Darmstadtium


Darmstadtium
meitneriumdarmstadtiumroentgenium
Pt

Ds

(Uhn)
Element 1: Hydrogen (H), Other non-metal
Element 2: Helium (He), Noble gas
Element 3: Lithium (Li), Alkali metal
Element 4: Beryllium (Be), Alkaline earth metal
Element 5: Boron (B), Metalloid
Element 6: Carbon (C), Other non-metal
Element 7: Nitrogen (N), Other non-metal
Element 8: Oxygen (O), Other non-metal
Element 9: Fluorine (F), Halogen
Element 10: Neon (Ne), Noble gas
Element 11: Sodium (Na), Alkali metal
Element 12: Magnesium (Mg), Alkaline earth metal
Element 13: Aluminium (Al), Other metal
Element 14: Silicon (Si), Metalloid
Element 15: Phosphorus (P), Other non-metal
Element 16: Sulfur (S), Other non-metal
Element 17: Chlorine (Cl), Halogen
Element 18: Argon (Ar), Noble gas
Element 19: Potassium (K), Alkali metal
Element 20: Calcium (Ca), Alkaline earth metal
Element 21: Scandium (Sc), Transition metal
Element 22: Titanium (Ti), Transition metal
Element 23: Vanadium (V), Transition metal
Element 24: Chromium (Cr), Transition metal
Element 25: Manganese (Mn), Transition metal
Element 26: Iron (Fe), Transition metal
Element 27: Cobalt (Co), Transition metal
Element 28: Nickel (Ni), Transition metal
Element 29: Copper (Cu), Transition metal
Element 30: Zinc (Zn), Transition metal
Element 31: Gallium (Ga), Other metal
Element 32: Germanium (Ge), Metalloid
Element 33: Arsenic (As), Metalloid
Element 34: Selenium (Se), Other non-metal
Element 35: Bromine (Br), Halogen
Element 36: Krypton (Kr), Noble gas
Element 37: Rubidium (Rb), Alkali metal
Element 38: Strontium (Sr), Alkaline earth metal
Element 39: Yttrium (Y), Transition metal
Element 40: Zirconium (Zr), Transition metal
Element 41: Niobium (Nb), Transition metal
Element 42: Molybdenum (Mo), Transition metal
Element 43: Technetium (Tc), Transition metal
Element 44: Ruthenium (Ru), Transition metal
Element 45: Rhodium (Rh), Transition metal
Element 46: Palladium (Pd), Transition metal
Element 47: Silver (Ag), Transition metal
Element 48: Cadmium (Cd), Transition metal
Element 49: Indium (In), Other metal
Element 50: Tin (Sn), Other metal
Element 51: Antimony (Sb), Metalloid
Element 52: Tellurium (Te), Metalloid
Element 53: Iodine (I), Halogen
Element 54: Xenon (Xe), Noble gas
Element 55: Caesium (Cs), Alkali metal
Element 56: Barium (Ba), Alkaline earth metal
Element 57: Lanthanum (La), Lanthanoid
Element 58: Cerium (Ce), Lanthanoid
Element 59: Praseodymium (Pr), Lanthanoid
Element 60: Neodymium (Nd), Lanthanoid
Element 61: Promethium (Pm), Lanthanoid
Element 62: Samarium (Sm), Lanthanoid
Element 63: Europium (Eu), Lanthanoid
Element 64: Gadolinium (Gd), Lanthanoid
Element 65: Terbium (Tb), Lanthanoid
Element 66: Dysprosium (Dy), Lanthanoid
Element 67: Holmium (Ho), Lanthanoid
Element 68: Erbium (Er), Lanthanoid
Element 69: Thulium (Tm), Lanthanoid
Element 70: Ytterbium (Yb), Lanthanoid
Element 71: Lutetium (Lu), Lanthanoid
Element 72: Hafnium (Hf), Transition metal
Element 73: Tantalum (Ta), Transition metal
Element 74: Tungsten (W), Transition metal
Element 75: Rhenium (Re), Transition metal
Element 76: Osmium (Os), Transition metal
Element 77: Iridium (Ir), Transition metal
Element 78: Platinum (Pt), Transition metal
Element 79: Gold (Au), Transition metal
Element 80: Mercury (Hg), Transition metal
Element 81: Thallium (Tl), Other metal
Element 82: Lead (Pb), Other metal
Element 83: Bismuth (Bi), Other metal
Element 84: Polonium (Po), Metalloid
Element 85: Astatine (At), Halogen
Element 86: Radon (Rn), Noble gas
Element 87: Francium (Fr), Alkali metal
Element 88: Radium (Ra), Alkaline earth metal
Element 89: Actinium (Ac), Actinoid
Element 90: Thorium (Th), Actinoid
Element 91: Protactinium (Pa), Actinoid
Element 92: Uranium (U), Actinoid
Element 93: Neptunium (Np), Actinoid
Element 94: Plutonium (Pu), Actinoid
Element 95: Americium (Am), Actinoid
Element 96: Curium (Cm), Actinoid
Element 97: Berkelium (Bk), Actinoid
Element 98: Californium (Cf), Actinoid
Element 99: Einsteinium (Es), Actinoid
Element 100: Fermium (Fm), Actinoid
Element 101: Mendelevium (Md), Actinoid
Element 102: Nobelium (No), Actinoid
Element 103: Lawrencium (Lr), Actinoid
Element 104: Rutherfordium (Rf), Transition metal
Element 105: Dubnium (Db), Transition metal
Element 106: Seaborgium (Sg), Transition metal
Element 107: Bohrium (Bh), Transition metal
Element 108: Hassium (Hs), Transition metal
Element 109: Meitnerium (Mt)
Element 110: Darmstadtium (Ds)
Element 111: Roentgenium (Rg)
Element 112: Copernicium (Cn), Transition metal
Element 113: Ununtrium (Uut)
Element 114: Ununquadium (Uuq)
Element 115: Ununpentium (Uup)
Element 116: Ununhexium (Uuh)
Element 117: Ununseptium (Uus)
Element 118: Ununoctium (Uuo)
110Ds
Appearance
unknown
General properties
Name, symbol, number darmstadtium, Ds, 110
Pronunciation Listeni/dɑrmˈʃtætiəm/
darm-shtat-ee-əm
Element category unknown
Group, period, block 107, d
Standard atomic weight [281]
Electron configuration [Rn]7s15f146d9
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Atomic properties
Miscellanea
CAS registry number 54083-77-1
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of darmstadtium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
281aDs syn 11 s 94% SF
6% α 8.67 277aHs
281bDs ? syn 3.7 m α 8.77 277bHs ?
279Ds syn 0.20 s 10% α 9.70 275Hs
90% SF
277Ds syn 5.7 ms α 10.57 273Hs
273Ds syn 170 ms α 11.14 269Hs
271mDs syn 69 ms α 10.71 267Hs
271gDs syn 1.63 ms α 10.74,10.69 267Hs
270mDs syn 6 ms α 12.15,11.15,10.95 266Hs
270gDs syn 0.10 ms α 11.03 266Hs
269Ds syn 0.17 ms α 11.11 265Hs
267Ds ? syn 4 µs
v · d · e · r

Darmstadtium is a chemical element with the symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is placed as the heaviest member of group 10, but no known isotope is sufficiently stable to allow chemical experiments to confirm its placing in that group. This synthetic element is one of the so-called super-heavy atoms and was first synthesized in 1994, at a facility near the city of Darmstadt, Germany, from which it takes its name. The longest-lived and heaviest isotope known is 281aDs with a half-life of ~10 s although a possible nuclear isomer, 281bDs has an unconfirmed half-life of about 4 minutes.

Contents

History

Official discovery

Darmstadtium was first created on November 9, 1994, at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, under the direction of professor Sigurd Hofmann. Four atoms of it were detected by a nuclear fusion reaction caused by bombarding a lead-208 target with nickel-62 ions: [1]

208
82
Pb + 62
28
Ni → 269
110
Ds + 1
0
n

In the same series of experiments, the same team also carried out the reaction using heavier nickel-64 ions. During two runs, 9 atoms of 271Ds were convincingly detected by correlation with known daughter decay properties: [2]

208
82
Pb + 64
28
Ni → 271
110
Ds + 1
0
n

The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) recognised the GSI team as discoverers in their 2001 report.[3]

Naming

Darmstadtium was first given the temporary name ununnilium (/ˌuːnəˈnɪliəm/ or /ˌʌnəˈnɪliəm/,[4] symbol Uun). Once recognized as discoverers, the team at GSI considered the names darmstadtium (Ds) and wixhausium (Wi) for element 110. They decided on the former and named the element after the city near the place of its discovery, Darmstadt and not the suburb Wixhausen itself. The new name was officially recommended by IUPAC on August 16, 2003. The name was approved on November 4, 2011.[5]

Future experiments

The team at GSI has scheduled experiments for August 27 to October 10, 2010, in order to re-study the K-isomer of 270Ds formed in the reaction 207Pb(64Ni,n).

The team at the HIRFL, Lanzhou, China, are planning to restudy the reaction 238U(40Ar,xn) after recent calculations indicated a measurable yield in the 4n evaporation channel, leading to the new nuclide 274Ds.

At the FLNR, scientists will study the new reaction 226Ra(50Ti,xn) in order to compare the yield with that obtained using 48Ca projectiles in order to ascertain the viability of using 50Ti projectiles in SHE synthesis.

Isotopes and nuclear properties

Nucleosynthesis

Target-Projectile Combinations leading to Z=110 compound nuclei

The below table contains various combinations of targets and projectiles which could be used to form compound nuclei with Z=110.

Target Projectile CN Attempt result
208Pb 64Ni 272Ds Successful reaction
208Pb 62Ni 270Ds Successful reaction
232Th 48Ca 280Ds Failure to date
238U 40Ar 278Ds Failure to date
244Pu 36S 280Ds Reaction yet to be attempted
244Pu 34S 278Ds Successful reaction
248Cm 30Si 278Ds Reaction yet to be attempted
249Cf 26Mg 275Ds Reaction yet to be attempted

Cold fusion

This section deals with the synthesis of nuclei of darmstadtium by so-called "cold" fusion reactions. These are processes which create compound nuclei at low excitation energy (~10-20 MeV, hence "cold"), leading to a higher probability of survival from fission. The excited nucleus then decays to the ground state via the emission of one or two neutrons only.

208Pb(64Ni,xn)272-xDs (x=1)

This reaction was first studied by scientists at GSI in 1986, without success. A cross section limit of 12 picobarns (pb) was calculated. After an upgrade of their facilities, they successfully detected 9 atoms of 271Ds in two runs in 1994 as part of their discovery experiments on element 110.[2] This reaction was successfully repeated in 2000 by GSI (4 atoms), in 2000 [6] [7] and 2004 [8] [9] by LBNL (9 atoms in total) and in 2002 by RIKEN (14 atoms).[10] The summation of the data allowed a measurement of the 1n neutron evaporation excitation function.

207Pb(64Ni,xn)271-xDs (x=1)

In addition to the official discovery reactions, in October–November 2000, the team at GSI also studied the reaction using a Pb-207 target in order to search for the new isotope 270Ds. They succeeded in synthesising 8 atoms of 270Ds, relating to a ground state isomer, 270gDs, and a high-spin K-isomer, 270mDs. [11]

208Pb(62Ni,xn)270-xDs (x=1)

The GSI team studied this reaction in 1994 as part of their discovery experiment. Three atoms of 269Ds were detected.[1] A fourth decay chain was measured but subsequently retracted.

209Bi(59Co,xn)268-xDs

This reaction was first studied by the team at Dubna in 1986. They were unable to detect any product atoms and measured a cross section limit of 1 pb. In 1995, the team at LBNL reported that they had succeeded in detecting a single atom of 267Ds from the 1n neutron evaporation channel. However, several decays were missed and further research is required to confirm this discovery. [12]

Hot fusion

This section deals with the synthesis of nuclei of darmstadtium by so-called "hot" fusion reactions. These are processes which create compound nuclei at high excitation energy (~40-50 MeV, hence "hot"), leading to a reduced probability of survival from fission. The excited nucleus then decays to the ground state via the emission of 3-5 neutrons. Fusion reactions utilizing 48Ca nuclei usually produce compound nuclei with intermediate excitation energies (~30-35 MeV) and are sometimes referred to as "warm" fusion reactions. This leads, in part, to relatively high yields from these reactions.

232Th(48Ca,xn)280-xDs

The synthesis of darmstadtium by hot fusion pathways was first attempted in 1986 by the team at Dubna. Using the method of detection of spontaneous fission, they were unable to measure any SF activities and calculated a cross section limit of 1 pb for the decay mode. In three separate experiments between November 1997 and October 1998, the same team re-studied this reaction as part of their new 48Ca program on the synthesis of superheavy elements. Several SF activities with relatively long half-lives were detected and tentatively assigned to decay of the daughters 269Sg or 265Rf, with a cross section of 5 pb. These observations have not been confirmed and the results are taken as only an indication for the synthesis of darmstadtium in this reaction.

232Th(44Ca,xn)276-xDs

This reaction was attempted in 1986 and 1987 by the Dubna team. In both experiments, a 10 ms SF activities was measured and assigned to 272Ds, with a calculated cross section of 10 pb. This activity is currently not thought to be due to a darmstadtium isotope.

238U(40Ar,xn)278-xDs

This reaction was first attempted by the Dubna team in 1987. Only spontaneous fission from the transfer products 240mfAm and 242mfAm were observed and the team calculated a cross section limit of 1.6 pb. The team at GSI first studied this reaction in 1990. Once again, no atoms of darmstadtium could be detected. In August 2001, the GSI repeated reaction, without success, and calculated a cross section limit of 1.0 pb.

236U(40Ar,xn)276-xDs

This reaction was first attempted by the Dubna team in 1987. No spontaneous fission was observed.

235U(40Ar,xn)275-xDs

This reaction was first attempted by the Dubna team in 1987. No spontaneous fission was observed. It was further studied in 1990 by the GSI team. Once again, no atoms were detected and a cross section limit of 21 pb was calculated.

233U(40Ar,xn)273-xDs

This reaction was first studied in 1990 by the GSI team. No atoms were detected and a cross section limit of 21 pb was calculated.

244Pu(34S,xn)278-xDs (x=5)

In September 1994 the team at Dubna detected a single atom of 273Ds, formed in the 5n neutron evaporation channel. The measured cross section was just 400 femtobarns (fb). [13]

As a decay product

Isotopes of darmstadtium have also been detected in the decay of heavier elements. Observations to date are shown in the table below:

Evaporation Residue Observed Ds isotope
293Uuh, 289Uuq 281Ds
291Uuh, 287Uuq, 283Cn 279Ds
285Uuq 277Ds
277Cn 273Ds

In some experiments, the decay of 293Uuh and 289Uuq produced an isotope of darmstadtium decaying by emission of an 8.77 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 3.7 minutes. Although unconfirmed, it is highly possible that this activity is associated with a meta-stable isomer, namely 281mDs.

Retracted isotopes

280Ds

The first synthesis of element 114 resulted in two atoms assigned to 288Uuq, decaying to the 280Ds which underwent spontaneous fission. The assignment was later changed to 289Uuq and the darmstadtium isotope to 281Ds. Hence, 280Ds is currently unknown.

277Ds

In the claimed synthesis of 293Uuo in 1999, the isotope 277Ds was identified as decaying by 10.18 MeV alpha emission with a half-life of 3.0 ms. This claim was retracted in 2001. This isotope was finally created in 2010 and its decay data supported the fabrication of previous data.[14]

273mDs

In the synthesis of 277Cn in 1996 by GSI (see copernicium), one decay chain proceeded via 273Ds which decayed by emission of a 9.73 MeV alpha particle with a lifetime of 170 ms. This would have been assigned to an isomeric level. This data could not be confirmed and thus this isotope is currently unknown or unconfirmed.

272Ds

In the first attempt to synthesize darmstadtium, a 10 ms SF activity was assigned to 272Ds in the reaction 232Th(44Ca,4n). Given current understanding regarding stability, this isotope has been retracted from the Table of Isotopes.

Chronology of isotope discovery

Isotope Year discovered Discovery reaction
267Ds ?? 1994 209Bi(59Co,n)
268Ds unknown
269Ds 1994 208Pb(62Ni,n)
270Dsg,m 2000 207Pb(64Ni,n)
271Dsg,m 1994 208Pb(64Ni,n)
272Ds unknown
273Ds 1996 244Pu(34S,5n)
274Ds unknown
275Ds unknown
276Ds unknown
277Ds 2010 242Pu(48Ca,5n)
278Ds unknown
279Ds 2002 244Pu(48Ca,5n)[15]
280Ds unknown
281aDs 1999 244Pu(48Ca,3n)[15]
281bDs ? 1999 244Pu(48Ca,3n)[15]

Nuclear isomerism

281Ds

The production of 281Ds by the decay of 289Uuq or 293Uuh has produced two very conflicting decay modes. The most common and readily confirmed mode is SF with a half-life of 11 s. A much rarer and hitherto unconfirmed mode is alpha decay by emission of an 8.77 MeV alpha particle with an observed half-life of ~3.7 m. This decay is associated with a unique decay pathway from the parent nuclides and must be assigned to an isomeric level. The half-life suggests that it must be assigned to an isomeric state but further research is required to confirm these reports.

271Ds

Decay data from the direct synthesis of 271Ds clearly indicates the presence of two alpha groups. The first has alpha lines at 10.74 and 10.69 MeV with a half-life of 1.63 ms. The other has a single alpha line at 10.71 MeV with a half-life of 69 ms. The first has been assigned to the ground state and the latter to an isomeric level. It has been suggested that the closeness of the alpha decay energies indicates that the isomeric level may decay primarily by delayed gamma emission to the ground state, resulting in an identical measured alpha energy and a combined half-life for the two processes.

270Ds

The direct production of 270Ds has clearly identified two alpha groups belonging to two isomeric levels. The ground state decays into the ground state of 266Hs by emitting an 11.03 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 0.10 ms. The isomeric level decays by alpha emission with alpha lines at 12.15,11.15 and 10.95 MeV with a half-life of 6 ms. The 12.15 MeV has been assigned as decay into the ground state of 266Hs indicating that this high spin K-isomer lies at 1.12 MeV above the ground state.

Spectroscopy

270Ds

This is the current partial decay level scheme for 270Ds proposed following the work of Hofmann et al. in 2000 at GSI

Chemical yields of isotopes

Cold fusion

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for cold fusion reactions producing darmstadtium isotopes directly. Data in bold represent maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 1n 2n 3n
62Ni 208Pb 270Ds 3.5 pb
64Ni 208Pb 272Ds 15 pb, 9.9 MeV

Fission of compound nuclei with Z=110

Experiments have been performed in 2004 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna studying the fission characteristics of the compound nucleus 280Ds. The nuclear reaction used is 232Th+48Ca. The result revealed how nuclei such as this fission predominantly by expelling closed shell nuclei such as 132Sn (Z=50, N=82).[16]

Theoretical calculations

Decay characteristics

Theoretical calculation in a quantum tunneling model reproduces the experimental alpha decay half live data.[17][18] It also predicts that the isotope 294110 would have alpha decay half-life of the order of 311 years.[19][20]

Evaporation residue cross sections

The below table contains various targets-projectile combinations for which calculations have provided estimates for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield is given.

DNS = Di-nuclear system; σ = cross section

Target Projectile CN Channel (product) σmax Model Ref
208Pb 64Ni 272Ds 1n (271Ds) 10 pb DNS [21]
232Th 48Ca 280Ds 4n (276Ds) 0.2 pb DNS [22]
230Th 48Ca 278Ds 4n (274Ds) 1 pb DNS [22]
238U 40Ar 278Ds 4n (274Ds) 2 pb DNS [22]

Chemical properties

Extrapolated chemical properties

Oxidation states

Darmstadtium is projected to be the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals and the heaviest member of group 10 in the Periodic Table, below nickel, palladium and platinum. The highest confirmed oxidation state of +6 is shown by platinum whilst the +4 state is stable for both elements. Both elements also possess a stable +2 state. Darmstadtium is therefore predicted to show oxidation states +6, +4, and +2.

Chemistry

High oxidation states are expected to become more stable as the group is descended, so darmstadtium is expected to form a stable hexafluoride, DsF6, in addition to DsF5 and DsF4. Halogenation should result in the formation of the tetrahalides, DsCl4, DsBr4, and DsI4.

Like other Group 10 elements, darmstadtium can be expected to have notable hardness and catalytic properties.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Heßberger, F. P.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Münzenberg, G.; Schött, H. J.; Popeko, A. G. et al. (1995). "Production and decay of 269110". Zeitschrift für Physik A 350 (4): 277. Bibcode 1995ZPhyA.350..277H. doi:10.1007/BF01291181. 
  2. ^ a b Hofmann, S (1998). "New elements - approaching". Reports on Progress in Physics 61 (6): 639. Bibcode 1998RPPh...61..639H. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/61/6/002. 
  3. ^ Karol, P. J.; Nakahara, H.; Petley, B. W.; Vogt, E. (2001). "On the discovery of the elements 110-112 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (6): 959. doi:10.1351/pac200173060959. 
  4. ^ "ununnilium - Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ununnilium. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  5. ^ "Three new elements approved", Institute of Physics website, retrieved 4 Nov 2011
  6. ^ Ginter, T. N.; Gregorich, K.; Loveland, W.; Lee, D.; Kirbach, U.; Sudowe, R.; Folden, C.; Patin, J. et al. (2003). "Confirmation of production of element 110 by the 208Pb(64Ni,n) reaction". Physical Review C 67 (6): 064609. Bibcode 2003PhRvC..67f4609G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.67.064609. 
  7. ^ "Confirmation of production of element 110 by the 208Pb(64Ni,n) reaction", Ginter et al., LBNL repositories. Retrieved on 2008-03-02
  8. ^ Folden, C. M.; Gregorich, KE; Düllmann, ChE; Mahmud, H; Pang, GK; Schwantes, JM; Sudowe, R; Zielinski, PM et al. (2004). "Development of an Odd-Z-Projectile Reaction for Heavy Element Synthesis: 208Pb(64Ni,n)271Ds and 208Pb(65Cu,n)272111". Physical Review Letters 93 (21): 212702. Bibcode 2004PhRvL..93u2702F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.212702. PMID 15601003. 
  9. ^ "Development of an Odd-Z-Projectile Reaction for Heavy Element Synthesis: 208Pb(64Ni,n)271Ds and 208Pb(65Cu,n)272111", Folden et al., LBNL repositories. Retrieved on 2008-03-02
  10. ^ Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Kanungo, R.; Katori, K.; Koura, H. et al. (2004). "Production and decay of the isotope 271Ds (Z = 110)". The European Physical Journal A 21 (2): 257. Bibcode 2004EPJA...21..257M. doi:10.1140/epja/i2003-10205-1. 
  11. ^ Hofmann et al; Heßberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Cagarda, P.; Ćwiok, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharova, J. et al. (2001). "The new isotope 270110 and its decay products 266Hs and 262Sg". Eur. Phys. J. A 10: 5–10. Bibcode 2001EPJA...10....5H. doi:10.1007/s100500170137. http://www.dnp.fmph.uniba.sk/etext/68/text/Hofmann_et_al_EPJ_A10_(2001)_5.pdf. 
  12. ^ Ghiorso, A.; Lee, D.; Somerville, L.; Loveland, W.; Nitschke, J.; Ghiorso, W.; Seaborg, G.; Wilmarth, P. et al. (1995). "Evidence for the possible synthesis of element 110 produced by the 59Co+209Bi reaction". Physical Review C 51 (5): R2293. Bibcode 1995PhRvC..51.2293G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R2293. 
  13. ^ Lazarev, Yu. A.; Lobanov, Yu.; Oganessian, Yu.; Utyonkov, V.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Rigol, J.; Shirokovsky, I. et al. (1996). "α decay of 273110: Shell closure at N=162". Physical Review C 54 (2): 620. Bibcode 1996PhRvC..54..620L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.54.620. 
  14. ^ see ununoctium
  15. ^ a b c see ununquadium
  16. ^ see Flerov lab annual report 2004
  17. ^ P. Roy Chowdhury, C. Samanta, and D. N. Basu (2006). "α decay half-lives of new superheavy elements". Phys. Rev. C 73: 014612. arXiv:nucl-th/0507054. Bibcode 2006PhRvC..73a4612C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.73.014612. 
  18. ^ C. Samanta, P. Roy Chowdhury and D.N. Basu (2007). "Predictions of alpha decay half lives of heavy and superheavy elements". Nucl. Phys. A 789: 142–154. arXiv:nucl-th/0703086. Bibcode 2007NuPhA.789..142S. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.04.001. 
  19. ^ P. Roy Chowdhury, C. Samanta, and D. N. Basu (2008). "Search for long lived heaviest nuclei beyond the valley of stability". Phys. Rev. C 77 (4): 044603. Bibcode 2008PhRvC..77d4603C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.77.044603. 
  20. ^ P. Roy Chowdhury, C. Samanta, and D. N. Basu (2008). "Nuclear half-lives for α -radioactivity of elements with 100 ≤ Z ≤ 130". At. Data & Nucl. Data Tables 94 (6): 781. Bibcode 2008ADNDT..94..781C. doi:10.1016/j.adt.2008.01.003. 
  21. ^ Feng, Zhao-Qing; Jin, Gen-Ming; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner (2007). "Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions". Physical Review C 76 (4): 044606. arXiv:0707.2588. Bibcode 2007PhRvC..76d4606F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.76.044606. 
  22. ^ a b c Feng, Z; Jin, G; Li, J; Scheid, W (2009). "Production of heavy and superheavy nuclei in massive fusion reactions". Nuclear Physics A 816: 33. arXiv:0803.1117. Bibcode 2009NuPhA.816...33F. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.003. 

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