Johannes Itten


Johannes Itten

Infobox Artist
name = Johannes Itten
Born = Südern-Linden, Switzerland


imagesize =
caption =
birthname =
birthdate = birth date|1888|11|11|mf=y
location = Südern-Linden, Switzerland
deathdate = death date and age|1967|5|27|1888|11|11|mf=y
deathplace =
nationality = Swiss
field = Painting, Drawing, Color theory, Architecture
training = Academy of Arts, Stuttgart
movement = Expressionism
works = "Farbkreis" (1961)
patrons =
awards =

Johannes Itten (November 11, 1888 – May 27, 1967) was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school (Staatliches Bauhaus). Together with German-American painter Lyonel Feininger and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, under the direction of German architect Walter Gropius, Itten was part of the core of the Weimar Bauhaus.

Life and work

Born in Südern-Linden, Switzerland, he studied as an elementary school teacher from 1904 to 1908. Beginning in 1908 he taught using methods developed by Friedrich Froebel and was exposed to the ideas of psychoanalysis. He later enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva but then returned to Berne, after being unimpressed with the educators there. Itten's studies at the Berne-Hofwil Teachers' Academy with Ernst Schneider proved seminal for his later work as a master at the Bauhaus. Itten adopted principles espoused by Schneider, including the practice of not correcting his students' creative work on an individual basis, for fear that this would crush the creative impulse. Rather, he selected certain common mistakes to correct for the class as a whole.

He was heavily influenced by Adolf Hölzel and Franz Cižek, [cite book | last =Curtis | first =William | authorlink = | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title =Modern Architecture Since 1900 | origdate = | origyear =1987 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = 2nd Ed. | date = | year = | month = | publisher = Prentice-Hall | location = | language = | id =ISBN 0135866944 | doi = | pages =p.121 | chapter =Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus | chapterurl = | quote = ] in Vienna using the work and textbook of Eugène Gilliard, an abstract painter, as a base. From Hölzel, Itten adopted a series of basic shapes (the line, the plane, the circle, the spiral) as a means from which to begin creation, and the use of gymnastic exercises to relax his students and prepare them for the experiences that were to occur in the class.Droste, Magdalena (2002). "Bauhaus: 1919-1933", pp. 24-32. Taschen. ISBN 3822821055.]

From 1919-1922, Itten taught at the Bauhaus, developing the innovative "preliminary course" [Ruhrberg, Karl, and Walther, Ingo F. (2000). "Art of the 20th Century", p. 177. Taschen. ISBN 3822859079.] which was to teach students the basics of material characteristics, composition, and color. In 1920 Itten invited Paul Klee and Georg Muche to join him at the Bauhaus. [*cite book | last =Frampton | first =Kenneth | authorlink = | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title =Modern Architecture: a critical history | origdate = | origyear =1992 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = 3rd ed. rev. | date = | year = | month = | publisher = Thames and Hudson, Inc. | location = New York, NY | language = | id =ISBN 0500202575 | doi = | pages =p.124 | chapter =The Bauhaus: the evolution of an idea 1919-32 | chapterurl = | quote = ] He also published a book, "The Art of Color", which describes these ideas as a furthering of Adolf Hölzel's color wheel. Itten's so called "color sphere" went on to include 12 colors.In 1924, Itten established the “Ontos Weaving Workshops” near Zurich, with the help of Bauhaus weaver Gunta Stölzl.

Itten was a follower of Mazdaznan, a fire cult originating in the United States that was largely derived from Zoroastrianism. He observed a strict vegetarian diet and practiced meditation as a means to develop inner understanding and intuition, which was for him the principal source of artistic inspiration and practice. Itten's mysticism and the reverence in which he was held by the students increasingly alienated him from the other leading figures of the Bauhaus, particularly Walter Gropius and Theo van Doesburg, who were moving the school in a direction that embraced mass production rather than individual artistic expression and craftsmanship. The rift led to Itten's forced resignation from the Bauhaus and his prompt replacement by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy in 1923. [Raizman, David (2003). "A History of Modern Design", p. 184. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1856693481.] From 1926-34 he had a small art and architecture school in Berlin, in which Ernst Neufert, the former chief-architect of Walter Gropius at the Bauhaus, taught as well from 1932-34.

Itten's works exploring the use and composition of color resemble the square op-art canvases of artists such as Josef Albers, Max Bill and Bridget Riley, and the expressionist works of Wassily Kandinsky.

*1926–1934 Private art school in Berlin
*1932–1938 Director of the Textilfachschule in Krefeld
*1938–1954 Director at the Kunstgewerbeschule und
*1943–1960 Director of the Textilfachschule in Zürich
*1949–1956 Director of the Museum Rietberg Zürich, a museum for non-European art
*1955 works as free lance painter
*1955 colour courses at the HfG Ulm (Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm)

Influence

Itten's work on color is also said to be an inspiration for seasonal color analysis, Itten having been the first to associate color palettes with four types of people and designating those types with the names of seasons. Shortly after his death, his designations gained popularity in the cosmetics industry with the publication of "Color Me A Season". Cosmetologists today continue to use seasonal color analysis, a tribute to the early work by Itten.

Bibliography

*cite book | last =Itten | first =Johannes | authorlink = | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title =Design and form: the basic course at the Bauhaus | origdate = | origyear =1975 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = | month = | publisher =Van Nostrand Reinhold | location =New York | language = | id =ISBN 0500285349 | doi = | pages = | chapter = | chapterurl = | quote =
*cite book | last =Itten | first =Johannes | authorlink = | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title =The Art of Color: the subjective experience and objective rationale of color | origdate = | origyear =1973 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = | month = | publisher =Van Nostrand Reinhold | location =New York | language = | id =ISBN 0442240376 | doi = | pages = | chapter = | chapterurl = | quote =
* Itten, Johannes, and Birren, Faber (1970). "The Elements of Color: A Treatise on the Color System of Johannes Itten Based on His Book The Art of Color". New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-24038-4

Notes

Further reading

*cite book | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | editor =Hal Foster | others =Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh | title =Art Since 1900: Volume 1 - 1900 to 1944 | origdate = | origyear =2004 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = | month = | publisher =Thames & Hudson | location =New York | language = | id =ISBN 0442240392 | doi = | pages =p.185-189 | chapter =1923: The Bauhaus … holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany | chapterurl = | quote =
* "The Color Star"

External links

* [http://members.tripod.com/~FroebelWeb/web2018.html Influence of Friedrich Froebel on Johannes Itten 1888 - 1967]
* [http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/itten_johannes.html Johannes Itten at Artcyclopedia] - a list of galleries and online museum sites.
* [http://www.dezignare.com/newsletter/Johannes_Itten.html Johannes Itten - The art of color]
* [http://www.bauhaus.de/english/bauhaus1919/unterricht/unterricht_itten.htm Johannes Itten's preliminary course 1919-1922]
* [http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/art/print/recent/itten.html Johannes Itten - House of the White Man: Greeting and salutation to hearts which live illuminated by the light of love and are not led astray either by hopes of a heaven or by fear of a hell, 1921]

Persondata
NAME = Itten, Johannes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = architect, designer
DATE OF BIRTH = 11 November 1888
PLACE OF BIRTH = Südern-Linden, Switzerland
DATE OF DEATH = 27 May 1967
PLACE OF DEATH =


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  • Johannes Itten — (* 11. November 1888 in Süderen Linden, Schweiz; † 25. Mai 1967 in Zürich) war ein Schweizer Maler, Kunsttheoretiker und Kunstpädagoge. Itten zählt zu der Zürcher Schule der Konkreten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johannes Itten — Johannes Itten, né le 11 novembre 1888 et mort le 25 mai 1967 à Zurich, est un peintre suisse. Johannes Itten, Farbkreis (1961) Il fut l un des professeurs du Bauhaus de 1919 à 1923. Il prit dès son arrivée une influence majeure sur l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Johannes Itten — (11 de noviembre de 1888 – 27 de mayo de 1967) fue un pintor, diseñador, profesor y escritor suizo. Formó parte de la escuela Bauhaus y fue profesor de la escuela HfG en Ulm (Alemania). Vida y trabajos Nació en Südern Linden (Suiza). Desde 1904… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Itten — Johannes Itten Johannes Itten, né le 11 novembre 1888 et mort le 25 mai 1967 à Zurich, est un peintre suisse. Johannes Itten, Farbkreis (1961) Il fut l un des professeurs du Bauhaus de 1919 à 1923. Il prit dès son arrivée une …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ITTEN (J.) — ITTEN JOHANNES (1888 1967) Si Johannes Itten n’a pas en tant que peintre l’importance d’un Klee ou d’un Kandinsky avec lesquels il professait au Bauhaus, il faut insister sur le caractère révolutionnaire de son enseignement (il s’est d’ailleurs… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Itten — Farbkreis nach Johannes Itten (1961) Johannes Itten (* 11. November 1888 in Süderen Linden, Schweiz; † 25. Mai 1967 in Zürich) war ein Schweizer Maler, Kunsttheoretiker und Kunstpädagoge. Itten zählt zu der Zürcher Schule der Konkreten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Itten, Johannes — (1888 1967)    artist; developed the Bauhaus s* intro ductory course in design. Born in the Berner Oberland in Switzerland, he at tended the teachers institute in Bern Hofwil before studying at Geneva s Ecole des Beaux Arts. Although he prepared… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Itten — Ịtten,   Johannes, schweizerischer Maler und Kunstpädagoge, * Thun 11. 11. 1888, ✝ Zürich 25. 3. 1967; war 1913 16 Schüler von A. Hoelzel in Stuttgart. Anschließend lehrte er bis 1919 an einer eigenen Kunstschule in Wien, dann bis 1923 am… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Marion Lichardus-Itten — (* Juni 1941 in Zürich als Marion Itten) ist eine Schweizer Prähistorikerin. Sie ist die Tochter des Schweizer Malers, Kunsttheoretikers und Kunstpädagogen Johannes Itten und dessen zweiter Ehefrau Anneliese. Sie studierte an der Universität… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Farblehre — Als Farbenlehre bezeichnet man die Wissenschaft, die sich mit folgenden Themenbereichen der Farben befasst: Entstehung des Farbreizes Gesetze der Farbmischung Ordnung der Farben in geometrischen Systemen Ordnung der Farben in mathematischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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