Timeline of immunology


Timeline of immunology

Timeline of immunology:
* 1718 - Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the British ambassador to Constantinople, observed the positive effects of variolation on the native population and had the technique performed on her own children.
* 1798 - First demonstration of vaccination smallpox vaccination (Edward Jenner)
* 1837 - First description of the role of microbes in putrefaction and fermentation (Theodore Schwann)
* 1838 - Confirmation of the role of yeast in fermentation of sugar to alcohol (Charles Cagniard-Latour)
* 1840 - First "modern" proposal of the germ theory of disease (Jakob Henle)
* 1850 - Demonstration of the contagious nature of puerperal fever (childbed fever) (Ignaz Semmelweis)
* 1857-1870 - Confirmation of the role of microbes in fermentation (Louis Pasteur)
* 1862 - phagocytosis (Ernst Haeckel)
* 1867 - First aseptic practice in surgery using carbolic acid (Joseph Lister)
* 1876 - First demonstration that microbes can cause disease-anthrax (Robert Koch)
* 1877 - Mast cells (Paul Ehrlich)
* 1878 - Confirmation and popularization of the germ theory of disease (Louis Pasteur)
* 1880 - 1881 -Theory that bacterial virulence could be attenuated by culture in vitro and used as vaccines. Proposed that live attenuated microbes produced immunity by depleting host of vital trace nutrients. Used to make chicken cholera and anthrax "vaccines" (Louis Pasteur)
* 1883 - 1905 - Cellular theory of immunity via phagocytosis by macrophages and microphages (polymorhonuclear leukocytes) (Elie Metchnikoff)
* 1885 - Introduction of concept of a "therapeutic vaccination". First report of a live "attenuated" vaccine for rabies (Louis Pasteur).
* 1888 - Identification of bacterial toxins (diphtheria bacillus) (Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin)
* 1888 - Bactericidal action of blood (George Nuttall)
* 1890 - Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Beginning of humoral theory of immunity. (Emil von Behring) and (Shibasaburo Kitasato)
* 1891 - Demonstration of cutaneous (delayed type) hypersensitivity (Robert Koch)
* 1893 - Use of live bacteria and bacterial lysates to treat tumors-"Coley's Toxins" (William B. Coley)
* 1894 - Bacteriolysis (Richard Pfeiffer)
* 1896 - An antibacterial, heat-labile serum component (complement) is described (Jules Bordet)
* 1900 - Antibody formation theory (Paul Ehrlich)
* 1901 - blood groups (Karl Landsteiner)
* 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis (Paul Portier) and (Charles Richet)
* 1903 - Intermediate hypersensitivity, the "Arthus reaction" (Maurice Arthus)
* 1903 - Opsonization
* 1905 - "Serum sickness" allergy (Clemens von Pirquet and (Bela Schick)
* 1911 - 2nd demonstration of filterable agent that caused tumors (Peyton Rous)
* 1917 - hapten (Karl Landsteiner)
* 1921 - Cutaneous allergic reactions (Carl Prausnitz and Heinz Küstner)
* 1924 - Reticuloendothelial system
* 1938 - Antigen-Antibody binding hypothesis (John Marrack)
* 1940 - Identification of the Rh antigens (Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Weiner)
* 1942 - Anaphylaxis (Karl Landsteiner and Merill Chase)
* 1942 - Adjuvants (Jules Freund and Katherine McDermott)
* 1944 - hypothesis of allograft rejection
* 1946 - identification of mouse MHC (H2) by George Snell and Peter A. Gorer
* 1948 - antibody production in plasma B cells
* 1949 - growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and demonstration of attenuation of neurovirulence with repetitive passage (John Enders) and (Thomas Weller) and (Frederick Robbins)
* 1949 - immunological tolerance hypothesis
* 1951 - vaccine against yellow fever
* 1953 - Graft-versus-host disease
* 1953 - immunological tolerance hypothesis
* 1957 - Clonal selection theory (Frank Macfarlane Burnet)
* 1957 - Discovery of interferon
* 1958-1962 - Discovery of human leukocyte antigens (Jean Dausset and others)
* 1959-1962 - Discovery of antibody structure (independently elucidated by Gerald Edelman and Rodney Porter)
* 1959 - Discovery of lymphocyte circulation (James Gowans)
* 1960 - Discovery of lymphocyte "blastogenic transformation" and proliferation in response to mitogenic lectins-phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (Peter Nowell)
* 1961-1962 Discovery of thymus involvement in cellular immunity (Jacques Miller)
* 1961- Demonstration that glucocorticoids inhibit PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation (Peter Nowell)
* 1963 - Development of the plaque assay for the enumeration of antibody-forming cells in vitro (Niels Jerne) (Albert Nordin)
* 1964-1968 T and B cell cooperation in immune response
* 1965 - Discovery of the first lymphocyte mitogenic activity, "blastogenic factor" (Shinpei Kamakura) and (Louis Lowenstein) (J. Gordon) and (L.D. MacLean)
* 1965 - Discovery of "immune interferon" (gamma interferon) (E.F. Wheelock)
* 1965 - Secretory immunoglobulins
* 1967 - Identification of IgE as the reaginic antibody (Kimishige Ishizaka)
* 1968 - Passenger leukocytes identified as significant immunogens in allograft rejection (William L. Elkins and Ronald D. Guttmann)
* 1969 - The lymphocyte cytolysis Cr51 release assay (Theodore Brunner) and (Jean-Charles Cerottini)
* 1971 - Peter Perlmann and Eva Engvall at Stockholm University invented ELISA
* 1972 - Structure of the antibody molecule
* 1974 - T-cell restriction to major histocompatibility complex (Rolf Zinkernagel and (Peter Doherty)
* 1975 - Generation of the first monoclonal antibodies (Georges Köhler) and (César Milstein)
* 1976 - Identification of somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes (Susumu Tonegawa)
* 1979 - Generation of the first monoclonal T cells (Kendall A. Smith)
* 1980-1983 - Discovery and characterization of the first interleukins, 1 and 2 IL-1 IL-2 (Kendall A. Smith)
* 1981 - Discovery of the IL-2 receptor IL2R (Kendall A. Smith)
* 1983 - Discovery of the T cell antigen receptor TCR (Ellis Reinherz) (Philippa Marrack) and (John Kappler) (James Allison)
* 1983 - Discovery of HIV (Luc Montagnier)
* 1984 - The first single cell analysis of lymphocyte proliferation (Doreen Cantrell) and (Kendall A. Smith)
* 1985-1987 - Identification of genes for the T cell receptor
* 1986 - Hepatitis B vaccine produced by genetic engineering
* 1986 - Th1 vs Th2 model of T helper cell function (Timothy Mosmann)
* 1988 - Discovery of biochemical initiators of T-cell activation: CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes (Christopher E. Rudd)
* 1990 - Gene therapy for SCID
* 1994 - 'Danger' model of immunological tolerance (Polly Matzinger)
* 1995 - Regulatory T cells (Shimon Sakaguchi)
* 1996-1998 - Identification of Toll-like receptors
* 2001 - Discovery of FOXP3 - the gene directing regulatory T cell development
* 2005 - Development of human papillomavirus vaccine (Ian Frazer)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Outline of immunology — See also: Index of immunology articles Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune… …   Wikipedia

  • Topic outline of immunology — For a more comprehensive list, see the List of immunology topics. Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with, among other things, the physiological… …   Wikipedia

  • William Coley — William Bradley Coley Born January 12, 1862(1862 01 12) Westfield, Connecticut Died April 16, 1936(1936 04 16) (aged 74) Parents Horace Bradley Coley Clarina B. Wakeman William Bradley Coley (January 12, 1862 – Apr …   Wikipedia

  • Outline of science — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science: Science – in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on… …   Wikipedia

  • Copley Medal — The Copley Medal awarded to Mendeleev in 1905 …   Wikipedia

  • DNA vaccination — The making of a DNA vaccine. DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with genetically engineered DNA to produce an immunological response. Nucleic acid vaccines are still experimental, and have… …   Wikipedia

  • BALB/c — is an albino strain of laboratory mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. Now over 200 generations from their origin in New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and among the most widely used inbred strains used …   Wikipedia

  • Organ transplantation — Intervention Cosmas and Damian miraculously transplant the (black) leg of a Moor onto the (white) body of Justinian. Ditzingen, 16th century ICD 10 PCS …   Wikipedia

  • 2009 flu pandemic vaccine — Influenza (Flu) …   Wikipedia

  • Luk Van Parijs — was an associate professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Cancer Research. After investigating for a year, MIT fired Van Parijs for research misconduct. In a press release, MIT claimed Van Parijs admitted …   Wikipedia