- Battering ram
A battering ram is a
siege engineoriginating in ancient times to break open fortificationwalls or doors.
In its simplest form, a battering ram is just a large, heavy log carried by several people and propelled with force against an obstacle; the
momentumof the ram would be sufficient to damage the target if the log were massive enough and/or it were moved quickly enough (i.e., had sufficient velocity).
In a more sophisticated design, a battering ram was slung from a wheeled support frame by ropes or chains so that it could be much more massive and also more easily swung against its target. Sometimes the ram's attacking point would be reinforced with a metal head and vulnerable parts of the ram might be bound with metal bands. Many battering rams had protective roofs and side-screens covered in materials, usually fresh wet hides, presumably from the animals eaten by the besiegers, to prevent the ram being set on fire, as well as to protect the operators of the ram from enemies firing arrows down on them by allowing them to seek shelter within the battering ram structure. The image of the Assyrian battering ram shows how sophisticated attacks and defences had become by the 9th century BC. The defenders are trying to set the ram alight with torches and have also put a chain under the ram. The attackers are trying to pull on the chain to free the ram, while the aforementioned wet hides would protect against the fire. In castles, defenders attempted to foil battering rams by dropping obstacles in front of the ram, such as a large sack of sawdust, just before it hit a wall, by using grappling hooks to immobilize the log, by setting the ram on fire, or by sallying to attack the ram directly.
Some battering rams were not slung from ropes or chains, but were instead supported by rollers. This allowed the ram to achieve a greater speed before striking its target and was therefore more destructive. Such a ram, as used by
Alexander the Great, is described by the writer Vitruvius.
Variations on the battering ram included the drill, the mouse, the pick, and the
siege hook. These were smaller than a ram and could be used in more limited spaces.
Battering rams had an important effect on the evolution of defensive walls.
Historical battering ram usages include:
*Used throughout the Crusades
*The fall of
There is a popular myth in
Gloucesterthat the famous children's rhyme, Humpty Dumpty, is about a battering ram used in the siege of Gloucester in 1643, during the English Civil War. However, the story is almost certainly untrue; during the siege, which lasted only one month, no battering rams were used, although many cannons were. The idea seems to have originated in a spoof history essay by Professor David Daube written for "The Oxford Magazine" in 1956, which was widely believed despite obvious improbabilities (e.g., planning to cross River Severnby running the ram down a hill at speed, although the river is about 30 m (100 feet) wide at this point).
A capped ram is a battering ram that has an accessory at the head (usually made of iron or steel and sometimes shaped into the head and horns of a ram) to do more damage to a building.
Battering rams still serve many different roles in modern times.
SWATteams and other police forces often use small two-man metal rams for opening locked doors and effecting a forced entry. Other modern battering rams include a cylinder in which a piston gets fired automatically upon impact, which enhances the momentum of the impact significantly.
Use in fiction
The Lord of the Rings, a battering ram named Grond, the Hammer of the Underworld, was used in the breaking of the great gate of Minas Tirith.
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Look at other dictionaries:
Battering Ram — Студийный альбом Iron Savio … Википедия
battering ram — battering rams also battering ram N COUNT A battering ram is a long heavy piece of wood that is used to knock down the locked doors of buildings. The battering ram was smashing through the oak door … English dictionary
battering ram — n. 1. an ancient military machine having a heavy wooden beam, sometimes with an iron ram s head at its end, for battering down gates, walls, doors, etc. 2. any bar, log, etc. used like this to force entrance … English World dictionary
Battering-ram — Bat ter*ing ram , n. 1. (Mil.) An engine used in ancient times to beat down the walls of besieged places. [1913 Webster] Note: It was a large beam, with a head of iron, which was sometimes made to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
battering ram — ► NOUN ▪ a heavy object swung or rammed against a door to break it down. ORIGIN the object was originally in the form of a heavy beam with a carved ram s head at the end … English terms dictionary
battering ram — index cudgel Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
battering ram — battering .ram n a long heavy piece of wood used in wars in the past to break through walls or doors … Dictionary of contemporary English
battering ram — battering ,ram noun count a large heavy wooden or metal post used for breaking through gates and doors … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
battering ram — noun a ram used to break down doors of fortified buildings (Freq. 1) • Hypernyms: ↑ram, ↑engine * * * noun, pl ⋯ rams [count] : a large and heavy piece of wood or other material that is used to hit and break through walls and doors * * *… … Useful english dictionary
battering ram — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms battering ram : singular battering ram plural battering rams a large heavy wooden or metal post used for breaking through gates and doors … English dictionary