- Cellular compartment
Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all closed parts within a cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane. Most organelles are compartments like mitochondria, chloroplasts (in photosynthetic organisms), peroxisomes, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell nucleus or the Golgi apparatus. Smaller elements like vesicles, and sometimes even microtubules can also be counted as compartments. Only found in eukaryotic cells.
In general there are 4 main cellular compartments, they are:
- The nuclear compartment comprising the nucleus
- The intercisternal space which comprises the space between the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (which is continuous with the nuclear envelope)
- The cytosol
Within the membrane-bound compartments, different intracellular pH, different enzyme systems, and other differences are isolated. This enables the cell to carry out different metabolic activities at the same time. With mitochondria, the cytosol has an oxidising environment which converts NADH to NAD+. With these cases, the compartmentation is physical. For protein synthesis, all the organs used for it are relatively near one another, the nucleolus makes the ribosomes which synthesize the proteins, the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) is near the nucleus as well. The Golgi body is also near the rough ER for packaging and redistributing.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Compartment — may refer to: Biology Compartment (anatomy), a space of connective tissue between muscles Compartment (chemistry), in which different parts of the same protein serves different functions Compartment (development), fields of cells of distinct cell … Wikipedia
Compartment (development) — Compartments can be simply defined as separate, different, adjacent cell populations, which upon juxtaposition, create a lineage boundary. This boundary prevents cell movement from cells from different lineages across this barrier, restricting … Wikipedia
relative volumes occupied by some cellular compartments in a typical liver cell — ▪ Table The relative volumes occupied by some cellular compartments in a typical liver cell cellular compartment percent of total cell volume approximate number per cell cytosol 54 1 mitochondrion 22 1,700 endoplasmic reticulum plus Golgi… … Universalium
Outline of cell biology — Light micrograph of a moss s leaf cells at 400X magnification. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology: Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container ) – academic discipline that… … Wikipedia
Topic outline of cell biology — [ micrograph of a moss s leaf cells at 400X magnification.] : For a more comprehensive list, see the List of cell biology topics. Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos , container ) is an academic discipline that studies cells –… … Wikipedia
metabolism — /meuh tab euh liz euhm/, n. 1. Biol., Physiol. the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available. Cf. anabolism, catabolism … Universalium
List of topics in cell biology — Cell invokes a major branch of theory and research known variously as cell biology, cellular biology or cytology. The study of cell tissues is known as histology. Cell types are often referred to using the suffixes blast, clast, cyte, especially… … Wikipedia
Dynamin — N structure of the nucleotide free myosin ii motor domain from dictyostelium discoideum fused to the gtpase domain of dynamin 1 from rattus norvegicus Identifiers Symbol Dynamin N … Wikipedia
Electrorotation — is the circular movement of an electrically polarized particle. Similar to the slip of an electric motor, it can arise from a phase lag between an applied rotating electric field and the respective relaxation processes and may thus be used to… … Wikipedia
Digestion — For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. For the treatment of precipitates in analytical chemistry, see Precipitation (chemistry)#Digestion. Entrails redirects here. For the practice of reading entrails, see Extispicy. Digestion is… … Wikipedia