- Autism Spectrum Quotient
The Autism Spectrum Quotient, or AQ, is a questionnaire published in 2001 by
Simon Baron-Cohenand his colleagues at the Autism Research Centre in Cambridge, UK. Consisting of fifty questions, it aims to investigate whether adults of "normal intelligence" have symptoms of autismor one of the other autism spectrum conditions. It is also often used to assess milder variants of autistic-like traits in typically developingindividuals to investigate the continuum hypothesis of autism spectrum condition. [Wakabayashi, A.; Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2006) Are autistic traits an independent personality dimension? A study of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the NEO-PI-R. "Personality and Individual Differences". 41, 873-883] [Austin, E. J. (2005). Personality correlates of the broader autism phenotype as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). "Personality and Individual Differences", 38, 451-460] [Hoekstra, R. A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C. J. H. & Boomsma, D. I. (2007). Heritability of Autistic Traits in the General Population. "Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine", 161, 372-377]
The test was popularised by
Wired Magazinein December 2001 when published alongside their article, "The Geek Syndrome" [ [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.12/aspergers.html The Geek Syndrome] ] and is commonly used for self diagnosisof Asperger Syndrome.cite journal |author= Woodbury-Smith MR, Robinson J, Wheelwright S, Baron-Cohen S |doi=10.1007/s10803-005-3300-7 |pmid=16119474 |url=http://autismresearchcentre.com/docs/papers/2005_Woodbury-Smith_etal_ScreeningAdultsForAS.pdf |format=PDF |title= Screening adults for Asperger Syndrome using the AQ: a preliminary study of its diagnostic validity in clinical practice |journal= J Autism Dev Disord |volume=35 |issue=3 |pages=331–5 |date=2005]
The test consists of fifty statements, each of which is in a forced-choice format. Each question allows the subject to indicate "Definitely agree", "Slightly agree", "Slightly disagree" or "Definitely disagree". Approximately half the questions are worded to elicit an "agree" response from normal individuals, and half to elicit a "disagree" response. The subject scores one point for each question which is answered "autistically" either slightly or definitely.
The questions cover five different domains associated with the autism spectrum: social skills; communication skills; imagination; attention to detail; and attention switching/tolerance of change. Factor analysis of sample results have been inconsistent, with various studies finding two, three, or four factors instead of five. [cite journal |author= Hoekstra RA, Bartels M, Cath DC, Boomsma DI |title= Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): a study in Dutch population and patient groups |journal= J Autism Dev Disord |volume=38 |issue=8 |pages=1555–66 |year=2008 |pmid=18302013 |pmc=2516538 |doi=10.1007/s10803-008-0538-x |url=http://springerlink.com/content/q73w56n31511j834/fulltext.html]
Use as a diagnostic tool
In the initial trials of the test, [cite journal |author= Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E |url=http://autismresearchcentre.com/docs/papers/2001_BCetal_AQ.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2008-08-28 |title= The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians |journal= J Autism Dev Disord |volume=31 |issue=1 |pages=5–17 |year=2001 |doi=10.1023/A:1005653411471 |pmid=11439754] the average score in the control group was 16.4, with men scoring slightly higher than women (about 17 versus about 15). 80% of adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders scored 32 or more, compared with only 2% of the control group.
The authors cited a score of 32 or more as indicating "clinically significant levels of autistic traits". However, although the test is popularly used for self-diagnosis of
Asperger syndrome, the authors caution that it is not intended to be diagnostic, and advise that anyone who obtains a high score and is suffering some distress should seek professional medical advice before jumping to any conclusions.
A further research paper indicated that the questionnaire could be used for screening in clinical practice, with scores of 26 or lower indicating that a diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome can effectively be ruled out.
Mathematicians, scientists, and engineers
The questionnaire was also trialled on Cambridge University students, and a group of sixteen winners of the
British Mathematical Olympiad, to determine whether there was a link between a talent for mathematical and scientific disciplines and traits associated with the autism spectrum.
Mathematics, physical sciences and engineering students were found to score significantly higher, e.g. 21.8 on average for mathematicians and 21.4 for computer scientists. The average score for the British Mathematical Olympiad winners was 24.
Of the students who scored 32 or more on the test, eleven agreed to be interviewed and seven of these were reported to meet the DSM-IV criteria for Asperger Syndrome, although no formal diagnosis was made as they were not suffering any distress.
High functioning autism
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