- Actinides in the environment
Actinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of
actinides in the environment. Environmental radioactivityis not limited solely to actinides; also, actinides such as uranium and radium specifically are of note.
Inhalation versus ingestion
In general for the insoluble actinide oxides such as high fired
uranium dioxideand MOX fuelif it is swallowed then it will pass through the digestive system with very little actinide dissolving. As the actinide oxide can not dissolve, it can not be absorbed into the body of the person or animal. With such an oxide the dose a person is committed to after a given intake of activity is higher for inhalationthan for ingestion as the insoluble compound will remain in the lungs, where it will then irradiate the lung tissue.
Low fired oxides and soluble salts such as the
nitrates can be absorbed with greater ease through the digestive system, so they are able to enter the bloodstream after being swallowed. If they are inhaled then it is possible for the solid to dissolve and leave the lungs. Hence the dose to the lungs will be lower for the soluble form.
Radon and radium in the environment
Radonand radiumare not actinides—they are both radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium. Aspects of their biology and environmental behaviour is discussed at radium in the environment.
Thorium in the environment
Indiaa large amount of Thoriumore can be found in the form of monazitein placer deposits of the Western and Eastern coastal dune sands, particularly in the Tamil Naducoastal areas. The residents of this area are exposed to a naturally occurring radiation dose ten times higher than the worldwide average. [http://www.dae.gov.in/iandm/minesback.htm] .
Thorium is found in small amounts in most rocks and
soils, where it is about three times more abundant than uranium, and is about as common as lead. Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium-phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide. There are substantial deposits in several countries. 232Th decays very slowly (its half-lifeis about three times the age of the earth) but other thorium isotopes occur in the thorium and uranium decay chains. Most of these are short-lived and hence much more radioactive than 232Th, though on a mass basis they are negligible.
Effects in humans
Thorium has been linked to
liver cancer. In the past thoria( thorium dioxide) was used as a contrast agent for medical X-ray radiography but its use has been discontinued. It was sold under the name Thorotrast.
Uranium in the environment
Uraniumis a natural metal which is widely found. It is present in almost all soils and it is more plentiful than antimony, beryllium, cadmium, gold, mercury, silver, or tungstenand is about as abundant as arsenicor molybdenum. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphaterock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores (it is recovered commercially from these sources).
Seawater contains about 3.3 parts per billion of uranium by weight [http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/U/geol.html] as uranium(VI) forms soluble
carbonatecomplexes. The extraction of uranium from seawater has been considered as a means of obtaining the element.
Due to the very low specific activity of uranium the chemical effects of it upon living things can often outweigh the effects of its radioactivity.
Additional uranium has been added to the environment in some locations as a result of the
nuclear fuel cycleand the use of depleted uraniumin munitions.
Neptunium in the environment
neptuniumhas a high affinity for soil.http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/neptunium.pdf] However, it is relatively mobile over the long term, and diffusion of neptunium-237 in groundwater is a major issue in designinga deep geological repositoryfor permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel.237Np has a halflife of 2.144 million years, so it is a long-term problem; but its halflife is still much shorter than those of uranium-238, uranium-235, or uranium-236, and 237Np therefore has higher specific activitythan those nuclides.
Plutonium in the environment
Plutoniumin the environment has several sources. These include:
*Bomb safety trials
*Nuclear accidents (such as Chernobyl)
*Nuclear fuel cycle
Plutonium, like other actinides, readily forms a
dioxide plutonylcore (PuO2). In the environment, this plutonyl core readily complexes with carbonateas well as other oxygen moieties(OH-, NO2-, NO3-, and SO4-2) to form charged complexes which can be readily mobile with low affinities to soil.
PuO2 formed from neutralizing highly acidic nitric acid solutions tends to form polymeric PuO2 which is resistant to complexation. Plutonium also readily shifts valences between the +3, +4, +5 and +6 states. It is common for some fraction of plutonium in solution to exist in all of these states in equilibrium.
Plutonium is known to bind to soil particles very strongly, see above for a X-ray spectrscopic study of plutonium in soil and
concrete. While caesiumhas very different chemistry to the actinides, it is well known that both caesium and many of the actinides bind strongly to the minerals in soil. Hence it has been possible to use 134Cs labeled soil to study the migration of Pu and Cs is soils. It has been shown that colloidal transport processes control the migration of Cs (and will control the migration of Pu) in the soil at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plantaccording to R.D. Whicker and S.A. Ibrahim, "Journal of Environmental Radioactivity", 2006, 88, 171–188.
Americium in the environment
Americiumoften enters landfills from discarded smoke detectors. The rules associated with the disposal of smoke detectors are very relaxed in most municipalities. For instance in the UKit is permissible to dispose of an americium containing smoke detector by placing it in the dustbin with normal household rubbish, but each dustbin worth of rubbish is limited to only containing one smoke detector.
Francea trucktransporting 900 smoke detectors had been reported to have caught fire, it is claimed that this led to a release of americium into the environment. [http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/index.html?http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/521/5116.html]
In the US, the "Radioactive Boy Scout"
David Hahnwas able to buy thousands of smoke detectors at remainder prices and concentrate the americium from them.
There have been cases of humans being contaminated with americium, the worst case being that of
Harold McCluskey. It is interesting to note that Harold McCluskey did not die of cancer but of heart disease(which he had before the accident). It is likely that the medical care which he was given saved his life; it should be noted that due to the difference in the chemistry of americium (the +3 oxidation stateis very stable) to plutonium (where the +4 state can form in the human body) the americium has very different biochemistry to plutonium.
The most common isotope americium-241 decays (halflife 431 years) to neptunium-237 which has a much longer halflife, so in the long term, the issues discussed above for neptunium apply.
Uranium in the environment
Radium in the environment
* Hala, Jiri, and James D. Navratil. "Radioactivity, Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Energy". Konvoj: Brno, Czech Republic, 2003. ISBN 80-7302-053-X.
* [http://www.rsc.org/images/Livens_tcm18-47506.pdf Royal Society for Chemistry] - "Why do mechanisms matter in radioactive waste management?"
* [http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/pubs/00818041.pdf Federation of American Scientists] - "Spectroscopies for Environmental Studies of Actinide Species"
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