- Informbiro period
Informbiro (also the Informbiro period or the Time of the Informbiro) was a period (
1948- 1955) in the history of Yugoslavia characterized by conflict and schism with the Soviet Union. The word "Informbiro" is a Yugoslavian abbreviation for "Information Bureau," from "Communist Information Bureau" (also: "Cominform").
The term refers to the Cominform Resolution of
June 28, 1948(resulting from the Tito-Stalin Split) that accused the Communist Party of Yugoslavia(KPJ), among other things, of "depart [ing] from Marxism-Leninism," exhibiting an "anti-Soviet attitude," "meeting criticism with hostility" and "reject [ing] to discuss the situation at an Informbureau meeting." Following these allegations, the resolution expelled the KPJfrom Cominform. As a result, Yugoslavia fell outside of the Soviet sphere of influence, and the country's brand of Communism, with its independence from the Soviet line, was called " Titoism" by Moscowand considered treasonous. Party purges against suspected "Titoites" were conducted throughout Eastern Europe.
Significant evidence supports the opinion that the actual reason for the Cominform Resolution was the unwillingness of
Josip Broz Titoto obey the instructions of Joseph Stalin. The most serious disputes concerned policy in the Balkans. In particular, Yugoslavia was considered to be pushing too fast towards unification with Bulgariaand Albania; although following Stalin's proposal for a series of such unifications, Tito was seen to be proceeding without proper consultation with Moscow. Another issue was Tito's eagerness to "export revolution" to Greece.
The Cominform Resolution is seen as a failed attempt by Stalin to command obedience not only from Tito, but from other national Communist parties as well.
Considering Stalin's brutal repression of other satellites' independent moves, it remains unclear what prevented him from military intervention. In his memoirs,
Nikita Khrushchevasserted that he was "absolutely sure that if the Soviet Union bordered Yugoslavia, Stalin would have intervened militarily."
This period was also marked by dissent within the
League of Communists of Yugoslaviaand subsequent repression and deportations of many pro-Soviet members to labor camps and prisons, notably Goli Otokisland.
Khrushchev reconciled with Tito in 1956. Afterwards, Tito dramatically changed his domestic policies and also created an amnesty programme. Most of the prisons were closed and destroyed, and government also loosened controls in the media to much wider extent than in the rest of the Communist bloc.
This period figures prominently in Yugoslavian literature and cinema.
*February 1948 - Soviet foreign minister
Vyacheslav Molotovthreatens Tito that "serious differences of opinion about relations between our countries" will result if Tito does not clear his actions with Moscow.
* March 27, 1948 - the Central Committee (CC) of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union(CPSU) sends a letter of warning to the Central Committee of the KPJ.
*April 12 - 13, 1948 - A CC KPJ plenum discusses the CPSU letter.
*May 4, 1948 - The CC CPSU sends a new letter to the CC KPJ with additional allegations.
*May 9, 1948 - At a meeting in
Belgradethe CC KPJ issues its reply to the CKVKP(b) letter.
*May 20, 1948 - The CC KPJ issues a statement that the KPJ will not send a delegation to the next Cominform meeting.
*June 28, 1948 - Cominform circulates the "Resolution on the situation in the KPJ."
*October 25, 1948 - The USSR expels the Yugoslavian ambassador. Other pro-Soviet governments follow suit.
*November 29, 1948 - From the scheduled meeting in
Budapest, Cominform issues a new resolution that states in part that "the transformation of Yugoslavia from the phase of bourgeois nationalisminto fascismand direct betrayal of national interests is complete."
*September, 1948 - The USSR unilaterally annuls its treaty with Yugoslavia.
Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romaniaand Czechoslovakiafollow suit.
* 1949 -
Goli Otokprison camp is established for the internment of "supporters of the Informbiro."
1953- Under Khrushchev, the USSR suggests the exchange of ambassadors with Yugoslavia. Hungary, Bulgaria and Albaniafollow suit.
1954- Poland and Czechoslovakia also restore relations with Yugoslavia.
* June 2,
1955- Yugoslavia and the USSR sign a joint declaration in Belgrade.
1995- Goli Otok internees from post-Yugoslav republics seek damages.
Informbiro in cinema
Tajna Dvorca I.B." by Fadil Hadžić, 1951.
Red Boogie" by Karpo Godina, 1982.
When Father Was Away on Business" ("Otac na službenom putu") by Emir Kusturica, 1985.
Balkanski Špijun" ("Balkan Spy") by Dušan Kovačević, 1984.
*Leonid Gibianskii, "The Soviet-Yugoslav Split and the Cominform" in: "The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949"; Norman Naimark & Leonid Gibianskii (eds.) (Boulder, CO, 1998)
*Leonid Gibianskii, "The Idea of Balkan Unification and Plans for its Implementation during the 40s of the 20th Century" (in Russian); Voprosy Istorii, (2001 nos. 11-12), pp. 38-56.
Communist Party of the Free Territory of Trieste
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1948cominform-yugo1.html June 1948 Cominform Resolution]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia — Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavijaa (sh–lat) Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославијаb (sh–cyr) Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavijac (sl) … Wikipedia
Josip Broz Tito — Tito redirects here. For other uses, see Tito (disambiguation). Marshal Josip Broz Tito 1st President of Yugoslavia … Wikipedia
League of Communists of Yugoslavia — SKJ redirects here, it can also refer to Skj (trigraph) League of Communists of Yugoslavia Savez Komunista Jugoslavije/Савез комуниста Југославије Zveza komunistov Jugoslavije Сојуз на комунистите на Југославија … Wikipedia
Nikita Khrushchev — Khrushchev redirects here. For other people with this surname, see Khrushchev (surname). Nikita Khrushchev Никита Хрущёв … Wikipedia
Communism — For the form of government in which a state is controlled by a communist party, see Communist state. Part of the series on … Wikipedia
Titoism — is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe the specific socialist system built in Yugoslavia after its refusal of the 1948 Resolution of… … Wikipedia
Milovan Đilas — The title of this article contains the character Đ. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Milovan Djilas. Milovan Đilas Full name Milovan Đilas Born June 4, 1911(1911 06 04) Podbišće (Moj … Wikipedia
Marko Mesić (1901–1982) — Marko Mesić (September 30, 1901 – February 9, 1982) was a decorated gunnery officer of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Independent State of Croatia and of the Yugoslav Army. He is best known for being the final commander of Croatian legionnaires… … Wikipedia
1948 — This article is about the year 1948. Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 19th century – 20th century – 21st century Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s – 1940s – 1950s … Wikipedia
When Father Was Away on Business — Directed by Emir Kusturica Produced by Mirza Pašić Written by Abd … Wikipedia