- Pan-European nationalism
:"This article is about those who claim that Europe is, or should be, a single nation. For the history and ideology of nationalism in Europe, see
Nationalism. For the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, see Eurocentrism. For those who state that the European Union should be a federation or confederation, see ."
The idea that Europe should be united politically has been present in European culture since the
Middle Ages, and inspired several proposals for some form of confederation. With the growth of nationalismin the 19th century, several pan-national ideas of Europe developed, some of them based on Aryanism and other race theories. After Nazipolicies and the Holocaustdiscredited these racial theories, the emphasis shifted to cultural pan-nationalism.
Within the larger current of pan-European thought, there are those who explicitly support the idea that Europe is a single nation, or that it should seek to become one. In French, this concept is known as "Nation-Europe" or "Europe-Nation" and it is almost always associated with
right-wingand neo-fascistgroups, and especially with the French New Right (Nouvelle Droite). The term European Nationalism is sometimes used in English which may be shortened to Euronationalism.
Support for the idea is politically marginal. Paradoxically - since a single nation-Europe implies the disappearance of existing nations - it is found mostly on the fringes of nationalist parties.
Some of the 19th-century nationalists were supporters of a form of European unity. The Italian nationalist
Giuseppe Mazzini, the founder of Young Italyand an inspiration for Young Ireland, also founded an association called Young Europein 1834. (Mazzini sought no European state: he saw Europe as inherently composed of nations). The International Paneuropean Unionor 'Paneuropean Movement' was founded in 1923 by Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi. It survived the Second World War, and had some influence on the formation of the European Economic Community. (Coudenhove-Kalergi first proposed An die Freudeas European anthem).
Towards the end of the
Second World War, Nazi-German propaganda emphasised the 'European' nature of the struggle against the Soviet Union. However, no concrete proposals for a pan-European structure replaced the earlier ideas of German hegemonyin its Lebensraum.
After the war, the Swede
Per Engdahlcreated a European Social Movement(with the same name as a small French collaborationistparty, founded in 1942 by Pierre Costantini) alongside Maurice Bardèche. A more extremist splinter group, the New European Order, would also emerge under Switzerland's Gaston Armand Amaudruz
Francis Parker Yockeycreated the European Liberation Frontwhich only had a brief existence. Much the same fate awaited the European Popular Movementcreated at the end of the 1950's by Otto Strasser
In 1960, parallel to the foundation of
Jeune Europeby Jean Thiriart, the latter, with Otto Strasser and Oswald Mosley, briefly created the National Party of Europe. Mosley promoted European Nationalism with his Europe a Nationcampaign, and through his (British) Union Movement. Jeune Europe disappeared in 1969. It was succeeded by several pan-European movements of less importance, such as Comité de liaison des européens révolutionnaires and the European Liberation Front (the second organisation with this name).
France, pan-European nationalism is now represented by the Réseau Radicalwhich has a Eurasian outlook and is explicitly anti-semiticand anti-american. It is led by Christian Bouchet.
Belgiumthe principal European-nationalist organisation is the group Synergies européennesled by the college lecturer Robert Steuckers. It is considered part of the New Right.
In both countries the idea is also advocated by the "
Parti Communautaire National-Européen", a National Bolshevik group that succeeded Jean Thiriart's earlier " Parti Communautaire Européen".
National Bolshevikswant to unite Europeand Russia(including its Asian part) into one Eurasian union controlled by Russia.
* [http://europeanaction.com/index.html European Action]
* [http://www.oswaldmosley.com/archives/npe.html NPE from Friends of Oswald Mosley]
* [http://www.oswaldmosley.com/um/europe_a_nation.htm Europe a Nation section of oswaldmosley.com]
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