Homophobia (from Greek "homós": one and the same; "phóbos": fear,
phobia) is an irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality.cite web|url=http://www.webster.com/dictionary/homophobia|title=webster.com|accessdate=2008-01-29|date=2008] cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/homophobia homophobial|title=Dictonary.com|accessdate=2008-01-29|date=2008|publisher=Dictonary.com] cite web|url=http://reference.aol.com/dictionary?dword=homophobia&lookupbtn=Look+Up|title=aol.com|accessdate=2008-01-29|date=2008|publisher=aol.com] Some definitions lack the "irrational" component. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/90/H0259000.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.] ] [ [http://oed.com/ The Oxford English Dictionary Online] ] Homophobic is the adjectiveform of this term used to describe the qualities of these characteristics, while homophobe is the nounform given as a title to individuals labeled with homophobic characteristics. Many people like to confuse the meaning of the word "Homophobia" and say that someone who hates homosexuals is homophobic, when the actual definition means to be afraid of homosexuality, not homosexuals.Att
"Homophobia" was first used with its modern meaning in
1972. It has been criticized as a pejorativeagainst those with differing debatable value positions, with several researchers proposing alternative words to describe prejudice and discrimination against gays and lesbians. The term "internalized homophobia" is used to describe a prejudice against one's own homosexuality.
LGBT-based discrimination have been widely studied, and a focus of the LGBT community has been on countering such discrimination.
Etymology and usage
Psychologist and gay activist George Weinberg coined the term "homophobia" in his 1972 book "Society and the Healthy Homosexual", [cite book |last=Weinberg|first=George|authorlink=George Weinberg (psychologist)|George Weinberg |title=Society and the Healthy Homosexual|year=1972|publisher=St. Martin's|location=New York|isbn=0901072168] published one year before the
American Psychiatric Associationvoted to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. [citation |title=Recalling APA's Historic Step |url=http://www.psych.org/pnews/00-09-01/recalling.html |first=Alfred M |last=Freedman |periodical= APA News|date= 2000-09-01|accessdate= 2007-05-04] Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates, and their allies.cite journal |last=Herek|first=Gregory M.|year=2004|month=April|title=Beyond "Homophobia": Thinking About Sexual Prejudiceand Stigma in the Twenty-First Century|journal=Sexuality Research & Social Policy|volume=1|issue=2|pages=2–24|doi=10.1525/srsp.2004.1.2.6|accessdate=2007-09-29] He describes the concept as a medical phobia[cite book |last=Weinberg|first=George|authorlink=George Weinberg (psychologist)|George Weinberg |title=Society and the Healthy Homosexual|year=1972|publisher=St. Martin's|location=New York|isbn=0901072168] :
a phobia about homosexuals….It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family. It was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does.
The construction of the word is comparable to
xenophobia, a much older term referring to individual or cultural hostility to foreigners or outsiders. It fails to make sense etymologically, however, as the Greek 'homo' means 'the same', so, literally, 'homophobia' means a fear of things that are the same. The word "homophobia" was also used early in the 20th century, albeit rarely. It then had the meaning of "fear or hatred of the male sex or humankind." In this use, the word derived from the Latinroot "homo" (Latin, "man" or "human") with the Greek ending -phobia("fear"). [Oxford Shorter English Dictionary, 2002]
Despite its general shortcomings etymologically, the word can be used to describe the fear of a
heterosexualthat they will be approached romantically by someone of the same sex. It also can describe the apparently fear-based reactions of recoiling from unintentional close contact with another male or of being in close proximity to other males in certain situations such as while in the restroom. These are typically fear-based reactions, but the fear is usually that of the social stigmaof being labelled homosexual.
The word first appeared in print in an article written for the
May 23, 1969edition of the American tabloid"Screw", using the word to refer to straight men's fear that others might think they are gay. A possible etymological precursor was "homoerotophobia", coined by Wainwright Churchillin "Homosexual Behavior Among Males" in 1967.
It was first formally used in its modern sense in the press in
1981, when the " The New York Times" reported a General Synodvote where they refused to condemn homosexuality. [cite newspaper|publisher=The Times|title=Homosexuality best seen as a handicap, Dr Runcie says|date=1981-2-28|author=Clifford Longley|quote=Let us recognize where the problem lies - in the dislike and distaste felt by many heterosexuals for homosexuals, a problem we have come to call "homophobia".]
Criticism of the term
The term homophobia is often used collectively with other terms denoting bigotry and discrimination. In a
1998address, Coretta Scott Kingasserted that, "Homophobia is like racismand anti-Semitismand other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood."Verify source|date=September 2008 Likewise, George Yancey, writing in "Christian Ethics Today" associates " sexism, racism, class distinctions, or homophobia" with one another and views them all as "varieties of discrimination," although he argues that they are not identical. [ [http://www.christianethicstoday.com/Issue/040/Is%20Homophobia%20The%20Same%20As%20Racism-Sexism%20By%20George%20Yancey_040__.htm Is Homophobia The Same As Racism/Sexism? By George Yancey, Assistant Professor] ]
1993, behavioral scientists William O'Donohue and Christine Caselles concluded that the usage of the term "as it is usually used, makes an illegitimately pejorative evaluation of certain open and debatable value positions, much like the former disease construct of homosexuality" itself, arguing that the term may be used as an " ad hominem" argument against those who advocate values or positions of which the speaker does not approve. The social constructof masculinityis not defined by attraction to females alone but also by negative attraction to males. The addition of a fear of something unmasculine, given the terms scientific etymology, may be used illegitimately to imply that anyone with a different opinion is unmasculine. [O'Donohue, William and Christine Caselles (September 1993). [http://www.springerlink.com/content/n0264m864t146585/ Homophobia: Conceptual, definitional, and value issues] . "Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment," 15 no. 3.]
National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, an organization affiliated with the ex-gaymovement, describes the term homophobia as being "often used inaccurately to describe any person who objects to homosexual behavior on either moral, psychological or medical grounds." They claim that, "Technically, however, the terms actually denotes a person who has a phobia — or irrational fear — of homosexuality. Principled disagreement, therefore, cannot be labeled 'homophobia.'"http://www.narth.com/menus/positionstatements.html N.A.R.T.H.
Some researchers within the field have preferred other terms to "homophobia." For example,
Gregory M. Herek, a researcher at the University of California, Davis, compared several related terms: "homophobia", " heterosexism", and "sexual prejudice". In preferring the latter term, he noted that "homophobia" was "probably more widely used and more often criticized", and observed that "Its critics note that homophobia implicitly suggests that antigay attitudes are best understood as an irrational fear and that they represent a form of individual psychopathologyrather than a socially reinforced prejudice." He preferred "sexual prejudice" as being descriptive and free of presumptions about motivations, and lacking in value judgments as to the irrationality or immorality of those so labeled. [Herek, Gregory M. (2000). [http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/Current_Directions_preprint.pdf The psychology of sexual prejudice] . "Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9"]
In 1980 Hudson and Ricketts proposed the term "
homonegativity," arguing that "homophobia" was unscientific in its presumption of motivation. [Hudson, W. and Ricketts, W. (1980) A strategy for the measure of homophobia. "Journal of Homosexuality, 5", 357–372.]
Some recent psychological literature suggested the term homonegativity, reflecting the perspective that behaviors and thoughts that are frequently considered homophobic are not fear-based but instead reflect a disapproval of homosexuality. [ [http://www.teachproject.org/homophobia/ Homophobia | TEACH Project] ] [ [http://www.planetout.com/news/article-print.html?2002/06/13/3 Homophobia is a misnomer, according to a group of U.S. psychologists.] ]
Similar terms, such as heterosexism, have been proposed as alternatives that are more morphologically parallel, and which do not have the association with
phobia. Heterosexism refers to the presumption that all people are heterosexual and/or to the privileging of heterosexuality over homosexuality.
Seeking to avoid both the focus on individual
psychologyof "homophobia" and the focus on collective cultural factors of "heterosexism", psychologist Gregory M. Herekhas proposed the term "sexual prejudice" as referring to "all negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual." [Herek, G. M. (1990). The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 316-333]
Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. [ [http://allies.tamu.edu/Did%20You%20Know/riddle.htm The Riddle Homophobia Scale] from Allies Committee website, Department of Student Life, Texas A&M University] There were also ideas to classify homophobia, racism, and sexism as an "intolerant
personality disorder". [Guindon, M.H., Green, A.G. & Hanna, F.J. (2003). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12769238&dopt=AbstractPlus Intolerance and Psychopathology: Toward a General Diagnosis for Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia] . "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 2," pp. 167–176.]
Homophobia is not mentioned directly in any diseases classifications (
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersand International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). For some, homophobia is a non-clinical term [Paula A. Treichler, "AIDS, Homophobia, and Biomedical Discourse: An Epidemic of Signification", October, Vol. 43, AIDS: Cultural Analysis/Cultural Activism (Winter, 1987), pp. 31–70.] .
Internalized homophobia (or
egodystonichomophobia) refers to homophobia as a prejudice carried by individuals against homosexual manifestations in themselves and others. [http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/JGLMApre.pdf] It causes severe discomfort with or disapproval of one's own sexual orientation. Internalized homophobia is thus a form of cognitive dissonance; the individual cannot reconcile the conflicting conscious or unconscious sexual desires with values and tenets gained from society, religion or upbringing.
Such a situation may cause extreme repression of homosexual desires. [Adams, H.E., Wright, R.W. & Lohr, B.A. (1996). " [http://www.oogachaga.com/downloads/homophobia_and_homosexual_arousal.pdf Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?] ", "Journal of Abnormal Psychology", 105, no. 3, pp. 440–445.] In other cases, a conscious internal struggle may occur for some time, often pitting deeply held religious or social beliefs against strong sexual and emotional desires. This discordance often causes
clinical depression, and the unusually high suiciderate among gay teenagers (up to 30 percent of non-heterosexual youth attempt suicide) has been attributed to this phenomenon. [ [http://18.104.22.168/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/sexualhealth/article-sexual-orientation.xml Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity — Discrimination and Conflicts] from Planned Parenthood]
The label of internalized homophobia is sometimes applied to conscious or unconscious behaviors which an observer feels the need to promote or conform to the expectations of
heteronormativityor heterosexism. This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of heteronormative behavior for the purpose of appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted". This might also include less overt behavior like making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. Some also apply this label to LGBTpersons who support "compromise" policies, such as those that find civil unions an acceptable alternative to same-sex marriage. Whether this is a tactical judgement call or the result of some kind of internal prejudice (whether in a cause-and-effect fashion, or definitionally) is a matter of some debate.
Some argue that some or most homophobes are repressed homosexuals, but this argument is somewhat controversial. In 1996, a controlled study of 64 heterosexual men (half claimed to be homophobic by experience and self-reported orientation) at the
University of Georgiafound that men who were found to be homophobic (as measured by the Index of Homophobia) [Index of Homophobia: W. W. Hudson and W. A. Ricketts, 1980.] were considerably more likely to experience more erectile responses when exposed to homoeroticimages than non-homophobic men. ["Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?" by Henry E. Adams, Lester W. Wright, Jr. and Bethany A. Lohr, University of Georgia (Athens), Department of Psychology. "Journal of Abnormal Psychology", Vol. 105, No. 3, pp 440-445. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8772014 Abstract] at PubMed. Summarized in an American Psychological Associationpress release, August 1996: " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040202035152/www.apa.org/releases/homophob.html New Study Links Homophobia with Homosexual Arousal] ".]
Fear of being identified as gay (social homophobia)
Theorists including Calvin Thomas and
Judith Butlerhave suggested that homophobia can be rooted in an individual's fear of being identified as gay. [http://www.answers.com/topic/homophobia] At least one study indicates that homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. [ [http://www.livescience.com/health/050802_masculinity.html Masculinity Challenged, Men Prefer War and SUVs] ]
They have argued that a person who expresses homophobic thoughts and feelings does so not only to communicate their beliefs about the class of gay people, but also to distance themselves from this class and its social status. Thus, by distancing themselves from gay people, they are reaffirming their role as a heterosexual in a
heteronormativeculture, thereby attempting to prevent themselves from being labelled and treated as a gay person.
This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit violent opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of the majority and thus gaining social validation. This concept is also recurrent in interpretations of
Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. [Nancy J. Chodorow. [http://www.cyberpsych.org/homophobia/chodorow.htm Statement in a public forum on homophobia by The American Psychoanalytic Foundation, 1999] ]
Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as a threat to an individual's own same-sex impulses, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical. This threat causes repression, denial or
reaction formation. [West, D.J. "Homosexuality re-examined." Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. ISBN 0816608121]
Anti-bourgeois and anti-Western homophobia
Some left-wing thinkers have considered homosexuality a "bourgeois disease", right-wing movement, or a "Western disease".Gay Men and the Sexual History of the Political Left By Gert Hekma, Harry Oosterhuis, James D. Steakley]
Vladimir Lenincriticised it as "completely un-Marxist, and moreover, anti-social". One group of leftist writers wrote: "According to Lenin, the very notion of sexual emancipation was typical of capitalist societies and a symptom of bourgeois degeneracy." [Hekma, Oosterhuis and Steakley (1995). p. 23. The authors also cite: Fannina W. Halle, "Women in Soviet Russia", translated by Margaret M. Green (New Yoork, Viking, 1933). pp. 112-114]
North Korean government condemns homosexuality as a vice caused by the decadence of capitalist society, and denounces Western gay cultureas promoting consumerism, classism, and promiscuity. [Global Gayz. " [http://www.globalgayz.com/northkorea-news.html Gay North Korea News & Reports 2005] ". Retrieved May 5th, 2006.] "Violating the rules of collective socialist life" can be punished with up to 2 years imprisonment. [Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1217. Bruno Gmunder Verlag, 2007.] Robert Mugabe, the leader of Zimbabwe, has waged a violent campaign against homosexuals, arguing that before colonisation Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN030647770X&id=ezBvVdRnWKsC&pg=PA213&lpg=PA213&ots=6IWk0seKwp&dq=Mugabe+moral+campaign+homosexuality&sig=tzSDUBuYv5c6Y8admBfF-Y-Azbo Page 213] "Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures"] His first major public condemnation of homosexuality came in 1995 during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair in August 1995. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0773527516&id=LvxMq2hNzm0C&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&ots=xI8D2NLVGn&dq=Mugabe+moral+campaign+homosexuality&sig=-81GDIVzFqwX10TbJjaRAXlT2TE#PPA180,M1 Page 180] "Hungochani: The History of a Dissident Sexuality in Southern Africa"] He told the audience that homosexuality:
"...Degrades human dignity. It's unnatural and there is no question ever of allowing these people to behave worse than dogs and pigs. If dogs and pigs do not do it, why must human beings? We have our own culture, and we must re-dedicate ourselves to our traditional values that make us human beings... What we are being persuaded to accept is sub-animal behaviour and we will never allow it here. If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police!" [http://www.kaiwright.com/gayzimbabwe_more.php?id=101_0_25_0_M Under African Skies, Part I: 'Totally unacceptable to cultural norms'] Kaiwright.com]
In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts. In 1997, a court found
Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9042016264&id=PFvYzAUheGkC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&ots=0hbU6n9tV1&dq=Canaan+Banana+homosexual&sig=2cfQK_-ufIaV-egJ-ob6Wfu2kkQ Page 93] "Body, Sexuality, and Gender v. 1"] Banana's trial proved embarrassing for Mugabe, when Banana's accusers alleged that Mugabe knew about Banana's conduct and had done nothing to stop it. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/zimbabwe/article/0,2763,1082496,00.html Canaan Banana, president jailed in sex scandal, dies] "The Guardian"]
Homophobia as leading to a climate of prejudice
gender theorists interpret the fact that male-to-male relationships often incite a stronger reaction in a homophobic person than female-to-female ( lesbian) as meaning that the homophobic person feels threatened by the perceived subversion of the gender paradigmin male-to-male sexual activity. According to such theorists as D.A. Miller, male heterosexuality is defined not only by the desire for women but also, and more importantly, by the denial of desire for men. Therefore, expressions of homophobia serve as a means of limiting those who they view as displaced in heteronormativity, and also of accenting their male nature, by isolating the threatening concept of their own potential femininity in gay men, and consequently belittling them, as not "real" males. They regard the reason male homosexuality is treated worse compared to female homosexuality as sexistin its underlying belief that men are superior to women and therefore for a man to "replace" a woman during intercourse with another man is his own subjection to (non-male) inferiority.
However, this view would imply that only the receptive male partner in homosexual acts would be thought of as "offensive", which is the case in many cultures. Miller's specific claim that male heterosexuality does not require "desire for women" would seem to preclude the possibility of
asexualityor bisexuality. Nor is it clear why male heterosexuals would "need" or even fear gay people in order to affirm malenessndash unless their sexuality was already experienced as threatened by some other cause.
Other theories of the difference in the reactions of homophobes to male-male versus female-female homosexual relationships simply have to do with a common sexual desire. A heterosexual man desires women. For a woman to desire women is thus more understandable than for a man to desire men, as a heterosexual man and homosexual woman share the same desire for women, but a heterosexual man cannot understand or identify with the attraction of one man to another man. Similarly, homosexual men desire men, and thus for a man to desire men is understandable to a woman who has the same desires. Even more simply, same-sex relationships can be more tolerable to members of the opposite sex simply because of the innate attraction of a heterosexual to the opposite sex, and the accompanying modification of emotion.
Lastly, a common sexual fantasy of heterosexual males, rooted in a desire to be virile and attractive to women, and also rooted in the traditional view of women as objects or possessions, is to engage in sex with multiple women. Thus a lesbian relationship can be seen as an opportunity to indulge in such a fantasy, regardless of any conscious realization of its implausibility.
Distribution/frequency of attitudes in the UK and US
Disapproval of homosexuality and of gay people is not evenly distributed throughout society, but is more or less pronounced according to age, ethnicity, race, sex, social class, education, partisan identification and religious status. According to UK HIV/AIDS charity
AVERT, lack of homosexual feelings or experiences, religious views, and lack of interaction with gay people are strongly associated with such views. [ [http://www.avert.org/hsexu3.htm Prejudice & Attitudes to Gay Men & Lesbians] ]
One study of white adolescent males conducted at the
University of Cincinnatiby Janet Baker has been used to argue that negative feelings towards gay people are also associated with other discriminatorybehaviors. The study claims to have found that hatred of gay people, anti-Semitismand racismare "likely companions", [" [http://calbears.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n10_v85/ai_14936859 Homophobia, racism likely companions, study shows] ," "Jet", January 10, 1994] suggesting it is an abuse of power. A study performed in 2007 in the UKfor the charity Stonewall reports that 90 percent of the population support the ban on discrimination against gays and lesbians. [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/gayrights/story/0,,2086335,00.html |title=Majority support gay equality rights, poll finds|date= 2007-05-23|publisher="Guardian"]
Social institutions can perpetuate homophobic attitudes. Such institutional sources in the
* Music and
music videos [After Elton: Because visibility matters, by Robert Urban, June 1, 2006 "Taking the Homophobia Out of Hip-Hop: A Progress Report" http://www.afterelton.com/archive/elton/music/2006/6/hiphop.html] ["Beyond Beats and Rhymes" http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/hiphop/] ["Issue Brief: Gender Violence and Homophobia" http://www.itvs.org/outreach/hiphop/resources/brief_gender.pdf]
* Churches [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/21/national/21church.html Black Churches' Attitudes Toward Gay Parishioners Is Discussed at Conference - New York Times ] ] ["Obama takes on the black community's homophobia" http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/01/25/obama-takes-on-the-black-_n_83234.html] [ [http://www.operationrebirth.com/ black gay christian church and homosexuality OPERATION: REBIRTH ] ]
Sources of homophobia in the white community include:
* Churches. Pastor
John Hageesaid in 2006, "I believe that New Orleanshad a level of sinthat was offensive to God, and they were recipients of the judgment of God for that. The newspaper carried the story in our local area, that was not carried nationally, that there was to be a homosexual parade there on the Monday that the Katrina came." ["Some hateful, radical ministers -- white evangelicals -- are acceptable" http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2008/02/28/hagee/index.html] ["ABC repeatedly noted controversial comments by Obama's "allies," but has yet to report comments by McCain endorsers" http://mediamatters.org/items/200803140013] This view was echoed by Fred Phelpsand the Westboro Baptist Church, who promote the view that virtually all wars and natural disasters affecting America are God's punishment for tolerating homosexuality.
sportsin many countries involves homophobic expressions by star athletes and by fans. Examples in the United States include:
* Hockey fans. The homophobic chants and attitudes of certain fans, for example the labelling of one fan who frequently dances at games as "Homo Larry", have been protested by attendees of
New York Rangersgames and by New York City CouncilSpeaker Christine Quinn. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/21/sports/hockey/21fans.html?em&ex=1206244800&en=5c641ada05d2c0a8&ei=5087%0A When Tradition and Taunts Collide: Gay Hockey Fans Criticize Garden - New York Times ] ]
* Basketball players. All-Star
National Basketball Associationplayer Tim Hardawaydrew criticism after he said on the "790 the Ticket" radio show, "Well, you know, I hate gay people. I let it be known I don’t like gay people. I don’t like to be around gay people. I’m homophobic. I don’t like it, it shouldn’t be in the world, in the United States, I don’t like it.” ["Love and Basketball: Homophobia in Sports" http://blackademics.org/2007/02/18/love-and-basketball-homophobia-in-sports/]
The anxiety of heterosexual individuals that others may identify them as gay, particularly among adolescents whose construction of heterosexual masculinity is factored in part on not being seen as gay, [Epstein, D. (1995). "Keeping them in their place: Hetero/sexist harassment, gender and the enforcement of heterosexuality." In J. Holland&L. Adkins (Eds.), "Sex, sensibility and the gendered body". London: Macmillan.] [Herek, G. (Ed.). (1998). Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians,gay men and bisexuals. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.] has also been identified by
Michael Kimmelas an example of homophobia. [Kimmel, M. (1994). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame and silence in the construction of gender identity. In H. Brod & M. Kaufman (Eds.), "Theorizing masculinities" (pp. 119–141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage] The taunting of boys seen as eccentric (and who are not usually gay) is claimed to be endemic in rural and suburban American schools, and has been associated with risk-taking behavior and outbursts of violence (such as a spate of school shootings) by boys seeking revenge or trying to assert their masculinity. [Michael S. Kimmel and Matthew Mahler, "Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence: Random School Shootings", 1982–2001, State University of New York at Stony Brook, in "American Behavioral Scientist", Vol. 46 No. 10, June 2003 pp. 1439–1458]
In the United States, attitudes about homosexuals may vary on the basis of partisan identification. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about gays and lesbians, according to surveys conducted by the
National Election Studiesin 2000 through 2004. The disparity is shown in the graph, below, which is from a book published in 2008 by Joseph Fried. It should be noted that the tendency of Republicans to view gays and lesbians negatively could be based on homophobia, religious beliefs, or conservatismwith respect to the traditional family. [Fried, Joseph, "Democrats and Republicans - Rhetoric and Reality" (New York: Algora Publishing, 2008), 185.]
To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as
gay pride parades and political activism("See gay pride)." This is criticized by some as counter-productive though, as gay pride parades showcase what could be seen as more "extreme" sexuality; fetish-based, and gender-variant aspects of LGBT culture. One form of organized resistance to homophobia is the International Day Against Homophobia(or IDAHO), [" [http://ilga.org/news_results_b.asp?FileID=329 Towards an international Day against Homophobia] ", April 10, 2004] first celebrated May 17, 2005 in related activities in more than 40 countries. [" [http://www.emediawire.com/releases/2005/5/emw239185.htm 1st Annual International Day Against Homophobia to be Celebrated in over 40 Countries on May 17] ", May 12, 2005]
In addition to public expression, legislation has been designed, controversially, to oppose homophobia, as in
hate speech, hate crime, and laws against discriminationon the basis of sexual orientation.
Some argue that anti-LGBT prejudice is immoral and goes above and beyond the effects on that class of people. Warren J. Blumenfeld argues that this emotion gains a dimension beyond itself, as a tool for extreme right-wing conservatives and fundamentalist religious groups and as a restricting factor on gender-relations as to the weight associated with performing each role accordingly. [Blumenfield, Warren J., "Homophobia: How we all pay the price" (1992).] Furthermore, Blumenfeld in particular claimed::"Anti-gay bias causes young people to engage in sexual behavior earlier in order to prove that they are straight. Anti-gay bias contributed significantly to the spread of the AIDS epidemic. Anti-gay bias prevents the ability of schools to create effective honest sexual education programs that would save children's lives and prevent STDs."
* [http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/sexual_prejudice.html Sexual Prejudice: Understanding Homophobia and Heterosexism]
* [http://rci.rutgers.edu/~lcrew/pubd/homophobicimagination.html "The Homophobic Imagination"] - an essay by Rictor Norton and Louie Crew
* [http://rockway.alliant.edu The Rockway Institute] for
LGBTresearch in the public interest at Alliant International University
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/assault/etc/quiz.html PBS] - "Frontline's" homophobia quiz
* [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2006-0018+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN European Parliament] - resolution on homophobia in Europe
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Look at other dictionaries:
homophobia — hom o*pho bi*a, n. A strong dislike or fear of homosexuals, especially to an unreasonable degree. [PJC] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
homophobia — ► NOUN ▪ an extreme and irrational aversion to homosexuality and homosexuals. DERIVATIVES homophobe noun homophobic adjective … English terms dictionary
homophobia — [hō΄mə fō′bē ə] n. [ HOMO(SEXUAL) + PHOBIA] irrational hatred or fear of homosexuals or homosexuality homophobe [hō′məfōb΄] n. homophobic [hō΄məfō′bik] adj … English World dictionary
homophobia — A term coined by George Weinberg, in Society and the Healthy Homosexual (1972), to refer to the psychological fear of homosexuality. Scaling devices have been used to measure it, and a number of studies have pointed to the characteristic… … Dictionary of sociology
HOMOPHOBIA — (лат.) боязнь гомосексуализма. Хотя нередко утверждалось, что homophobia личностная черта, более плодотворным является исследование социальных условий, при которых запрещается гомосексуальное поведение (в Англии и Уэльсе это произошло в 1885 г.,… … Большой толковый социологический словарь
homophobia — [[t]hɒ̱məfo͟ʊbiə[/t]] N UNCOUNT Homophobia is a strong and unreasonable dislike of homosexual people, especially homosexual men … English dictionary
homophobia — noun Date: 1969 irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals • homophobic adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
homophobia — homophobic, adj. /hoh meuh foh bee euh/, n. unreasoning fear of or antipathy toward homosexuals and homosexuality. [1955 60; HOMO(SEXUAL) + PHOBIA] * * * … Universalium
homophobia — noun /ˌhɒ.məˈfəʊ.bi.ə,ˌhəʊ.məˈfəʊ.bi.ə/ a) Fear of homosexuals. b) Antipathy towards homosexuals. Syn: anthropophobia, homoerotophobia See Also: homophobe, homophobic … Wiktionary
homophobia — Irrational fear of homosexual feelings, thoughts, behaviors, or persons. internalized h. h. occurring in a homosexual person, often associated with self loathing, self censure, and self censorship. * * * ho·mo·pho·bia .hō mə fō bē ə n irrational… … Medical dictionary