Tuchola


Tuchola

Infobox Settlement
name = Tuchola
image_shield = POL Tuchola COA.svg
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position = bottom
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = POL
subdivision_type1 = Voivodeship
subdivision_name1 = Kuyavian-Pomeranian
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Tuchola County
subdivision_type3 = Gmina
subdivision_name3 = Gmina Tuchola
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Tadeusz Henryk Kowalski
area_total_km2 = 17.69
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 13935
population_density_km2 = auto
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd = 53 | latm = 36 | lats = | latNS = N | longd = 17 | longm = 51 | longs = | longEW = E
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 89-500,89-501
blank_name = Car plates
blank_info = CTU
website = http://www.tuchola.pl
Tuchola [IPA-pl|t|u|'|h|o|l|a] ( _de. Tuchel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland. The Pomeranian town, which had a population of 13,976 as of 2004, is located close to the Tuchola Forests about 50 km north of Bydgoszcz, and is the seat of Tuchola County. Forest areas to the east and north of the town form the protected area of Tuchola Landscape Park.

History

Settlement around Tuchola dates to 980, while the town was first mentioned in 1287. It received German town law (Culm law) in 1346 from Heinrich Dusemer, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. After the Order's defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, a Polish-Lithuanian army conquered the town on November 5 1410. The Order retained the town in the First Peace of Thorn. At the end of the Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466), however, Tuchel was ceded to Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn and became part of Polish Royal Prussia.

During the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Royal Prussia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. On May 17 1781 the Church of St. Bartholomäus and vast parts of the town burned down. Tuchel became part of the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871.

A prisoner-of-war camp was established near the town by Germany during World War I. After the town was transferred to the Second Polish Republic in 1920 following the Treaty of Versailles, the camp became known as Camp No. 7 and exited until 1923. At this time it housed mainly soldiers and cossacks of the Imperial Russian Army.

Beginning in the autumn of 1920 during Polish-Soviet war thousands of captured Red Army men were placed in the camp of Тuchola. These POWs lived in trenches, while famine, cold, and infectious diseases killed tens of prisoners daily. In the winter 1920/1921 POWs had a death rate of about 25%, which was attributed to malnutrition, poor sanitary conditions, lack of fuel and medicines, and physical maltreatment by the Polish supervisors.

«"From the moment of opening an infirmary in February, 1921 till May, 11, 1921 there was registered epidemic diseases 6491, not epidemic 12294, 2561 deaths"» («Red Army POWs in the Polish POW camps 1919-1922», p. 671).

Lieutenant Colonel I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter on February 1, 1922, that 22 thousand of POWs were lost in the camp of Tuchol in all time of its existence. («Red Army POWs...», p. 671)

Tuchola was annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. The town's ethnic German population was subsequently expelled after the war and replaced with Poles.

Education

*Higher School of Environmental Management ( _pl. Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Środowiskiem)

Famous residents

*Marcin Jędrzejewski - speedway rider and current member of Polish national junior team.
*Tadeusz Zwiefka - popular TV journalist, and a PO's Member of European Parliament.

ource

* Waldemar Rezmer, Zbigniew Karpus, Gennadij Matvejev, "Krasnoarmieitsy v polskom plenu v 1919–1922 g. Sbornik dokumentov i materialov" («Red Army POWs in the Polish POW camps 1919-1922»), Federal Agency for Russian Archives, Moscow 2004

ee also

*Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919-1924)

External links

* [http://www.tuchola.pl/english/ Municipal website]
* [http://mapa.szukacz.pl/?x=425064&y=636119&m=Tuchola&w=kujawsko%2dpomorskie&p=tucholski&g=Tuchola&z=3 Map via mapa.szukacz.pl] pl icon
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=tuchola,+poland&t=h&om=1 Satellite photo from Google Maps]


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