- Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal
The Kamboja-Pala Dynasty ruled parts of
Bengalin the 10th to 11th centuries CE, gradually gaining independence from their former liege lords, the Palas.
During the last centuries BCE, many clans of the
Kambojasentered India in alliance the with Sakas, Pahlavas, Yavanas and spread into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena. [ Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country, 1981, pp 296-309, 310, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 158-162, 168-69, S Kirpal Singh] [cf: "Along with Sakas, numerous tribes of Kambojas had crossed Hindukush and spread into whole of north India especially into Punjab and Uttar Pradeshetc. Mahabharata(12.102.5) specifically attests that Kambojas and Yavanas conquered Mathuracountry. The Kambojas also find mention in the Mathura Lion Capitol Inscriptions issued by Saka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvala" (India And The world 1964 p 154 by Dr Buddha Parkash). ] The Kamboh Darwaza in the city of Meerut is named after the Kambojas. An offshoot of these Kambojas moved eastwards and entered Bengal, Biharand Orissaand in 10th century, they founded a large empire in north-west Bengal. [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 311, Dr J. L. Kamboj]
Ancient sources on Kamboja Rule in Bengal
There are several ancient inscriptions which attest
Kambojarule in Bengal and Bihar. The most important sources are:
Dinajpore Pillar Inscription
The "Dinajpur Pillar Inscription" makes mention of a certain Kamboja king called the "Kambojanvaya Gaudapati" (i.e lord of
Gauda, born in Kamboja family). The Pillar Inscription was originally established in a Siva Templewhich was built by Kambojanvaya Gaudapati in Gauda country. But during Muslimrule, the Pillar was brought to Bangar about 40 miles east of Gauda. During 18th century AD, the Pillar was further moved to Dinajpore by Maharaja Ram Nath and as a result, the inscription came to be known as Dinajpore Pillar Inscription. [ :Durvararivaruthini.paramthaney danai cha vidhyadhraih (1) :Sanandamdiviyasaya maragangunahgram graho gyatai (2) :Kambojanvaya Gaudapatina natenendu moleryam (3) :Parsado nirmaya kunjarghattavarsheynh bhubhushanh."(4) :(Wording of Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions)
:TRANSLATION: "In the battle field, the Kamboja Raja was a warrior like Durga (Chandi) and in making charity gifts he was like vidhyadharas. His honor and glory was sung and praised in the whole of India as well as in the Swargaloka (heaven). The Kamboja had wiped out all his enemies from the face of earth. This Pillars inscription was raised Kamboja to commemorate his glorious victory over the ruler of Gauda country. The Kamboja raja raised magnificent temple in honor of lord Siva. In so doing, the Kamboja made himself so popular and dear to his subjects like the ornaments are dear to the women."
(References: Indian Antiquary, Vol I, 1872, pp 127ff, 195ff, 227ff; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, (N.S.), Vol VII, 1911, pp 615-619; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 3-4, Dr J. L Kamboj. These Kamboj People, 1979, p 182, K. S. Dardi; Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, pp 89-90, H. S. Thind)] .
According Dr R. C. Majumdar, "Kunjarghatavarsheyan" was a personal name of Kambojanvaya Gaudapati, but that may also imply his epithet. The imperial title Gaudapati (Gaudeshawara) as testified by the Dinajpore Pillar Inscription is obviously his imperial title. Term Kambojanvaya implies that he belonged to the
Kamboja lineage. The inscription further reveals that Kambojanvaya Gaudapati was a devoteeof lord Siva. The date of this record has been shown to be 888 Saka, though this is sated to be doubtful (Dr R. C. Majimdar). Scholars state that the Dinajpore Pillar Inscription belongs to the second half of 10th c AD. [ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 54, 1964, Dr. R. C. Majumdar and Dr A. D. Pusalkar] .
Irda Copper Plate (Tamrapatra)
Irda Copper plate ("Irda Tamarapatra") is another very important source on the Kamboja-Pala dynasty of Benga. The plate was discovered in 1931 from a landlord named Mrityunjaya Narayan Prahraj of Irda, District Balasor in
Orissa. The Inscription was edited by Dr N. G. Majumdar and published with his comments in 1934 in the Epigraphia Indica. [Epigraphia Indica, XXII, 1933-34, pp 150-158, Dr N. G. Majumdar] . Irda Copper plate is written in Sanskrittongue and has 49 lines of text written in ancient Bengali script. The Vamsa or the tribal identity of the rulers in the mentioned in the Irda Copper plate is specifically stated to be "Kamboja-Vamsha-Tilaka" (i.e Glory of the Kamboja tribe). [ Kambojavamshatilaka Paramasaugata Maharajadhiraja parameshvara paramabhattAraka Rajyapala] Like the Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions, the Irda Copper plate is also thought to belong to the second half of 10th c AD (Dr N. G. Majumdar, Dr R. C. Majumdar). Hence the scholar community believes that the Kambojanvaya Gaudapati of Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions and the Kambojavamshatilaka Paramasaugata Maharajadhiraja parameshvara paramabhattAraka Rajyapala of Kamboja-Pala dynasty of Irda Copper plate Inscriptions refers to the same Kambojafamily. But whereas the Dinajpur Pillar inscriptions refers just to one Kamboja ruler epithetted as Kambojanvaya Gaudapati, the Irda Copper plate, on the other hand, mentions generation after generation of the Kamboja-Pala kings of Bengal i.e Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala etc. The Kamboja-Pala kings of Irda Copper plate had ruled north-west Bengal in 10/11th c. [ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 315, Dr J. L Kamboj; Ancient India, 1956, p 382-83, Dr R. K. Mukerjee, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 208-210, S Kirpal Singh]
Bangar Grant of Mahipala I
Bangar Charter [Inscription No 5] of Mahipala I is the third very important ancient source of Kamboja rule in Bengal. The charter asserts that Mahipala had re-conquered nearly the whole of north and east Bengal "after defeating the usurpers who had seized his ancestral kingdom". [:hataskalavipashah sangre bahudarppad:anudhikrit vilupatan rayamasadhya pitram:nihitcharanpadamo bhubhutan murdhin tasmad:abhavadvanipalah shrimahipaladehah || 11 |
:(verse 11, Inscription No 5] The same verse has been repeated in the Aamgaachhi Charter of Vigrahapala-3. But "Who were the usurpers the inscription does not tell, but other evidences indicate that the rulers belonging to the Kamboja family were in possession of the north and west Bengal". [ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 55, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar; The struggle for Empire, p 24, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar] Scholars believe that Mahipala's Charter alludes to the seizing of the northern parts of Bengal by Kamboja dynasty from the Gopala II or Vigrahapala II of the Pala dynasty, which the great king Mahipala I claims to have won back by the force of his arms [See: Candellas of Jejakbhukti, 2003, p 48, R.K. Dikshit; Ancient India, 2003, p 651, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History of Bengal, I, 133; Dr R. C. Majumdar, The Dynastic History of Northern India, II, 676, Dr H. C. Ray; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 399, Dr B. C. Sen; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 312, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Bengal: Past and Present, P 77, by Calcutta Historical Society; Islam in Bangladesh, 1992, p 6, U A B Razia Akt Banu. ]
Extent of Kamboja Empire
No definite information is available on the precise geographical area of the Kamboja-Pala kingdom of Bengal. According to Irda Copper plate evidence, the Kamboja-Pala kingdom definitely comprised "Varadhmana-Bhukti Mandala" (modern Burdman division) and "Dandabhukti Mandala" within the Kamboja empire. The Dandabhukti division is believed to have comprised southern and south-western parts of district
Midnaporeas well as the lower parts of river Suvaranrekha in district Balasore. Evidence from Dinajpore Pillar Inscription attests that the Gauda country also formed parts of Kamboja-Pala kingdom. But as long as we do not include northern Rad, the region does not constitute one viable politicall entity. Hence it appears likely that northern parts of Rad may also formed parts of Kamboja-Pala kingdom. Dr R. C. Majumdar says that Gauda and Radha both formed parts of Kamboja-Pala empire [History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 127, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar - Bengal (India).] During second half of the 10th century, Chandellaking Yashovarman invaded the Palas and the Kambojas and he claims to have conquered Gauda and Mithila. [History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 85, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar] . It is also stated that Chandela chief Dhanga of Jejabhukti, the successor of Yashovarman, had invaded Rad towards the end of 10th century AD. As a consequence, the Kamboja power in the north Bengal received a severe jolt. [ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 315, Dr J. L. Kamboj] This political scenario enabled the Pala king Mahipala I to re-conquer Gauda from the Kambojas. [Ancient India, 2003, p 651, Dr V. D. Mahajan] The last king of the Kambojaswas "Dharamapala" who continued to rule Dandabhukti in the first quarter of 11th century AD. [ Ancient Kamboja, Peoole and the Country, 1981, p 315-16, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Decline of the Kingdom of Magadha, p 413, B. P. Sinha; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 379-80, B. C. Sen etc] The Capital of the Kamboja Pala kingdom is stated to be "Pryangu" which has not been identified yet, [Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, VII, 619; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 54, 1964, Dr. R. C. Majumdar and Dr A. D. Pusalkar] though some scholars tend to identify the same with an old village known as Pingvani located in Garvet Thana. [Epigraphia Indiaca, Vol XXIV, p 46,Dr J. C. Ghosh; quoted by Dr J. L. Kamboj in Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country. 1981, p 334.]
Known Kamboja Kings of Bengal
We know the names of three
Kambojarulers of the Kamboja Pala family for sure viz. "Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala". The Charter (Copper Plate Inscription) was issued by Kamboja king Nayapala wherein he and his father are given the imperial titles like "Parameshevara, Paramabhattacharya and Maharajadhiraja". The Copper Plate Inscription also attests that the founder of the Kamboja Pala dynasty was king "Rajyapala". He has been referred to as " Kambojavamshatilaka Paramasaugata Maharajadhiraja parameshvara paramabhattAraka-Rajyapala". This proves that this line of kings belonged to the Kamboja lineage. The second king is Narayanapala who was son of Rajayapala. Narayanapala was succeeded by his younger brother Nayapala, the author of the Irda Copper plate. Dr R. C. Majumdar states that the expression "Kunjarghatavarshan" of the Dinajpore Pillar Inscription indicates that Kunjarghatavarshan was personal name of "Kambojanvaya Gaudapati" of the Dinajpore Pillar Inscription. If this is so, then this Kambojanvaya Gaudapati is the fourth known Kamboja king of Kamboja dynasty of Bengal. Some scholars however believe that the Kambojanvaya Gaudapati of the Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions is same as Kambojavamshatilaka Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate. This does not seem to be true since Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate is described as devoteeof Buddha ("Parama-saugata") where as Kambojanvaya Gaudapati of Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions claims in his own inscription to be a Siva devotee. It may however be possible that Kambojanvaya Gaudapati is same as Kamboja king Nayapala of the Irda Copper plate since king Nayapala also claims to be a Saivite (Siva devotee) in the Irda Copper plate. The last known ruler of the Kamboja Pala dynasty is stated to be king "Dharamapala" who ruled in Dandabhukti in first quarter of 11th century AD. [ Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, p 380, 383, Dr Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India); Journal of the Varendra Research Museum, Vol.1-4 1972-1975/1976, p 109, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 318, 316 etc; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 54, 1964, Dr. R. C. Majumdar and Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Decline of the Kingdom of Magadha, p 413, B. P. Sinha; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 379-80, B. C. Sen]
Pala Dynasty vs Kamboja-Pala Dynasty
Curiously, there are several similarities between the Kamboja Pala ruling family and the Pala ruling family of Bengal.
*The names like Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala of Irda Copper plate are also found in the genealogies of the Pala dynasty of Bengal,
*The Kamboja king Rajyapala of Irda Copper plate and his counterpart, king Rajyapala (II), of the Pala dynasty belong to the same era and time frame,
*King Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate and king Rajyapala (II) of the Pala dynasty, assumed exactly similar imperial titles i.e. "Parmeshevara, Paramabhattacharya and Maharajadhiraja",
*King Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate and Rajyapala (II) of the Pala dynasty, have assumed exactly similar religious epithets i.e "Paramasaugata" (devotee of the Buddha),
*The queen of king Rajyapala of Irda Copper plate is named named "Bhagyadevi", which, very interestingly, is also the name of Pala king Rajyapala's queen,
*Both the Kamboja kings of Irda Copper plate as well as the Pala kings of the Pala dynasty, use 'Pala' as the last part in their names,
*Both the Kamboja kings of Irda Copper plate and the Pala kings of the Pala dynasty are known to have similar religious beliefs,
*The script and
languageof Irda Copper plate and that of Dinajpur Pillar inscriptions belonging to the Kamboja dynasty is identical to that of numerous charters of the kings of the so-called Pala dynasty.
Based on these startling similarities, some scholars have gone to the extent of stating that the Pala dynasty and the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Irda Copper plate & Dinajpore Pillar Inscription is one and the same dynasty. But if this is really so, then the inescapable conclusion which must follow is that the "unified Kamboja/Pala dynasty of Bengal must belong to the
Kamboja lineage" [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 317-18, Dr J. L. Kamboj] [The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 213, S Kirpal Singh. This conclusion is so simple since the ethnicityof the rulers of Irda Copper plate as well as the one in the Dinajpore Pillar Inscripptions is unequivocally stated as "Kamboja" while that of the so-called Pala dynasty has nowhere been identified in any of its own numerous inscriptions.] .
It is very curious to note that whereas the identity of the Kamboja Pala rulers of Bengal has been referred to "twice" and is indisputably connected to the Kamboja
ethnicity, that of the Palas has nowhere been specifically stated in any of the Pala traditions in numerous of their Grants, Charters and Inscriptions (Dr D. C. Sircar). According to "Manjuśree Mūlakalpa", Gopala I was a Śudra [The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir ..., 1939, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi - History.] [See also: Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365-66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11; Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The Indian Historical Quarterly, IX, 1983, pp 487-90; The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113-14, B Chatterji; Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas; Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf - History.] . "Balla-Carita" says that the "The Palas were low-born Ksatriyas". Tibetan Historian Taranatha Lama, in his "History of Buddhism in India" and Ghanarama, in his "Dharma Mangala", (both of 16th century CE), also give the same story [ Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute - India; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 174, Qamarud Din Ahmed - West Pakistan (Pakistan).] ["The Palas were at first known as Sudras. With the rise of their power they began to claim a Ksatria lineage"(Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute - India.] . Arabicaccounts tell us that Palas were not kings of noble origin [Akhbar, p 13, Sauveget; Studies in The Geography of the Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 145, Dr D. C. Sircar.] . According to Abu Fazal ( Ain-i-Akbari), Palas were Kayasthas [Ibid, Jhunnu Bagchi.] . Khalimpur Plate of Dharmapala, son of Gopala I (the founder of the dynasty), states that Gopala was a son of a warrior ("Khanditarat") Vapyata and grandson of a highly educated ("Saryavidyavadat") Dayitavishnu [Epigraphia Indica, Vol IV, p 243ff; Gaudalekhamala, p 9, A. K. Maitreya.] . "Ramachrita" of "Sandhyakaranandi" attests Pala king Ramapala as a Kshatriya [ Ramachrita I.17.] , but in another portion of the same text, Dharmapala is described as Smudrakula-dipa [ Ibid, Jhunnu Bagchi.] , though, the reason why the origin of the Palas has been ascribed to the Sea (Samudrakula) remains obsecure [Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, p 307, Dr Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).] . In the "Udaya-sundari-katha", a "Champu-Kavya", written by "Soddhala" in the eleventh century, Pala king Dharmapalais said to have belonged to the family of Mandhataof the Ikshvakuline which is known to belong to solar race [A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India, 1990, p 63.] [Prabha Chandra Sen has tried to reconcile the two theories of the "Solar origin" and "Samudrakula (Ocean) origin" by saying that Samudra was son of the illustrious Pauranic king Sagara of Kosala (A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India, 1990, p 63, Jai Narayan Asopa). But son of Sagara was Asamanja and not Samudra (See: Genealogy of Ikshvaku in Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, 1922, p 147, Dr P. E. Pargiter). Moreover, why did the Pala lineage not start from king Sagara, father of Samudra, who was very illustrious in the line of the Ikshvakus, rather than the little known Samudra? Obviously, the hypothesis is unconvincing and has no value at all.] . It is also stated that they were born of a Ksatriya mother [Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute.] . "All these hear-says practically have no value at all for discussion" [ Op cit, Jhunnu Bagchi, p 37.] .
The "Kamauli Copper Plate" inscription of king "Vaidyadeva" of Kamarupa (
Assam) [See: Gaudalekhamala, pp 127-146, A. K. Maitreya.] indisputably connects the Palas to the Kshatriyasof "Mihirasya vamsa" ("Surya lineage"). [See some refs: Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar; The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir ..., 1003, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi - History; The Dacca University Studies, 1935, p 131, University of Dacca; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 316, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Late Classical India, 1988, p 25, Mainak Kumar Bose - India; History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 427, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar - Bengal (India).] .
Since Mihira means Sun or Sun worshipper, the expression Mihirasya implies "connected with or relating to the Sun or Sun Worship" (
SanskritMitra, Persian Mithira = > Mihira = Sun). According to "Bhavishya Purana", the Mihira lineage originated from the union of Nishkubha, daughter of RsiRijihva and the Sun (Mihira) [Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr Buddha Parkash.] . From this wedlock was born a sage called "Zarashata", who apparently is Zoroasterof the Iranian traditions. "Mihirasya Vamsa" means "Mihira Vamsa" which is also found written as "Mihirkula" i.e lineage of the Sun-worshippers. The reference to "Mihirasya vamsa" as being the lineageof the Palas of Bengal as attested independently by the Kamauli Grant of king Vaidyadeva of Assam holds a probable clue that the Palas may have come from the Sun-Worshipping lineage i.e Iranianor Zoroastrianline of the Kambojas. [Bryant cites Hesychius (6th century CE): "MiqraV o hlioV para PersaiV" ("Mithras, the sun of Persia") and "MiqrhV o protoV en PersaiV QeoV" ("Mithres, the first god in Persia."). Hesychius thus confirms not only the solar nature but also the /Persian/ origin of Mithra, still known in his day.] [ The priests of Mithra, and of Iranian Sun and Fire worship in general, were the Magi or Magas. The Magas entered India on a number of occasions over a period of centuries, prior to and during the common era. At this point, Indian Sun worship became increasingly formalized, with elaborate rituals, temples and images sprouting up and from the 6th century CE onward, royal names began to have "Mihira" (Mithra) in them after a millennium of integration (or reintegration) into Indian culture. ] .
The fact that Gopala I, the founder of the so-called Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra [Op cit., p 37, Jhunu Bagchi; Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365-66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11; Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The IHQ, IX, 1983, pp 487-90; The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113-14, B Chatterji; Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas; Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf - History.] , may also carry a clue to their connections to the Kamboja lineage as the Kambojas have also been branded as Vrishalas ("degraded Kshatriyas or Śudras") in Hindu texts [ Manusmriti X.43-44; Mahabharata 13.33.20-21 etc.] . Also from the fact that Gopala's grandfather was a learned man, and his father a warrior, and Gopala I is said to have been elected to the throne of Bengal, he therefore, was definitely not initially of a royal blood. Some say he may have been from a
Brahminlineage [Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1990, p 265, André Wink; History of Medieval India, 1940, p 20, fn, Ishwari Prasad - India.] but since the Palas are called Śudras as well as Ksatriyas, these references qualify them more as from Iranian Kamboja than of any other lineage.
It is notable that one section of scholars like Dr N. G. Majumdar [ See: The Modern Review, 1937, pp 323-24, N. G. Majumdar; See also: Quotation Dr H. C. Ray, Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11; Also quoted by Dr J. L. Kamboja in his Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 323; Quoted in: 'The Modern Review, 1907, p 440, by Ramananda Chatterjee - India; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 509.] , Chandra Chakrabarty [See: The Racial History of India, 1944, p 834, Chandra Chakraberty - Ethnology.] , E. Vassey Westmarcott [Palas of Bengal, Calcutta Review, 1874, p 95 sqq, E. Vassey Westmarcott.] etc consider that the so-called Pala Rulers of Bengal actually belonged to Kamboja race. Dr N. G. Majumdar was the original editor of "Irda Copper plate", and had initially thought that the Pala Dynasty and the Kambboja Pala dynasty were two separate dynasties, but later on, had modified his views in light of new discovery which demonstrated that king Rajyapala-II of the so-called Pala dynasty, just like king Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate, was found as adorned with religious epithet of "Parama-saugata" (devoted
Buddhist) as well as the imperial title of the "Maharajadhiraja". [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 316-17; Dr J. L. Kamboj; See also the Quotation of Dr H. C. Ray, Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11, quoted by Dr J. L. Kamboja in his Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 323.] Based on this new evidence and earlier similarities, "Dr N. G. Majumdar, had accordingly changed his views and got inclined to identify the Pala Dynasty of Bengal with the Kambojas, and thereby, also dispelling the earlier views on the origin of the Pala kings of Bengal" [Quoted in: 'The Modern Review, 1907, p 440, by Ramananda Chatterjee - India.] .
Dr H. C. Ray however, has advised a policy of 'wait' till the discovery of more powerful evidence before we can say that the Pala dynasty and the Kamboja Pala Dynasty belonged to the Kamboja race. He oberserved: "I can only suggest that we must wait for more definite proof before we can say that the Palas were Kambojas" [See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 511; Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11, Dr H. C. Ray] . Dr Ramananda Chatterjee writes that "as regards the Kamboja origin of the Pala, one cannot be definite in the present state of our knowledge" [ The Modern Review, 1907, p 324, Ramananda Chatterjee - India.] . Dr J. L. Kamboj cautions that if we identify Rajyapala of the
Pala Dynastywith the Rajyapala of the 'Irda Copper Plate', then we will have no option other than to accept that the Pala Dynasty of Bengal had sprang from the Kamboja race [Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 356, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavarti Sastri - Kamboja (Pakistan); See also: The Modern Review, 1907, p 324, Dr Ramananda Chatterjee.] . Dr R. C. Majumdar advises that if we identify the "Kamboja-vamsa-tilaka Rajyapala" of the Irda Copper plate with the Rajyapala of the Pala dynasty, then we must also accept that after Rajyapla, the Pala empire had split up into two [The History of Bengal, Vol I, p 127 Dr R. C. Majumdar] . Dr R. C. Majumdar further advises that "although the presumption about the identity (of the Palas with the Kambojas) is certainly a reasonable one, the evidence in favor of it can not be regarded as conclusive.." [ History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 172, Dr R. C. Majumdar - Bengal (India); cf: Dacca University Studies, Vol I, No 2, p 131; ff.] .
"In spite of the above, the probabilities of unification of two dynasties and their connection to
Kamboja lineageseem to have tremendously increased though".
New Possible Interpretation of Dinajpore Inscription
The Rajyapala of Irda Copper plate has been referred to as "Kambojavamshatilaka" (i.e belonging to the Kamboja lineane). If he and Rajyapala II of the Pala dynasty is one historical personage, then one shall have accept that the Palas dynasty originated from the
Kambojas. The only other source referring to the Kamboja rulers in Bengalis the "Dinajpore Pillar Inscription" which refers to a ruler "Kambojanvaya Gaudapati" and its date has been fixed to later half of 10th century. Up till recently, the scholars believed that the Kambojas could not have won Gaudawithout defeating the Palas of Bengal hence it was assumed that Kambojanvaya Gaudapati came as some foreign invader from the northern hills and wrested north and western Bengal from the Paslas. If it is proved that the Palas and the Kambojas are one people, the Dinajpore Pillar shall have to be interpreted differently [ The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1939, p 81, Pramode Lal Paul - Bengal (India).] i.e . if the Palas and Kambojas are unified, then Kambojanvaya Gaudapati of the Dinajpore Pillar inscription shall have to be accepted as a representative of the Palas, and there shall be no need to assert that the Kambojas came as foreign invaders from the northern hills and wrested the Gauda from the Palas. The only basis of the so-called usurpation of Bengal by the Kambojas is the vague statement of king Mahpala I, the author of Bangar Grant [Inscription No 5] which asserts that Mahipala had re-conquered nearly the whole of north and east Bengal "after defeating the usurpers who had seized his ancestral kingdom" [Anudhikrit vilupatan Rayamasadhya pitram……..verse 11, Inscription No 5] but "Who were the usurpers the inscription does not tell but other evidences indicate that the rulers belonging to the Kamboja family were in possession of the north and west Bengal". [ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 55, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar; The struggle for Empire, p 24, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar] . Scholars have only speculated that Mahipala's Charter alludes to 'seizing of the northern parts of Bengal from the Gopala II or Vigrahapala II by the Kambojas', which the great king claims to have won back by the force of his arms. [See: Ancient India, 2003, p 651, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History of Bengal, I, 133; Dr R. C. Majumdar, The Dynastic History of Northern India, II, 676, Dr H. C. Ray; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 399, Dr B. C. Sen; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 318-19, Dr J. L. Kamboj] If the two dynasties are united, then this may mean that Rajyapala II had three sons: Gopala II, Narayanpala and Nayapala [The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1938, p 82, Pramode Lal Paul.] . Gopala II inherited Magadhaand northern Bengal while Narayanapala got rest of the empire including western Bengal. Narayanapala was thus rival and competitor of Gopala. Narayanapala was succeeded by his younger brother Nayapala. These two sons of Rajayapala, in all probability, were the usurpers of the ancestral land of Mahipala I, the grand son of Gopala II. This may be the reason as to why these two kings do not find any mention in the "main genealogy of the Palas" which was continued by Mahipala I onwards. It is also interesting to note that the genealogyof rulers mentioned in the Irda Copper plate of king Nayapala does not go beyond Rajyapala. [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 317-18, Dr J. L. Kamboj] . [Dr D. C. Sircar also favors unification of the two dynasties. He also suggests that Narayanapala of the Irda Copper plate was a brother of Gopala II, the inheritor to the throne after Rajyapala. He was therefore a rival and competitor of Gopala. Narayanapala had carved out a principality for himself out of the kingdom of Gopala (referenced by Dr J. L. Kamboj in his above cited book)]
Religion of Kamboja rulers of Bengal
The "Kambojanvaya Gaudapati" of Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions is stated to be a builder of
Siva templeand therefore was devoteeof Siva. He is said to be a great bestower of the charities. "Kambojavamsatilaka Rajayapala", the first king of the Irda Copper plate is referred to as "Parama-saugata" (devotee of Buddha). The third ruler Narayanapala Kamboja is stated to be a devotee of god Vishnu. King Nayapala Kamboja, the author of Irda Copper plate is known to have practiced Siva cult. There is no information on the Kamboja ruler Dharamapala, but it appears likely that he may have also been a Vedic follower i.e. either Saivite or a Vishnu devotee. The Irda Copper plate has references to Hindugods, high rising temple buildings as well as to the sacred smokes rising from the Yagya fires into the skies. This again alludes to the Hinduism of the Pala Kambojas. Irda Copper plate also makes special references to the Purohits, Kritivajyas, Dharmagyas and other holy officials. Thus we find that the Kamboja kings of Bengal were mostly Vedic Hindus, of course, with the exception of king Rajyapala. Mention is made of grants of lands and villages to the Purohits in the Burdwan district of east Bengal. According to Prof R. C. Majumdar: "More significant, however, is the inclusion of Purohits in the land grants of the Kamboja, Varmanand Senakings of Bengal. It indicates the great importance was attached to religious and social aspects of administration during rules of these dynasties which were all followers of orthodox Hinduism." (History of Bengal, Vol I., p 281, Dr R. C. Majumdar] Dr B. N. Sen says that the Buddhismwhich had followers in the early Pala and Candra rulers was probably on the decline in Bengal during 10th c AD. On the other hand, the Vedic religion was on the rise. Since the Kamboja Pala kings of Bengal were mostly Vedic Hindus, hence they must have got full support from their subject which must have helped them raise a powerful empire in Bengal. [Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 378-79, B. C. Sen]
Kambojas in Caste System of Bengal
In the ancient caste classification in Bengal, there are references to people who came as invaders from northwest or accompanied the invaders. These people have been described as Mlechchas in the brahmanical Caste System in Bengal. Ancient
Sanskritand Palitexts and inscriptions profusely attest the Kambojas as a Mlechcha tribeof Uttarapathaor Udichya division belonging to Indo-Iranian or Scytho-Aryan and not to the Mongolian stock. The north-westerners including the Kambojas, Sakas, Hunas, Yavanas, Abhiras, Khasas, Sabaras, Turushakas, Suhmasetc have all been labelled as outsiders, foreigners or Mlechchas within the Bengali society and therefore were left outside the Caste Classification of ancient Bengal. [http://tanmoy.tripod.com/bengal/caste.html] "Compare also": Part-II: VI. Ancient peoples of Bengal: [https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no27183.htm] . [The Author, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya, is probably not right here to include the Kambojas among the Extraneous Tribal Communities from North-east. Rather, they should have been included among the Tribal Communities from North-west which group comprises the Sakas, Yavanas, Hunas, Khasas, Abhiras, Turukshakas with whom the Kambojas are always found associated in numerous ancient Sanskrittexts. Doubtless, the Kambojas belong to the Uttarapathaas Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas and other ancient texts abundantly show. See Kamboja Location]
Evidence on Later Kamboja Rulers in Bengal
There is a literary evidence which attests one Kamboja king known as Jagan Nath ruling in Bengal as late as that 16th century AD. King Jagan Nath is stated to have patronized a
Brahmanascholar Sura Mishra who had composed "Jagannathaprakasa", a Smriti Granth in honor of this Kamboja king:
:Ashesh.Kambojakula.vatansah Shri Jagana Natha iti parsidhah :Akaryad dharmanibandhmaytam dhradhipaiapayairkablai nreshe [ (Notices of Sanskrit MSS., Vol V, No 1790;, R. L. Mitra, Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, p 208, Dr J. L. Kamboj ) ] This shows that the Kamboja rule in some parts of Bengal must have continued, as late as 16th century AD.
Opinions of Some Scholars
Dr V. A. Smith:
*"During the later part of tenth century, the rule of Palas was interrupted by the intrusion of hillmen known as Kambojas, who set up one of their chief as the king. His rule is commemorated by an inscribed pillar at Dinajpore created apparently in AD 966" [Early History of India, 1967, Dr V. A. Smith]
*"A branch of
Kambojasseem to have migrated eastwards along the Himalayan foothills, hence their notices in the Tibetan and Nepali chronicles. Later, they entered the Gangetic plains and by nine century AD came into conflict with the Palas of Bengal. In the 10th c, the Pala rule in Bengal was terminated by Kambojas who had set up one of their chiefs as king. The Kamboja rule in Bengal lasted until they were deposed by resurgent Palas in 980 AD. The descendants of Kambojas are still found in Northern Bengal [Hindu World Vol I, p 520 by Benjamin Walker).]
Dr P. C. Baghci:
*"The Kambojas, a nomadic tribe, lived beyond Himalayas in
Central Asia. One of their branches entered India in very early times and after a while lost its identity as distinct people by merging into the local population, but other batches of them must have entered east Tibetand the valley of Mekongfrom another direction. By this assumption only, we can explain why the name Kambuja was given to the kingdom founded in the middle valley of the Mekong. In eastern Tibet their name can be traced in the name of the province of Khams and it was probably from this region that the Kamboja invasion of Assam took place in later times. A branch of them migrated to North Bengal at an early period though their actual invasion came at a later date" [ Journal, 1943, p 110, Greater India Society - India; India & Central Asia, p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Racial Affinities of Early North Indian Tribes, 1973, p 76, Dr Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya - Ethnology India.]
Dr B. C. Law:
*"In 9th c AD, the Kambojas are said to have been defeated by Devapala, the great king of the Pala dynasty of Bengal. [Dr. R. D. Bannerjee, Vengalar Itihaasa, p 182] But during latter part of 10th c, the tables were turned and the rule of Palas kings was interrupted by the Kambojas, who had set up one of their chiefs as a king. In a certain place called Vanagarh in Dinajpore, mention is made of a certain king of Gauda, born in
Kambojafamily. It is probable that during the reign of Devapaladeva, the Kambojas first attempted to conquer Gauda, but were, at that time defeated. [Dr. R. D. Bannerjee, Vengalar Itihaasa, p 184] . Dr. R. R. Chanda supposes that in the middle of 10th c AD, the Kambojas of Himalayas again attacked North-Bengal and took away north-east Bengal from them. The present inhabitants of North Bengal viz Koch, Mech and Palia were descended from them. [ Refs about Dr. R. P. Chanda appears in: Vangar Itihaasa, p 205, Dr R. D. Banerjee] The Kamboja rule in Bengal was terminated by Mahapala I, the 9th king of Pala line, who is known to have been reigning in AD 1026 and may be assumed to have regained his ancestral throne from Kambojas at about 980 AD" . [Some Kshatrya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 251, Dr B. C. Law)]
B. G. Karlsson:
*Cf: "The Rajbansis (which means of 'royal race') intellectuals have traced their lineage to the purer ancient Kamboj dynasty in the northwestern India. It was the wrath of Parsurama that forced them away from their original homeland and led them to settle in north Bengal (Basu 1994, p 59-61)" [Contested Belonging: an Indigenous People's struggle in Sub-Himalayan Bengal, 2000, p 202, B. G. Karlsson.] .
Hasna Jasimuddin Mouddud:
*Cf: After Devapala's death, the decline of the Pala dynasty in North India was rapid. Northern Bengal was first invaded and annexed by the king of
Pratihara, Mahendrapala, sometime before 898 AD and later northern and western Bengal were annexed by the Kambojas, a powerful hill tribefrom the north or the east India" [South Asia: Eastern Himalya Culture, Ecology and People: Ancient Heritage and Future Prospects, Hasna Jasimuddin Mouddud]
R. R. Diwarkar:
*"In course of his military campaign, Pala king
Devapalais said to have reached Kamboja. The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period, they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet. Thus Devapala might have come into conflict with Tibet, there is nothing surprising in this because Tibetan sources claim that their kings Khri-Srong-Ide-Btson and his son Mu-Tag-Btsan-Po subdued India and forced Dharamapala to submit. Devapala may have also clashed with them and defeated them" [Bihar Through the Ages, G. Ed. R. R. Diwarkar, 1958, p 312).]
Alternative View (in line with view of R. R. Diwarkar)
*A branch of the
Pamirian Kambojas seems to have migrated eastwards towards Tibet hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet(Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji) and Nepal(Kambojadesa). [ "The view that Nepali Traditions apply name Kamboja Desha to Tibet is based on the statement made by Foucher, [Iconographie bouddhique pp 134-135] on the authority of Nepali Pandit of B.H Hdgson. But it is supported by two manuscripts [No 7768 & 7777] described in the Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Mss in the library of India Office Vol II, Part II". [Dr R. C. majumdar, History of Bebgal, I, 191, Dist Gazeteer [Rajashahi] , 1915, p 26; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, Dr B. C. Sen, p 342, fn 1] ] Burmese chronicles refer to it as Kampuchih. The Pamirian Kambojas may have receded to Tibet in wake of the Kushana(1st century) or Huna(5th century) pressure. Later the same Kamboja branch appears to have moved towards Assamfrom where they may have invaded Bengal during the bad days of the Palas and wrested north Bengal. Fifth century AD Brahma Puranamentions Kambojas around Pragjyotisha and Tamraliptika. [Brahama Purana 53/16; See also: The Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol.VI, No.1, 1930.03 pp. 98-99 fn-2, Dr P.C. BAGCH; A Critical Study of the Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 310, 328, Dr J. L. Kamboj; New light on History of Bengal, Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XV-4, 1939, p. 511; The Dynastic History of Northern India, I, p 309 by Dr. H. C. Ray; History and Culture of Indian People, Imperial Kanauj, p 323, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar etc etc.] Buddhisttext "Sasanavamsa" [Sasanavamsa (Pali Text Series), pp 64-65, 83 etc] also attests the Kambojas in/around Assam. These Kambojas had made first bid to conquer Bengal during the reign of king Devapala (810 AD-850 AD) but were repulsed. A latter attempt was crowned with success when they were able to deprive the Palas of the suzerainty over North and West Bengal and set up a Kamboja dynasty in Bengal towards the middle of 10th century AD.
A Short History of Bengal
*"On the other hand, they may be the
Kambojasfrom north west India from where the Pala used to get their horses, the Tibetans, or the Koca tribe("the related tribe Mleca may be the origin of the term Mleccha"). There is also a south Indian reference to a Kambojaking gifting a stone to Rajendra Cola for the Nataraja temple. Other references to Kambojas abound in the ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo-European tribe with both Persian and Indicaffinity from their homeland in the Afghanistan- Turkistan("Some relate their name to Cambysesof the Achaemenianempire of early 6th cent BC") region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Ceylon, and maybe to Cambodia. Extracted from: " [http://tanmoy.tripod.com/bengal/index.html]
Dr Debala Mitra:
*"A section of the Kambojas, originally living on the north-western frontier of India, most probably in Afghanistan, and belonging to the Parasaka vanna, according to the Buddhaghosa, came and permanently settled in different parts of India. They lent their name to some of the localities occupied by them. A few of the families went to the extent of carving out principalities like the one temporarily eclipsing the fortunes of the Palas of eastern India (Bengal) in the tenth century A.D. …..". [Cultural Heritage of India, by Dr Debala Mitra, p 625]
Dr A. D. Pusalkar:
*"It is held by some scholars that the Kambojas were a hill tribe from tribe from
Tibetor other regions who had conquered Bengal. But it is more likely that some high official of the Palas belonging to the Kamboja family or tribe took advantage of the weakeness of the Pala kings and set up an independent kingdom". [History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 54]
Dr R. C. Majumdar:
*"The Palas employed mercenaries forces, and certainly recruited horses from Kamboja
tribe. [Inscription B.8, V.13] N. G. Majumdar has very rightly observed that if horses could be brought into Bengal from north-western frontiers of Indiaduring Pala period, it is not not unreasonable to suppose that for trade and other purposes, some adventurers could also have found their way into that province". [Epigraphia Indica, XXII, 153] Mercenary soldiers (speciality cavalry) might have been recruited from Kambojas and some of them might have been influential chiefs. It has been suggested that the Kambojas might have come to Bengal with the Pratiharas when the latter conquered part of this province Indian. [ Historical Quarterly XV. 511; Dynatic History of Northern India, Vol I p 311] . [History of Bengal, 1971, pp 182-82, Dr R. C. Majumdar] [The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 228, fn 83] [ The Dacca University Studies, Vol I., No 2, April 1936, p 132 Dr R.C. Majumdar]
*"Devpala in the 9th Century repeated his father's feat by leading an army into the
Punjab regionand further north into the lands of Kamboja(near the Indus). But no territory was gained in this campaign—even the neighboring kingdoms of Kamarupa( Assam) and Utkala ( Orissa) were only compelled to render tribute. The two successors of Devapala were more religious-minded and in that period the Pratihars annexed both Magadhaand "Varendri" (Bengal) while Kamarupa and Utkala also resumed independence. To make matters worse feudatories of the Palas also carved out their own states like the Chandras of East Bengal and the Kambojasof Radha—the latter are believed to be descendants of the Kambojaofficers and men that had joined the army of Devapaladuring his campaign in their country near the Indus....". [Military History & Fiction (Bihar, Nepal, and Orissa), Airavat Singh.] [http://horsesandswords.blogspot.com/]
Dr. H. C. Ray:
*Dr. H. C. Ray writes that Kamboja rulers of Bengal came from Punjab with
Gurjara Pratiharas. The Kambojas had joined the forces of Gurjara Pratiharas and there were separate regiments of the Kambojasin the Pratiharaarmy which were entrusted with the defense of north-eastern borders of the Pratihara empire. The Kambojas did not leave the province after the collapse of Pratihara power. They rather took advantage of the weakness of the Pala kings and set up an independent kingdom which was not a difficult task for them [Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 511] Dr H. C. Ray also writes: "I must also admit however, that the Kambojas of Bengal may also have come from north-west as mercenaries and then formed into an independent army under a Kamboja chief by successful rebellion" [Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, Dec, 1939, p 511 Dr H. C. Ray.]
Dr H. Chander Raychaudhury:
*Dr Hem Chander Raychaudhury also states that the Kambojas came to
Bengalwith the armies of the Gurjara Pratiharas [ The Dynastic History of Northern India, p 311, f.n. 1.]
Nagendra Nath Vasu"
*According to Nagendra Nath Vasu, the Kambojas came to Bengal from Kambey in
Gujarat[Vanger Jatya Itihasa (Bangla), Rajyakanda, Nagendra Nath Vasu]
Dr Jogindra Ghosh:
*Dr Jogindra Ghosh also says that the
Kambojarulers of Bengal had come from the Kambey in Gujarat, but curiously he connects the Kamboja rulers of Bengal with the Pratiharas of Gujarat. [ Epigraphia Indica, XXVI., p 45-46.]
Dr J. L. Kamboj:
*According to Dr J. L. Kamboj, during second/first centuries BCE, many clans of the Kambojas entered India in alliance the with
Sakas, Pahlavas, Yavanas and spread into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena. [Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country, 1981, pp 296-309, 310, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 158-162, 168-69, S Kirpal Singh] The KambohDarwaza in the city of Meerutis named after the Kambojas. An offshoot of these Kambojas moved eastwards and entered Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and in 10th century, they founded a large empire in north-west Bengal. [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 311, Dr J. L. Kamboj.]
Dr B. R. Chattetjee:
*Interestingly, Dr B. R. Chattetjee supposes that the Kambojas who founded the Kamboja empire in Bengal may have come from the
Kambujaof Indo China. [Indian Cultural Influence in Cambodia, pp 278-79, Dr B. R. Chatterjee]
Books and Megazines
*The History and Culture of Indian People, The Classical Age, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar
*The History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauja, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar
*The History and Culture of Indian People, The Struggle For Empire, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar
*Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj
*The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S Kirpal Singh
*These Kamboja People, 1979, Kirpal Singh Dardi
*The Rise and Decline of Buddhism in India, 1995, (The Kamboja-Pala Dynasty (c. AD 911-92), Chapter 9), Kanai Lal Hazra.
*The People and Culture of Bengal: A Study in Origins, Volume 1— Part 1 & 2, 2002, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya.
*Kamboj Itihaas, (Punjabi), 1972, H. S. Thind
*Ancient India, 2003, Dr V. D. Mahajan
*A Critical Study of The Geographical Data in the Early Purana, 1972, Dr M. R. Singh
*History of Bengal, Part I, 1971, Dr R. C. Majumdar
*Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, 1962, B. C. Sen
*The Dynastic History of Northern India, II, Dr H. C. Ray
*Some Kshatria Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, Dr B. C. Law
*Candelas of Jejabhukti, R. K. Dikshit
*Hindu World, Vol I, 1968, Benjamin Walker
*Jataka, 1957, Fausboll
*District Gazeteer, Rajashahi,1915
*India and Central Asia, 1956, Dr P. C. Bagchi
*History of the Origin and Development of the Bengali Language, 1926, Dr S. K. Chatterjee
*Early History of India, 1957, Dr V. A. Smith
*Decline of the Kingdom of Magadha, 1953, B. P. Sinha
*Dacca University Studies, Vol I, No 2
*Bharatvarsha, 1344 (Bangala Samvata)
*Library of India Office, Vol II, Part II
*Modern Review, 1937, N. G. Majumdar
*Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, XII, XXII, XXIV
*Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol XV-4, 1939
*Bihar Through the Ages, 1958, Ed, R. R. Diwarkar
*Journal of Proceedings of Royal Society of Bengal (NS), Vol VII
*Kamboja Rule in Bengal: [http://indiaculture.net/talk/messages/128/9735.html?1024102308]
*Bengal in the Pala and Varmana Period--Rise of Independent Kingdoms: [http://tanmoy.tripod.com/bengal/pala.html]
*See: BANGLAPEDIA Links below:
*The Chandra Dynasty: [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/C_0124.htm]
*Mahipala I: [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/M_0066.htm]
*Pala Dynasty: [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/P_0037.htm]
*Kamata-Koch Behar: [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/K_0064.htm]
*History of Bangla, then Bangladesh: [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:-y2qycCqlk0J:banglacricket.com/alochona/viewthread.php%3Ffid%3D4%26tid%3D9976%26action%3Dprintable+Banglapedia+kamboja&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=12]
*Military History & Fiction (Bihar, Nepal, and Orissa), Airavat Singh [http://horsesandswords.blogspot.com/]
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