"
* Backshall, S. et all (1999) "Indonesia, The rough guide" London ISBN 1-85828-429-5. Central Java - pp. 153-231
* Cribb, Robert (2000) "Historical Atlas of Indonesia" London: Curzon Press
* Dalton. B. (1980's) "
Indonesia Handbook" various editions - Central Java.
* Geertz, C. (1960) "The Religion of Java" University Of Chicago Press 1976 paperback: ISBN 0-226-28510-3
* Hatley, Ron et al. (1984) "Other Javas: away from the kraton" Clayton: Monash University
* Vaisutis. Justine et al. (2007) "
Indonesia (Guidebook)" Eighth edition. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd, Footscray, Victoria ISBN 978-1-74164-435-5
*id [http://www.jawatengah.go.id/ Official site]
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