Sistan and Baluchestan Province

Sistan and Baluchestan Province

Infobox Iran Province
province_name = Sistan and Baluchestan
ostan_name = سيستان و بلوچستان

capital = Zahedan
latd = 29.4924
longd = 60.8669
area = 181,785
pop = 2,290,076Fact|date=April 2008
pop_year = 2005
pop_density = 12.6
sub_provinces = 8
languages= Baluchi

Sistān o Balūchestān (Persian: استان سیستان و بلوچستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan and its capital is Zahedan.

The province is the largest in Iran, with an area of 181,785 km² and a population of 4.1 million. The counties of the province are Iran Shahr, Chabahar, Khash, Zabol, Zahedan, Saravan, and Nik Shahr.

The region is also home to Iran's Balochi Sunni minority.

Geography and culture

The province comprises two sections, "Sistan" in the north and "Baluchestan" in the south. The combined Sistan & Baluchestan province today accounts for one of the driest regions of Iran with a slight increase in rainfall from east to west, and an obvious rise in humidity in the coastal regions. The province is subject to seasonal winds from different directions, the most important of which are, the 120-day wind of Sistan known as "Levar", the "Qousse" wind, the seventh ("Gav-kosh") wind, the "Nambi" or south wind, the "Hooshak" wind, the humid and seasonal winds of the Indian Ocean, the North or ("Gurich") wind and the western ("Gard") wind.

In the south, east and west of Sistān and Balūchestān, the people are mostly Balchi and speak the Baluchi language. The name "Balūchestān" means "Land of the Balchi" in Persian language. Similarly, the Persian language name Sistān comes from the Old Persian "Sakastāna", meaning "Land of the Sakas".

The inhabitants of the province of Sistan Va Baluchestan continue to embrace their own norms and traditions, and the region has the potential to become one of the sight-seeing areas of Iran. The two most important tribes of the province are the "Brahui" and "Baluch" tribes. Their means of livelihood, life-style, mode of dwelling, customs, traditions, and tribal paths all form a cultural background worth seeing.

Many scholars, orators, and literary personalities have sprung up from this part of Iran, amongst which are the reputed Farrokhi Sistani, Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar and Rostam. Ayatollah Sistani is also from Sistān; though he currently resides in Najaf, Iraq.


In the epigraphs of Bistoon and Persepolis, Sistan is mentioned as one of the eastern territories of Darius the Great. The name Sistan, as mentioned above, is derived from Saka (also sometimes Saga, or Sagastan), one of the Aryan tribes that had taken control over this area in the year 128 BCE. During the Arsacid Dynasty (248 BC to 224 CE), the province became the seat of Suren-Pahlav Clan. From the Sassanid period till the early Islamic period, Sistan flourished considerably. During the reign of Ardashir I of Persia, Sistan came under the jurisdiction of the Sassanids, and in 644CE, the Arab Muslims gained control as the Persian empire was in its final moments of collapsing.

The famous Persian hero Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, whose descendants dominated this area for many centuries, later became governor of this province. Dynasties such as the Saffarids, Samanids, Qaznavids, and Seljuqids, also ruled over this territory.

In 1508 CE, Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty conquered Sistan, and during the reign of Nader Shah there was further turmoil.

The ancient name of Baluchestan was "Moka" and through the passage of time it changed to "Mokran / Makran", which is now the southern sector of Baluchestan. This territory came to be known as Baluchestan from the time that the Baluch tribes settled here. During the reign of the second caliph of Islam, this territory was conquered by the Arabs and an Arab commander was assigned as governor. In 916 CE, Baluchestan was liberated by the Daylamids and thereafter the Seljuqids, when it became a part of Kerman.

istan and Baluchestan today

The province today is one of the most underdeveloped, desolate, and poorest of Iran's provinces. The government of Iran has been trying to reverse this situation by implementing new plans such as creating the Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone.

Colleges and universities

# University of Sistan And Baluchestan
# Zabol University
# Islamic Azad University of Iranshahr
# [ Islamic Azad University of Zahedan]
# [ Zahedan University of Medical Sciences]
# Zabol University of Medical Sciences
# International University of Chabahar

ee also

* Bazman
* Baloch
* Sistan
* Balochistan (region)
* Balochistan (Pakistan)
* Lashar
* Negur Town
* Balochistan Afghanistan

External links

* [ Chabahar Free Trading Zone, Sistan and Baluchistan]
* [ Chris Zambelis, "Violence and Rebellion in Iranian Balochistan,"] "Jamestown Foundation Terrorism Monitor," Volume 4, Issue 13, June 29, 2006.

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