1044


1044

Events

* King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan, Myanmar.
* Benedict IX abdicates as pope. Sylvester III succeeds him.
* The Chinese military treatise of the "Wujing Zongyao" is written and compiled by scholars Zeng Gongliang (曾公亮), Ding Du (丁度), and Yang Weide (楊惟德) during the Song Dynasty. It is the first book in history to include formulas for gunpowder and its use for various bombs (thrown by sling or trebuchet catapult). It also describes the double-piston pump flamethrower and a thermoremanence compass, a few decades before Shen Kuo wrote of the first known magnetic mariners compass. Although emphasizing the importance of many weapons, it reserves high respect for the crossbow and ability of crossbowmen to fell charging units of nomadic cavalrymen.

Births

* Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (d. 1099)

Deaths

* Gothelo I, Duke of Lotharingia

Heads of State

* BurmaAnawrahta (reigned 1044-1077)
* Byzantine EmpireConstantine IX Monomachos (reigned 1042-1055)
* ChinaEmperor Renzong of Song (reigned 1022-1063)
* EnglandEdward the Confessor (reigned 10421066)
* FranceHenri I (reigned 10311060)
* GermanyHenry III, Holy Roman Emperor (reigned 1028-1053)
* Great Seljuq EmpireToğrül (reigned 1037-1063)
* IndiaRajendra Chola I (reigned 1012-1044)
* IndiaSomesvara I (reigned 1042-1068)
* JapanEmperor Go-Suzaku (reigned 1036-1045)
* KoreaJeongjong, 10th Emperor of Goryeo (reigned 1035-1046)
* RomePope Benedict IX (reigned 1032-1044, 1045, 1047-1048)
* ScotlandMacbeth (reigned 10401057)


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