Gobiesocidae


Gobiesocidae
Clingfishes
Aspasmogaster tasmaniensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Superorder: Acanthopterygii
Order: Gobiesociformes
Suborder: Gobiesocoidei
Family: Gobiesocidae
Genera and species

See text.

Clingfishes are fishes of the family Gobiesocidae. Most species are marine, being found in shallow waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are bottom-dwelling fishes; some species shelter in sea urchins or crinoids.

Contents

Description

Sucking disc of Sicyases sanguineus

Clingfishes are typically small fish, with most species less than 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in length. They have tapering bodies with a single dorsal fin, and flattened heads. In most species the pelvic fins are modified into a sucking disc.[1] The lateral line is well developed, but may not extend to the posterior parts of the body.

The skin of clingfishes is smooth and scale-less, with a thick layer of protective mucus. They have a cryptic colouration, and in some cases can rapidly change colour to match their background.[2]

Classification

The classification of the clingfishes varies. FishBase places Gobiescoidae as the only family in the order Gobiesociformes, under the superorder Paracanthopterygii;[3] whereas more official classifications within the United States, for example ITIS, place them in the suborder Gobiesocoidei of the order Perciformes, under superorder Acanthopterygii. ITIS lists Gobiesociformes as invalid and has been verified by the standards set forth by ITIS.[4][5]

Genera and species in the family Gobiesocidae

FishBase lists about 153 species in 45 genera:[1]

  • Genus Acyrtops
    • Flarenostril clingfish, Acyrtops amplicirrus Briggs, 1955.
    • Emerald clingfish, Acyrtops beryllinus (Hildebrand & Ginsburg, 1926).
  • Genus Acyrtus
    • Papillate clingfish, Acyrtus artius Briggs, 1955.
    • Acyrtus pauciradiatus Sampaio, de Anchieta, Nunes & Mendes, 2004.
    • Red clingfish, Acyrtus rubiginosus (Poey, 1868).
  • Genus Alabes
    • Alabes bathys Hutchins, 2006.[6]
    • Alabes brevis Springer & Fraser, 1976.
    • Common shore-eel, Alabes dorsalis (Richardson, 1845).
    • Alabes elongata Hutchins & Morrison, 2004.
    • Alabes gibbosa Hutchins & Morrison, 2004.
    • Dwarf shore-eel, Alabes hoesei Springer & Fraser, 1976.
    • Alabes obtusirostris Hutchins & Morrison, 2004.
    • Alabes occidentalis Hutchins & Morrison, 2004.
    • Pygmy shore-eel, Alabes parvulus (McCulloch, 1909).
    • Alabes scotti Hutchins & Morrison, 2004.
    • Alabes springeri Hutchins, 2006.[6]
  • Genus Apletodon
    • Apletodon bacescui (Murgoci, 1940).
    • Barbel Clingfish, Apletodon barbatus Fricke, Wirtz & Brito, 2010
    • Small-headed clingfish, Apletodon dentatus (Facciolà, 1887).
    • Apletodon incognitus Hofrichter & Patzner, 1997.
    • Chubby clingfish, Apletodon pellegrini (Chabanaud, 1925).
    • Sao Tomé clingfish, Apletodon wirtzi Fricke, 2007.[7]
  • Genus Arcos
    • Elegant clingfish, Arcos decoris Briggs, 1969.
    • Rockwall clingfish, Arcos erythrops (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882).
    • Padded clingfish, Arcos macrophthalmus (Günther, 1861).
    • Galapagos clingfish, Arcos poecilophthalmos (Jenyns, 1842).
    • Rock clingfish, Arcos rhodospilus (Günther, 1864).
  • Genus Aspasma
    • Aspasma minima (Döderlein, 1887).
  • Genus Aspasmichthys
    • Aspasmichthys ciconiae (Jordan & Fowler, 1902).
  • Genus Aspasmodes
    • Aspasmodes briggsi Smith, 1957.
  • Genus Aspasmogaster
    • Eastern clingfish, Aspasmogaster costata (Ogilby, 1885).
    • Smooth-snout clingfish, Aspasmogaster liorhyncha Briggs, 1955.
    • Aspasmogaster occidentalis Hutchins, 1984.
    • Tasmanian clingfish, Aspasmogaster tasmaniensis (Günther, 1861).
  • Genus Chorisochismus
    • Rocksucker, Chorisochismus dentex (Pallas, 1769).
  • Genus Cochleoceps
    • Cochleoceps bassensis Hutchins, 1983.
    • Western cleaner-clingfish, Cochleoceps bicolor Hutchins, 1991.
    • Eastern cleaner-clingfish, Cochleoceps orientalis Hutchins, 1991.
      Eastern cleaner-clingfish, Cochleoceps orientalis
    • Cochleoceps spatula (Günther, 1861).
    • Green clingfish, Cochleoceps viridis Hutchins, 1991.
  • Genus Conidens
    • Conidens laticephalus (Tanaka, 1909).
    • Conidens samoensis (Steindachner, 1906).
  • Genus Creocele
    • Broad clingfish, Creocele cardinalis (Ramsay, 1883).
  • Genus Dellichthys
  • Genus Derilissus
    • Derilissus altifrons Smith-Vaniz, 1971.
    • Whiskereye clingfish, Derilissus kremnobates Fraser, 1970.
    • Derilissus nanus Briggs, 1969.
    • Derilissus vittiger Fraser, 1970.
  • Genus Diademichthys
  • Genus Diplecogaster
    • Diplecogaster bimaculata
      • Two-spotted clingfish, Diplecogaster bimaculata bimaculata (Bonnaterre, 1788).
        Two-spotted clingfish, Diplecogaster bimaculata bimaculata
      • Diplecogaster bimaculata euxinica Murgoci, 1964.
      • Diplecogaster bimaculata pectoralis Briggs, 1955.
    • Diplecogaster ctenocrypta Briggs, 1955.
    • Bigeye clingfish, Diplecogaster megalops Briggs, 1955.
  • Genus Diplocrepis
  • Genus Discotrema
    • Crinoid clingfish, Discotrema crinophila Briggs, 1976.
    • Discotrema monogrammum Craig & Randall, 2008.[8]
    • Discotrema zonatum Craig & Randall, 2008.[8]
  • Genus Eckloniaichthys
    • Weedsucker, Eckloniaichthys scylliorhiniceps Smith, 1943.
  • Genus Gastrocyathus
  • Genus Gastrocymba
  • Genus Gastroscyphus
  • Genus Gobiesox
Gobiesox nudus
    • Panamic clingfish, Gobiesox adustus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882.
    • Clarion clingfish, Gobiesox aethus (Briggs, 1951).
    • Lappetlip clingfish, Gobiesox barbatulus Starks, 1913.
    • Socorro clingfish, Gobiesox canidens (Briggs, 1951).
    • Gobiesox crassicorpus (Briggs, 1951).
    • Gobiesox daedaleus Briggs, 1951.
    • Lined clingfish, Gobiesox eugrammus Briggs, 1955.
    • Mountain clingfish, Gobiesox fluviatilis Briggs & Miller, 1960.
    • Gobiesox fulvus Meek, 1907.
    • Peninsular clingfish, Gobiesox juniperoserrai Espinosa Pérez & Castro-Aguirre, 1996.
    • Gobiesox juradoensis Fowler, 1944.
    • Bahama skilletfish, Gobiesox lucayanus Briggs, 1963.
    • Northern clingfish, Gobiesox maeandricus (Girard, 1858).
      Northern clingfish, Gobiesox maeandricus
    • Lonely clingfish, Gobiesox marijeanae Briggs, 1960.
    • Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842.
    • Mexican clingfish, Gobiesox mexicanus Briggs & Miller, 1960.
    • Gobiesox milleri Briggs, 1955.
    • Gobiesox multitentaculus (Briggs, 1951).
    • Blackfinned clingfish, Gobiesox nigripinnis (Peters, 1860).
    • Clingfish, Gobiesox nudus (Linnaeus, 1758).
    • Bearded clingfish, Gobiesox papillifer Gilbert, 1890.
    • Gobiesox pinniger Gilbert, 1890.
    • Gobiesox potamius Briggs, 1955.
    • Stippled clingfish, Gobiesox punctulatus (Poey, 1876).
    • California clingfish, Gobiesox rhessodon Smith, 1881.
    • Smoothlip clingfish, Gobiesox schultzi Briggs, 1951.
    • Gobiesox stenocephalus Briggs, 1955.
    • Skilletfish, Gobiesox strumosus Cope, 1870.
    • Woods' clingfish, Gobiesox woodsi (Schultz, 1944).
  • Genus Gouania
    • Blunt-snouted clingfish, Gouania willdenowi (Risso, 1810).
  • Genus Gymnoscyphus
    • Gymnoscyphus ascitus Böhlke & Robins, 1970.
  • Genus Haplocylix
  • Genus Kopua
  • Genus Lecanogaster
    • Lecanogaster chrysea Briggs, 1957.
  • Genus Lepadichthys
    • Bolin's clingfish, Lepadichthys bolini Briggs, 1962.
    • Pale clingfish, Lepadichthys caritus Briggs, 1969.
    • Eyestripe clingfish, Lepadichthys coccinotaenia Regan, 1921.
    • Lepadichthys ctenion Briggs & Link, 1963.
    • Lepadichthys erythraeus Briggs & Link, 1963.
    • Lepadichthys frenatus Waite, 1904.
    • Doubleline clingfish, Lepadichthys lineatus (Sauvage, 1883).
    • Minor clingfish, Lepadichthys minor Briggs, 1955.
    • Lepadichthys sandaracatus Whitley, 1943.
    • Lepadichthys springeri Briggs, 2001.
  • Genus Lepadogaster
    • Connemarra clingfish, Lepadogaster candolii Risso, 1810.
      Connemarra clingfish, Lepadogaster candolii
    • Shore clingfish, Lepadogaster lepadogaster (Bonnaterre, 1788).
    • Cornish sucker, Lepadogaster purpurea (Bonnaterre, 1788).
    • Lepadogaster zebrina Lowe, 1839.
  • Genus Liobranchia
    • Minute clingfish, Liobranchia stria Briggs, 1955.
  • Genus Lissonanchus
    • Streaky clingfish, Lissonanchus lusheri Smith, 1966.
  • Genus Modicus
  • Genus Opeatogenys
    • Opeatogenys cadenati Briggs, 1957.
    • Opeatogenys gracilis (Briggs, 1955).
  • Genus Parvicrepis
    • Little clingfish, Parvicrepis parvipinnis (Waite, 1906).
  • Genus Pherallodichthys
    • Pherallodichthys meshimaensis Shiogaki & Dotsu, 1983.
  • Genus Pherallodiscus
    • Northern fraildisc clingfish, Pherallodiscus funebris (Gilbert, 1890).
    • Southern fraildisc clingfish, Pherallodiscus varius Briggs, 1955.
  • Genus Pherallodus
    • Pherallodus indicus (Weber, 1913).
    • Mini-clingfish, Pherallodus smithi Briggs, 1955.
  • Genus Posidonichthys
    • Posidonichthys hutchinsi Briggs, 1993.
  • Genus Propherallodus
    • Propherallodus briggsi (Smith, 1957).
  • Genus Rimicola
    • Channel Islands clingfish, Rimicola cabrilloi Briggs, 2002.
    • Southern clingfish, Rimicola dimorpha Briggs, 1955.
    • Slender clingfish, Rimicola eigenmanni (Gilbert, 1890).
    • Kelp clingfish, Rimicola muscarum (Meek & Pierson, 1895).
    • Guadalupe clingfish, Rimicola sila Briggs, 1955.
  • Genus Sicyases
Sicyases sanguineus
    • Sicyases brevirostris (Guichenot, 1848).
    • Sicyases hildebrandi Schultz, 1944.
    • Sicyases sanguineus Müller & Troschel, 1843.
  • Genus Tomicodon
    • Distant clingfish, Tomicodon absitus Briggs, 1955.
    • Tomicodon abuelorum Szelistowski, 1990.
    • Tomicodon australis Briggs, 1955.
    • Bifid clingfish, Tomicodon bidens Briggs, 1969.
    • Cortez clingfish, Tomicodon boehlkei Briggs, 1955.
    • Tomicodon briggsi (Smith, 1957).
    • Smallsucker clingfish, Tomicodon chilensis Brisout de Barneville, 1846.
    • Tomicodon clarkei Williams & Tyler, 2003.
    • Tomicodon cryptus Williams & Tyler, 2003.
    • Rosy clingfish, Tomicodon eos (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882).
    • Barred clingfish, Tomicodon fasciatus (Castelnau, 1861).
    • Sonora clingfish, Tomicodon humeralis (Gilbert, 1890).
    • Tomicodon lavettsmithi Williams & Tyler, 2003.
    • Tomicodon leurodiscus Williams & Tyler, 2003.
    • Blackstripe clingfish, Tomicodon myersi Briggs, 1955.
    • Peter's clingfish, Tomicodon petersii (Garman, 1875).
    • Tomicodon prodomus Briggs, 1969.
    • Tomicodon reitzae Briggs, 2001.
    • Tomicodon rhabdotus Smith-Vaniz, 1969.
    • Tomicodon rupestris (Poey, 1860).
    • Tomicodon vermiculatus Briggs, 1955.
    • Zebra clingfish, Tomicodon zebra (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882).
  • Genus Trachelochismus

References

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Gobiesocidae" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
  2. ^ Briggs, J.C. & Hutchins, J.B. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N.. ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-12-547665-2. 
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Gobiesociformes" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
  4. ^ "Gobiesociformes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=164456. Retrieved 05 February 2008. 
  5. ^ Standards
  6. ^ a b Hutchins (2006). "Description of two new species of shore-eels (Gobiesocidae: Cheilobranchinae: Alabes) from south-eastern Australia and Norfolk Island.". Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63 (1): 25–28. Archived from the original on September 17, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070917153241/http%3A//www.mov.vic.gov.au/memoirs/docs/63_1_Hutchins.pdf. 
  7. ^ Fricke (2007). "A new species of the clingfish genus Apletodon (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Sao Tome and Principe, Eastern Central Atlantic". Ichthyological Research 54 (1): 68–73. doi:10.1007/s10228-006-0376-9. 
  8. ^ a b Craig & Randall; Randall, John E. (2008). "Two New Species of the Indo-Pacific Clingfish Genus Discotrema (Gobiesocidae)". Copeia 2008 (1): 68–74. doi:10.1643/CI-07-025. 

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