- Georgian alphabet
Georgian alphabet Type Alphabet Languages Georgian and other Kartvelian languages Time period c. 430 AD to present ISO 15924 Geor, 240 Geok (241, Khutsuri) Direction Left-to-right Unicode alias Georgian Unicode range U+10A0–U+10FF,
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols. History of the alphabet
Proto-Sinaitic script? 19 c. BCE
Meroitic 3 c. BCEOgham 4 c. CEHangul 1443Zhuyin (Bopomofo) 1913
- Ugaritic 15 c. BCE
- Proto-Canaanite 14 c. BCE
- Phoenician 12 c. BCE
- Greek 8 c. BCE
- Aramaic 8 c. BCE
- Kharoṣṭhī 6 c. BCE
- Brāhmī & Indic 6 c. BCE
- Hebrew 3 c. BCE
- Thaana 4 c. BCE
- Pahlavi 3 c. BCE
- Avestan 4 c. CE
- Palmyrene 2 c. BCE
- Syriac 2 c. BCE
- Mandaic 2 c. CE
- Paleohispanic 7 c. BCE
- Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE
- Samaritan 6 c. BCE
- Phoenician 12 c. BCE
- Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE
- Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
The Georgian alphabet (Georgian: ქართული დამწერლობა, [kʰɑrtʰuli dɑmtsʼɛrlɔbɑ], literally "Georgian script") is the writing system used to write the Georgian language and other Kartvelian languages (Mingrelian, Svan, sometimes Laz), and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus such as Ossetic and Abkhaz during the 1940s. The Georgian language has phonemic orthography and the modern alphabet has thirty-three letters.
The word meaning "alphabet", Georgian: ანბანი [anbani], is derived from the names of the first two letters of each of the three Georgian alphabets. The three alphabets look very different from one another but share the same alphabetic order and letter names. The alphabets may be seen mixed to some extent, though Georgian is officially unicameral meaning there is normally no distinction between upper and lower case in any of the alphabets.
The writing of the Georgian language has progressed through three forms, known by their Georgian names: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri, and Mkhedruli. They have always been distinct alphabets, even though they have been used together to write the same languages, and even though these alphabets share the same letter names and collation. Although the most recent alphabet, Mkhedruli, contains more letters than the two historical ones, those extra letters are no longer needed for writing modern Georgian.
The Georgian kingdom of Iberia converted to Christianity in 326 AD. Scholars believe that the creation of an Old Georgian alphabet was instrumental in making religious scripture more accessible to the Georgians. This happened in the 4th or 5th century, not long after conversion. The oldest uncontested example of Georgian writing is an Asomtavruli inscription from 430 AD in a church in Bethlehem.
It has been asserted that the Georgian alphabet was created by Mesrop Mashtots (who also created the Armenian alphabet around 405 AD and the Caucasian Albanian alphabet). This viewpoint is accepted by encyclopaedias, as well as by authoritative scholars. Other authorities such as John Greppin and A.G. Perikhanian have concluded that while Mesrop Mashtots may not have been the only creator of the Georgian alphabet, it could not have appeared without his participation. The Encyclopaedia Britannica suggests that the Old Georgian script must have been derived from the Greek alphabet, on account of the order of the alphabet and the shapes of some of the characters, although the shapes of the majority of the signs appear to be a result of a free creation of its inventor.
Georgian historical tradition attributes the invention of the Georgian alphabets to the semi-mythical Parnavaz I of Iberia in the 3rd century BC. Georgian scholars have asserted that the Georgian alphabet was created before Mesrop Mashtots. The modern Georgian scholar Levan Chilashvili, on the basis of dating the Nekresi inscription in eastern Georgia to the 1st–2nd century AD, claimed that Parnavaz probably created the scripts in order to translate the Avesta (sacred Zoroastrian writings) into Georgian. However, a pre-Christian origin for the Georgian scripts has not been firmly supported by archaeological evidence. According to Donald Rayfield, the assumption that the Georgian script has pre-Christian origin, is rather unfounded and was not confirmed by archaeological findings. Stephen H. Rapp, too, has questioned such a dating. Victor Schnirelmann has noted that the Georgian historians' somewhat painful attitude towards Mesrop Mashtots is conditioned by the "myth of some pure original indigenous culture."
Asomtavruli, also known as Mrgvlovani, is the historical, monumental, and oldest form of the Georgian alphabet. Asomtavruli (ასომთავრული, "capital letters") derives from aso (ასო, "letter, type") and mtavari (მთავარი, "main, chief, principal, head"). Mrgvlovani (მრგვლოვანი, "rounded") is related to the word mrgvali (მრგვალი, "round"). Despite its common Georgian name, this rounded alphabet was originally purely unicameral, just like the modern Georgian alphabet. Examples of the earliest Asomtavruli are still preserved in monumental inscriptions such as those of the Georgian church in Bethlehem (near Jerusalem, 430 AD) and the church of Bolnisi Sioni near Tbilisi (4th-5th centuries).
Asomtavruli letters Ⴀ Ⴁ Ⴂ Ⴃ Ⴄ Ⴅ Ⴆ Ⴡ Ⴇ Ⴈ Ⴉ Ⴊ Ⴋ Ⴌ Ⴢ Ⴍ Ⴎ Ⴏ Ⴐ Ⴑ Ⴒ Ⴣ ႭჃ, Ⴓ Ⴔ Ⴕ Ⴖ Ⴗ Ⴘ Ⴙ Ⴚ Ⴛ Ⴜ Ⴝ Ⴞ Ⴤ Ⴟ Ⴠ Ⴥ Note that some fonts for modern Georgian do not show the actual Asomtavruli forms for these letters, but instead show taller ("capitalized") variants of the modern Mkhedruli alphabet (see below).
This unicameral alphabet is still used today in some section headings and book titles, and sometimes used in a pseudo-bicameral way by varying the glyph sizes for creating capitals. Since it is no longer used for writing Georgian, it has also been reused in a creative way for writing capital letters, along with letters of one of the two other Georgian alphabets.
Incidentally, a unique local form of Aramaic writing known as Armazuli (არმაზული დამწერლობა, armazuli damts'erloba, i.e. the "Armazian script", derived from the name of the god Armazi) existed before that, as demonstrated by the 1940s discovery of a bilingual Greco-Aramaic inscription at Mtskheta, Georgia. It is conceivable that local pre-Christian records did exist, but were subsequently destroyed by zealous Christians. Therefore, many found more palatable the idea that the medieval Georgian chronicles crediting Parnavaz with the creation of Georgian writing actually refer to the introduction of a local form of written Aramaic during his reign.
The Nuskhuri (ნუსხური "minuscule, lowercase"), the ecclesiastical alphabet first appeared in the 9th century. It was mostly used in hagiography. Nuskhuri is related to the word nuskha (ნუსხა "inventory, schedule").
Nuskhuri letters ⴀ ⴁ ⴂ ⴃ ⴄ ⴅ ⴆ ⴡ ⴇ ⴈ ⴉ ⴊ ⴋ ⴌ ⴢ ⴍ ⴎ ⴏ ⴐ ⴑ ⴒ ⴣ ⴍⴣ, ⴓ ⴔ ⴕ ⴖ ⴗ ⴘ ⴙ ⴚ ⴛ ⴜ ⴝ ⴞ ⴤ ⴟ ⴠ ⴥ
The forms of the Khutsuri letters may have been derived from the northern Arsacid variant of the Pahlavi (or Middle Iranian) script, which itself was derived from the older Aramaic, although the direction of writing (from left to right), the use of separate symbols for the vowel sounds, the numerical values assigned to the letters in earlier times, and the order of the letters all point to significant Greek influence on the script.
However, the Georgian linguist Tamaz Gamkrelidze argues that the forms of the letters are freely invented in imitation of the Greek model rather than directly based upon earlier forms of the Aramaic alphabet, even though the Georgian phonological inventory is very different from Greek.
Like the monumental Asomtavruli alphabet, this squared alphabet was initially purely unicameral. However, it has also been used also along with the Asomtavruli alphabet (serving as capital letters in religious manuscripts) to form the Khutsuri (ხუცური "ecclesiastical") bicameral style that is still used sometimes today.
The modern alphabet, called Mkhedruli (მხედრული, "cavalry" or "military"), first appeared in the 11th century. It was used for non-religious purposes up until the 19th century, when it completely replaced the Khutsuri style (that used the two previous alphabets). Mkhedruli is related to the word mkhedari (მხედარი, "horseman", "knight", or "warrior"); Khutsuri is related to the term khutsesi (ხუცესი, "elder" or "priest").
Mkhedruli letters ა ბ გ დ ე ვ ზ ჱ თ ი კ ლ მ ნ ჲ ო პ ჟ რ ს ტ ჳ უ ფ ქ ღ ყ შ ჩ ც ძ წ ჭ ხ ჴ ჯ ჰ ჵ ჶ ჷ ჺ ჸ ჹ
Like the two other alphabets, the Mkhedruli alphabet is purely unicameral. However, certain modern writers have experimented with using Asomtavruli letters as capitals, similarly to Khutsuri script style. In some cases, this may be a conflation with the religious Khutsuri style rather than the result of a creative design choice. Georgians often consider this bicameral use of Mkhedruli an error because some Mkhedruli letters lack equivalents in the other alphabets. Others use the Mkhedruli alphabet alone in a pseudo-bicameral way, adapting letter sizes to create capital letters, known as Mtavruli for titles and headings. Mtavruli (მთავრული) means "titlecase" and is an appropriate tribute to the older Asomtavruli.
Eight of the forty-one Mkhedruli letters (shaded above) are now obsolete. Five of these, ⟨ჱ⟩ (he), ⟨ჲ⟩ (hie), ⟨ჳ⟩ (vie), ⟨ჴ⟩ (qar), and ⟨ჵ⟩ (hoe) were used in Old Georgian. These letters were discarded by the Society for the Spreading of Literacy Among Georgians, founded by Ilia Chavchavadze in 1879, and were either dropped entirely or replaced by the sounds they had become. The last three, ⟨ჶ⟩ (fi), ⟨ჷ⟩ (shva), and ⟨ჸ⟩ (elifi), were later additions to the Georgian alphabet used to represent sounds not present in Georgian proper, and are used to write other languages in the region. Also obsolete in modern Georgian is a variant of the letter ⟨უ⟩ (un), differentiated using a diacritic: ⟨უ̌⟩ or ⟨უ̂⟩.
- ⟨ჱ⟩ (he), sometimes called "ei" or "e-merve" ("eighth e"). As in Ancient Greek (Ηη, Ͱͱ, ēta), it holds the eighth place in the Georgian alphabet. The name and shapes of the letter in Asomtavruli ⟨Ⴡ⟩ and Nuskhuri ⟨ⴡ⟩ also resemble Greek's tack-shaped archaic consonantal heta. In old Georgian, he was interchangeable with the digraph ⟨ეჲ⟩. It represented [ei] or [ej].
- ⟨ჲ⟩ (hie), also called iot'a, often marked Georgian nouns in the nominative case. In Old Georgian, it represented [i] or [j].
- ⟨ჳ⟩ (vie) represented the diphthong [ui] or [uj]. It holds the same position and numerical value as Ancient Greek's Υυ upsilon, which its Asomtavruli ⟨Ⴣ⟩ and Nuskhuri ⟨ⴣ⟩ versions resemble. Its modern pronunciation is usually like ⟨უ⟩ [u] or ⟨ი⟩ [i].
- ⟨ჴ⟩ (qar, har) represented [q] or [qʰ], the non-ejective counterpart to ⟨ყ⟩ (q'ar) above. Although this consonant is still distinguished in Svan, its modern pronunciation in Georgian is identical to ⟨ხ⟩ [χ].
- ⟨ჵ⟩ (hoe), also called oh, represented a long ⟨ო⟩, [oː].
- ⟨ჶ⟩ (fi) was borrowed to represent the phoneme /f/ in loanwords from Latin and Greek such as ჶილოსოჶია (filosofia, 'philosophy'). Its name and shape derive from Greek. Its modern usage is a feature of Ossetic and Laz when written in the Georgian alphabet. In modern Georgian, ⟨ფ⟩ par replaces fi.
- ⟨ჷ⟩ (shva), also called yn, represents the mid central vowel [ə]. It appears in written Mingrelian, Laz, and Svan.
- ⟨ჸ⟩ (elifi) represents the glottal stop [ʔ]. Its name and pronunciation derive from Aramaic. It is used in written Mingrelian and rarely in Laz.
- ⟨უ̌⟩ or ⟨უ̂⟩ (un-brjgu) represented a short [u] in Old Georgian. It is still differentiated in Svan, Mingrelian, and Laz. In modern Georgian, it becomes ⟨ვ⟩ vin.
Ligatures and abbreviations
Writing in Asomtavruli is often highly stylized. Since the time of Vakhtang I of Iberia in the 5th century, writers readily formed ligatures, intertwined letters, and placed letters within letters. The first ligature below was a feature of 6th century Sassanid period currency. The second and third examples come from the arch of the David Gareja Monastery, pictured above. Ligatures flourished during the Middle Ages and could represent up to three letters.
Nuskhuri, like Asomtavruli is also often highly stylized. Writers readily formed ligatures and abbreviations for nomina sacra, including diacritics called karagma, which resemble titla. Because writing materials such as vellum were scarce and therefore precious, abbreviating was a practical measure widespread in manuscripts and hagiography by the 11th century. Some common examples include romeli, "which" (, r~i) and Iesou Krist'e, "Jesus Christ" (, I~ui K~e).
In the older Asomtavruli, the sound /u/ was represented by the digraph ⟨ႭჃ⟩ or as ⟨Ⴓ⟩, a modified ⟨Ⴍ⟩. Nuskhuri saw the combination of the digraph ⟨ⴍⴣ⟩ into a ligature, ⟨ⴓ⟩ (cf. Greek ου, Cyrillic Ѹ/Ꙋ). However, Mkhedruli normally uses only ⟨უ⟩ as opposed to a digraph or ligature, and uses ⟨უ⟩ instead of obsolete ⟨ჳ⟩ (above) to represent the value 400.
→ → → → → → Asomtavruli ⟨Ⴂ⟩ gan and ⟨Ⴌ⟩ nar form a ligature. The word da (⟨ႣႠ⟩, "and") in Asomtavruli. The word ars (⟨ႠႰႱ⟩, "be; is") in Asomtavruli. Development of the letter un from a digraph through the three alphabets.
This table lists only the modern unicameral Mkhedruli alphabet (i.e. 33 letters that are convertible to the other two alphabets, excluding the 8 Mkhedruli letters that are now obsolete). "National" is the official transliteration system used by the Georgian government, while "Laz" is the official system used in northeastern Turkey for the Laz language.
Letters Unicode Name National ISO 9984 BGN Laz IPA ა U+10D0 an A a A a A a A a /ɑ/ ბ U+10D1 ban B b B b B b B b /b/ გ U+10D2 gan G g G g G g G g /ɡ/ დ U+10D3 don D d D d D d D d /d/ ე U+10D4 en E e E e E e E e /ɛ/ ვ U+10D5 vin V v V v V v V v /v/ ზ U+10D6 zen Z z Z z Z z Z z /z/ თ U+10D7 tan T t T' t' T' t' T t /tʰ/ ი U+10D8 in I i I i I i I i /i/ კ U+10D9 k'an K' k' K k K k K' k' /kʼ/ ლ U+10DA las L l L l L l L l /l/ მ U+10DB man M m M m M m M m /m/ ნ U+10DC nar N n N n N n N n /n/ ო U+10DD on O o O o O o O o /ɔ/ პ U+10DE p'ar P' p' P p P p P' p' /pʼ/ ჟ U+10DF žan Zh zh Ž ž Zh zh J j /ʒ/ რ U+10E0 rae R r R r R r R r /r/ ს U+10E1 san S s S s S s S s /s/ ტ U+10E2 t'ar T' t' T t T t T' t' /tʼ/ უ U+10E3 un U u U u U u U u /u/ ფ U+10E4 par P p P' p' P' p' P p /pʰ/ ქ U+10E5 kan K k K' k' K' k' K k /kʰ/ ღ U+10E6 ḡan Gh gh Ḡ ḡ Gh gh Ğ ğ /ɣ/ ყ U+10E7 q'ar Q' q' Q q Q q Q q /qʼ/ შ U+10E8 šin Sh sh Š š Sh sh Ş ş /ʃ/ ჩ U+10E9 čin Ch ch Č' č' Ch' ch' Ç ç /tʃ/ ც U+10EA can Ts ts C' c' Ts' ts' Ts ts /ts/ ძ U+10EB jil Dz dz J j Dz dz Ž ž /dz/ წ U+10EC c'il Ts' ts' C c Ts ts Ts' ts' /tsʼ/ ჭ U+10ED č'ar Ch' ch' Č č Ch ch Ç' ç' /tʃʼ/ ხ U+10EE xan Kh kh X x Kh kh X x /x/ ჯ U+10EF ǰan J j J̌ ǰ J j C c /dʒ/ ჰ U+10F0 hae H h H h H h H h /h/
The Georgian alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.
In Unicode version 1.0 the U+10A0 ... U+10CF range of the Georgian block represented Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri). With the release of version 4.1 in March, 2005 Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri were "disunified". The U+10A0 ... U+10CF range of the Georgian block now represents Asomtavruli and the Georgian Supplement block represents Nuskhuri.
The Unicode block for Georgian is U+10A0 ... U+10FF. Mkhedruli (modern Georgian) occupies the U+10D0 ... U+10FF range and Asomtavruli occupies the U+10A0 ... U+10CF range.
The Unicode block for Georgian Supplement is U+2D00 ... U+2D2F and it represents Nuskhuri.
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+10Ax Ⴀ Ⴁ Ⴂ Ⴃ Ⴄ Ⴅ Ⴆ Ⴇ Ⴈ Ⴉ Ⴊ Ⴋ Ⴌ Ⴍ Ⴎ Ⴏ U+10Bx Ⴐ Ⴑ Ⴒ Ⴓ Ⴔ Ⴕ Ⴖ Ⴗ Ⴘ Ⴙ Ⴚ Ⴛ Ⴜ Ⴝ Ⴞ Ⴟ U+10Cx Ⴠ Ⴡ Ⴢ Ⴣ Ⴤ Ⴥ U+10Dx ა ბ გ დ ე ვ ზ თ ი კ ლ მ ნ ო პ ჟ U+10Ex რ ს ტ უ ფ ქ ღ ყ შ ჩ ც ძ წ ჭ ხ ჯ U+10Fx ჰ ჱ ჲ ჳ ჴ ჵ ჶ ჷ ჸ ჹ ჺ ჻ ჼ Notes
- 1.^ As of Unicode version 6.0
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+2D0x ⴀ ⴁ ⴂ ⴃ ⴄ ⴅ ⴆ ⴇ ⴈ ⴉ ⴊ ⴋ ⴌ ⴍ ⴎ ⴏ U+2D1x ⴐ ⴑ ⴒ ⴓ ⴔ ⴕ ⴖ ⴗ ⴘ ⴙ ⴚ ⴛ ⴜ ⴝ ⴞ ⴟ U+2D2x ⴠ ⴡ ⴢ ⴣ ⴤ ⴥ Notes
- 1.^ As of Unicode version 6.0
- ^ Georgian alphabet (Mkhedruli), Omniglot.com, http://www.omniglot.com/writing/georgian2.htm, retrieved 2009-04-22
- ^ a b Lenore A. Grenoble. Language policy in the Soviet Union. Springer, 2003. ISBN 1402012985. P. 116. "The creation of the Georgian alphabet is generally attributed to Mesrop, who is also credited with the creation of the Armenian alphabet."
- ^ a b c Donald Rayfield "The Literature of Georgia: A History (Caucasus World). RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0700711635. P. 19. "The Georgian alphabet seems unlikely to have a pre-Christian origin, for the major archaeological monument of the 1st century 4IX the bilingual Armazi gravestone commemorating Serafua, daughter of the Georgian viceroy of Mtskheta, is inscribed in Greek and Aramaic only. It has been believed, and not only in Armenia, that all the Caucasian alphabets — Armenian, Georgian and Caucaso-Albanian — were invented in the 4th century by the Armenian scholar Mesrop Mashtots.<...> The Georgian chronicles The Life of Kanli - assert that a Georgian script was invented two centuries before Christ, an assertion unsupported by archaeology. There is a possibility that the Georgians, like many minor nations of the area, wrote in a foreign language — Persian, Aramaic, or Greek — and translated back as they read."
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. Mesrob. "But his activity was not confined to Eastern Armenia. Provided with letters from Isaac he went to Constantinople and obtained from the Emperor Theodosius the Younger permission to preach and teach in his Armenian possessions. He evangelized successively the Georgians, Albanians, and Aghouanghks, adapting his alphabet to their languages, and, wherever he preached the Gospel, he built schools and appointed teachers and priests to continue his work. Having returned to Eastern Armenia to report on his missions to the patriarch, his first thought was to provide a religious literature for his countrymen."
- ^ Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar. Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0674511735. P. 289. James R. Russell. Alphabets. " Mastoc' was a charismatic visionary who accomplished his task at a time when Armenia stood in danger of losing both its national identity, through partition, and its newly acquired Christian faith, through Sassanian pressure and reversion to paganism. By preaching in Armenian, he was able to undermine and co-opt the discourse founded in native tradition, and to create a counterweight against both Byzantine and Syriac cultural hegemony in the church. Mastoc' also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model."
- ^ George L. Campbell. Compendium of the World’s Languages. — Routledge; New edition edition (May 14, 1998) — ISBN 0415160499. P. 183. "Old Georgian was written in the xucuri character, traditionally invented by Mesrop Mashtots, to whom the Armenians owe their script. In the 11th century the ecclesiastical xucuri was replaced by the character known as the mxedruli 'civil', which is in use today. Georgian is the only Caucasian language to have developed its own script."
- ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Merriam-Webster, 1995. ISBN 0877790426. P. 756. "Mesrob". "A collection of biblical commentaries, translations of patristic works, and liturgical prayers and hymns is credited to Mesrob, corroborating his reputation for having laid the foundation of a national Armenian liturgy. He is also credited with contributing to the origin of the Georgian alphabet."
- ^ Russian: «История Востока», ЗАКАВКАЗЬЕ В IV—XI вв — Институт Востоковедения РАН. "Христианизация закавказских стран имела важные последствия и для развития местной культуры. На рубеже IV-V вв. появилась армянская письменность, созданная Месропом Маштоцем. Не без его помощи были изобретены и национальные алфавиты в Грузии и Албании. "
- ^ Peter R. Ackroyd, C. F. Evans, Geoffrey William Hugo Lampe, Stanley Lawrence Greenslade. The Cambridge History of the Bible: From the Beginnings to Jerome — Cambridge University Press, 1975 — ISBN 0521099730. P. 367. "Georgia was converted during the 4th century, tradition has it by the agency of an Armenian slave woman, and whether these details are in any measure true or not, the tradition probably indicates the source of the Georgians' knowledge of Christianity and the Christian scriptures. These did not begin to be translated into Georgian until Mesrop, provider of an Armenian alphabet, also supplied the Georgians with an adequate means of transcription for their speech."
- ^ Greppin, John A.C.: Some comments on the origin of the Georgian alphabet. — Bazmavep 139, 1981, 449-456
- ^ Russian: Периханян А. Г. К вопросу о происхождении армянской письменности // Переднеазиатский сборник. М.: Наука, 1966. Вып. 2. Стр. 127-133
- ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica - Georgian language, Britannica.com, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/230307/Georgian-language#ref=ref272737, retrieved 2009-04-22
- ^ Russian: Церетели Г. В. Армазское письмо и проблема происхождения грузинского алфавита. II // Эпиграфика Востока. М.; Л.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1949.
- ^ Russian: Бердзенишвили Н., Джавахишвили И., Джанашиа С. История Грузии: В 2 ч. Ч. 1. С древнейших времен до начала XIX в. Тбилиси: Госиздат ГССР, 1950.
- ^ Russian: Джанашиа С.Н. К вопросу о языке и истории хеттов. 1959 // Труды: В 3 т. Тбилиси: Изд-во АН ГССР
- ^ Russian: Tamaz Gamkrelidze. АЛФАВИТНОЕ ПИСЬМО И ДРЕВНЕГРУЗИНСКАЯ ПИСЬМЕННОСТЬ (Типология и происхождение алфавитных систем письма)
- ^ a b Stephen H. Rapp. Studies in medieval Georgian historiography: early texts and Eurasian contexts. Peeters Publishers, 2003. ISBN 9042913185. P. 19. "Moreover, all surviving MSS written in Georgian postdate K'art'li's 4th-century conversion to Christianity. Not a shred of dated evidence has come to light confirming the invention of a Georgian alphabet by King P'arnavaz in the 3rd century ВС as is fabulously attested in the first text of K'C'<...> Cf. Chilashvili's "Nekresi" for the claim that a Geo. asomt'avruli burial inscription from Nekresi commemorates a Zoroastrian who died in the 1st/2nd century AD. Archaeological evidence confirms that a Zoroastrian temple once stood at Nekresi, but the date of the supposed grave marker is hopelessly circumstantial. Chilashvili reasons, on the basis of the 1st-/2nd-century date, that P'amavaz likely created the script in order to translate the Avesta (i.e.. sacred Zoroastrian writings) into Geo., thus turning on its head the argument that the Georgian script was deliberately fashioned by Christians in order to disseminate the New Testament. Though I accept eastern Georgia's intimate connection to Iran, I cannot support Chilashvili's dubious hypothesis. I find more palatable the idea that K'C actually refers to the introduction of a local form of written Aramaic during the reign of P'amavaz: Ceret'eli. "Aramaic," p. 243."
- ^ Russian: В. А. Шнирельман, «Войны памяти. Мифы, идентичность и политика в Закавказье», М., ИКЦ, «Академкнига», 2003. English: V. A. Shnirelman. The value of the past. Myths, identity and politics in Transcaucasia. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology (Senri Ethnological Studies No. 57), 2001. Page 392
- ^ Armazi
- ^ Shanidze, Akaki (2003) (in Georgian), ქართული ენა [The Georgian Language], Tbilisi, ISBN 1402014406
- ^ Ingorokva, Paul. / pi / damcerlobis_Zegli.pdf "ქართული დამწერლობის ძეგლები ანტიკური ხანისა [The monuments of ancient Georgian script]" (in Georgian) (PDF). http://www.amsi.ge/istoria / pi / damcerlobis_Zegli.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
- ^ a b Aronson (1990) depicts the two affricates as aspirated, though other scholars, like Shosted & Chikovani (2006) describe them as voiceless.
- Aronson, Howard I. (1990), Georgian: a reading grammar (second ed.), Columbus, OH: Slavica
- Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
- Reference grammar of Georgian by Howard Aronson (SEELRC, Duke University)
- Georgian transliteration + Georgian virtual keyboard
- Direct transliteration Latin ↔ Georgian
- Georgian fonts, compliant with Unicode 4.0, also available for MAC OS 9 or X
- PDF (105 KB)
- PDF (105 KB)
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