- John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum
Infobox_protected_area | name = John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum
iucn_category = IV
locator_x = 248
locator_y = 69
location = Delaware County and Philadelphia County,
lat_degrees = 39
lat_minutes = 53
lat_seconds = 9.1176
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 75
long_minutes = 15
long_seconds = 44.4816
long_direction = W
area = 1200 acres (4.9 km²)
established = 1972
governing_body = U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceThe John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum is a 200 acre (0.8 km²)
National Wildlife Refugespanning Philadelphia and Delaware counties in Pennsylvania. Located in Tinicum Township, the refuge is adjacent to the Philadelphia International Airport. Established in 1972 as the Tinicum National Environmental Center, it was renamed in 1991 after the late H. John Heinz IIIwho had helped preserve Tinicum Marsh.
The refuge serves to protect the largest remaining freshwater
tidal marshin Pennsylvania; approximately 200 acres (0.8 km²). When land acquisition is complete, the refuge will consist of 1200 acres (4.9 km²) of varied habitats.
The history of Tinicum Marsh, the largest remaining freshwater tidal wetland in Pennsylvania goes back to the first settlements in the region in 1634. Swedes, Dutch and English diked and drained parts of the marsh for grazing. At that time, the tidal marshes measured over 5,700 acres (23 km²). The rapid urbanization since World War I, reduced tidal marshes to approximately 200 acres (0.8 km²). The remnant of this once vast tidal marsh is protected by the refuge.
A diked, non-tidal area of 145 acres (0.6 km²), adjacent to the eastern end of Tinicum marsh, was donated by the
Gulf Oil Corporationto the City of Philadelphiain 1955. This area, administered for the benefit of wildlife and people, was known as Tinicum Wildlife Preserve. The areas of open water along with the adjacent heavily vegetated tidal wetlands, formed an ideal habitat for thousands of migratory waterfowl.
In 1969, the remaining area was threatened by plans to route Interstate 95 through it and by a
sanitary landfillon the tidal wetlands. These activities started a long series of injunctions, public hearings and extraordinary efforts by private and public groups to secure rerouting of the highway and termination of the landfill operation. Under legislation passed by Congress in 1972, authorization was given to the Secretary of the Interior to acquire 1200 acres (4.9 km²) to establish the Tinicum National Environmental Center.
In November 1991, in a bill sponsored by Congressman
Curt Weldon(R-PA), the name of the refuge was changed to John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum to honor the late Senator who helped preserve Tinicum Marsh.
The refuge has five varied habitats: freshwater
tidal marsh, impounded water, woods, meadow and field. The diversity of such habitats in such a concentrated area make it a natural magnet for all forms of wildlife. In addition to the above mentioned there are a wide variety of fish species that can be found in both, Darby Creek, the lifeblood of Tinicum Marsh, as well as the 145 acre (0.6 km²) impoundment and the smaller, Hoy's Pond. They include brown bullhead, channel catfish, crappie, carpand small striped bassthat utilize the wider expanses of Darby Creek, just before its confluence with the Delaware River, in the earlier stages of their development. The fields and meadows provide open areas where wide arrays of insects including several species of butterflies can be found foraging the dozens of species of wildflowers.
Wildlife and protected species
The Refuge is home to a variety of wildlife despite its urban location. Birdwatchers have recorded over 300 species of birds in and around the Refuge, 85 of which nest here. Migratory birds like
warblers, egrets, sandpipers, and a large variety of ducks, within the Atlantic Flyway, use the refuge as a resting/feeding spot during spring and fall flights. Since water levels can be controlled in the impoundment, the water is often drained in early fall at the refuge. This serves both to reduce the large population of invasive carpand makes the impoundment a large mudflat, which renders it very attractive to migrating shorebirds. The water levels is raised later in the fall so waterfowlcan use the impoundment.
deer, opossums, fox, raccoons, muskrats and many other small animals take refuge here along with a wide variety of wildflowers and plants .
There are several species of reptiles and amphibians that call the refuge home including the Northern Water, Eastern Garter and Northern
Brown Snakes; Pickerel, Wood and Southern Leopard Frogs (the latter listed as endangered in Pennsylvania) and the state threatened Red-bellied Turtleas well as the Painted, Snapping and Eastern Box Turtles.
There are over 10 miles of trails, including the popular "Impoundment Trail", and two boardwalks that cross the impoundment and one of its smaller coves.
A 4.5 mile segment of Darby Creek flows through the refuge allowing canoeists to see a variety of plants and animals.
Points of interest around the Creek's deep water lagoon are:
Sun Oil Company tank farm;
Delaware County Sewer Treatment Plant;
Action Concrete's Recyclingoperation;
#The 62 acre
Folcroft Landfill(active from 1956-74), now capped and monitored;
Morton Mortensen Housein Norwood's Winona Park, built in the early eighteenth century by adding to an old Swedish house built 60 years before, and believed to be the oldest man made structure in Pennsylvania.
Fishing is permitted along the main dike trail and the connecting Trolley Bed trail. This area provides fishing in both the 145 acre (0.6 km²) impoundment and Darby Creek. Common fish are
carp, catfish, large-mouth bassand smaller pan fish. Another fishing area is near Tinicum and Prospect Park on the west side of Route 420 which provides access to the lagoon areas of the Refuge. Common fish in this area are striped bass, carp, catfish, panfish, and tiger musky. However, due to the preserve's urban location, the stream has been polluted with various chemicals and other bad substances, which has led to signs being put up to discourage eating of fish, as they are contaminated.
List of National Wildlife Refuges
* [http://www.fws.gov/northeast/heinz/ John Heinz NWR at Tinicum homepage]
* [http://www.fws.gov/refuges/profiles/index.cfm?id=52570 FWS profile of John Heinz NWR at Tinicum]
* [http://www.recreation.gov/detail.cfm?ID=1446 Recreation.gov overview]
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