Cai E

Cai E

Cai E or Tsai Ao (zh-tspw|t=蔡鍔|s=蔡锷|p=Cài È|w=Ts'ai O; 18 December 1882 – 8 November 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin (蔡艮寅 "Cài Gěnyín") in Shaoyang, Hunan Province and his courtesy name was Songpo (松坡 "Sōngpō").

In 1898, Cai studied at Yuelu Academy. He later went to Japan to study in 1899. Cai returned to China in 1900. He took part in the uprising of the Self-Support Army with Tang Caichang. When they failed, Cai went back to Japan. Cai later joined Tongmenghui or Chinese United League and took part in the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. After the revolution, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the Military Government of Yunnan.

When Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself as the Emperor of a new Empire of China in 1915, Cai and Tang Jiyao launched the Republic-Protection Campaign in Yunnan to crusade against Yuan. With only 20,000 soldiers they defeated Yuan’s army of 80,000 in Sichuan. With several provinces behind them, the revolutionaries successfully forced Yuan to abandon monarchism.

After Yuan died, Cai held the position of Governor-General and Governor of Sichuan. He later went to Japan for medical treatment. He died shortly after he arrived in Japan.

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